Research paper discussion conclussion
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anti-work essays No one should ever work. Research! Work is the source of nearly all the misery in the world. Almost any evil you'd care to name comes from working or from thesis related controlling, living in conclussion, a world designed for work. In order to stop suffering, we have to dissertation stop working. That doesn't mean we have to stop doing things. It does mean creating a new way of life based on play; in other words, a *ludic* conviviality, commensality, and maybe even art. There is more to conclussion play than child's play, as worthy as that is. I call for a collective adventure in generalized joy and freely interdependent exuberance. Play isn't passive.
Doubtless we all need a lot more time for sheer sloth and slack than we ever enjoy now, regardless of income or occupation, but once recovered from and 13th warrior comparison essay, employment-induced exhaustion nearly all of us want to act. Oblomovism and Stakhanovism are two sides of the same debased coin. The ludic life is discussion totally incompatible with existing reality. Thesis Related Purpose! So much the worse for reality, the gravity hole that sucks the vitality from the little in life that still distinguishes it from research, mere survival. Curiously -- or maybe not -- all the old ideologies are conservative because they believe in ana thesis writing, work.
Some of them, like Marxism and most brands of anarchism, believe in work all the research paper discussion more fiercely because they believe in so little else. Liberals say we should end employment discrimination. I say we should end employment. Conservatives support right-to-work laws. Following Karl Marx's wayward son-in-law Paul Lafargue I support the right to be lazy. Leftists favor full employment.
Like the surrealists -- except that I'm not kidding -- I favor full *un*employment. Trotskyists agitate for permanent revolution. I agitate for permanent revelry. But if all the ideologues (as they do) advocate work -- and not only ghgf because they plan to make other people do theirs -- they are strangely reluctant to paper say so. They will carry on obama, endlessly about wages, hours, working conditions, exploitation, productivity, profitability. Paper Conclussion! They'll gladly talk about anything but work itself. These experts who offer to do our thinking for us rarely share their conclusions about work, for all its saliency in related, the lives of all of us.
Among themselves they quibble over the details. Unions and management agree that we ought to sell the time of our lives in exchange for survival, although they haggle over the price. Marxists think we should be bossed by bureaucrats. Libertarians think we should be bossed by paper, businessmen. Feminists don't care which form bossing takes so long as the bosses are women. Clearly these ideology-mongers have serious differences over how to divvy up the spoils of power.
Just as clearly, none of them have any objection to power as such and all of dissertation, them want to keep us working. You may be wondering if I'm joking or serious. I'm joking *and* serious. Research Paper Discussion! To be ludic is not to be ludicrous. Research! Play doesn't have to be frivolous, although frivolity isn't triviality: very often we ought to take frivolity seriously. I'd like life to be a game -- but a game with high stakes.
I want to play *for* *keeps*. The alternative to work isn't just idleness. To be ludic is not to be quaaludic. As much as I treasure the research conclussion pleasure of torpor, it's never more rewarding than when it punctuates other pleasures and pastimes. Nor am I promoting the ana thesis writing managed time-disciplined safety-valve called leisure; far from it. Leisure is research conclussion nonwork for thesis related purpose the sake of paper discussion conclussion, work. Leisure is the time spent recovering from work and in the frenzied but hopeless attempt to forget about work. Many people return from vacation so beat that they look forward to returning to work so they can rest up. The main difference between work and leisure is and 13th that work at paper discussion least you get paid for your alienation and enervation. I am not playing definitional games with anybody. When I say I want to abolish work, I mean just what I say, but I want to say what I mean by defining my terms in non-idiosyncratic ways.
My minimum definition of work is *forced* *labor*, that is, compulsory production. Both elements are essential. Beowulf Essay! Work is research discussion conclussion production enforced by economic or political means, by the carrot or the stick. (The carrot is just the stick by other means.) But not all creation is dissertation work. Work is never done for research conclussion its own sake, it's done on account of some product or output that the worker (or, more often, somebody else) gets out of it. This is beowulf and 13th essay what work necessarily is. Paper Discussion Conclussion! To define it is to despise it. But work is ana thesis writing usually even worse than its definition decrees. The dynamic of domination intrinsic to work tends over discussion time toward elaboration. In advanced work-riddled societies, including all industrial societies whether capitalist of Communist, work invariably acquires other attributes which accentuate its obnoxiousness. Usually -- and this is even more true in Communist than capitalist countries, where the state is essay almost the only employer and everyone is an employee -- work is conclussion employment, i. e., wage-labor, which means selling yourself on the installment plan.
Thus 95% of Americans who work, work for somebody (or some*thing*) else. In the USSR or Cuba or Yugoslavia or any other alternative model which might be adduced, the corresponding figure approaches 100%. Only the embattled Third World peasant bastions -- Mexico, India, Brazil, Turkey -- temporarily shelter significant concentrations of agriculturists who perpetuate the traditional arrangement of most laborers in the last several millenia, the payment of taxes (= ransom) to the state or rent to parasitic landlords in return for being otherwise left alone. Even this raw deal is beginning to look good. *All* industrial (and office) workers are employees and under the ghgf sort of surveillance which ensures servility. But modern work has worse implications. People don't just work, they have jobs. Research! One person does one productive task all the auma time on an or-else basis. Even if the task has a quantum of intrinsic interest (as increasingly many jobs don't) the monotony of its obligatory exclusivity drains its ludic potential. Research Conclussion! A job that might engage the energies of some people, for a reasonably limited time, for accomplishment the fun of it, is just a burden on those who have to do it for forty hours a week with no say in how it should be done, for the profit of owners who contribute nothing to the project, and with no opportunity for sharing tasks or spreading the work among those who actually have to do it. Research Paper Discussion! This is the real world of thesis statement related purpose, work: a world of bureaucratic blundering, of sexual harassment and discrimination, of bonehead bosses exploiting and scapegoating their subordinates who -- by any rational-technical criteria -- should be calling the shots.
But capitalism in the real world subordinates the research conclussion rational maximization of productivity and profit to related controlling the exigencies of organizational control. The degradation which most workers experience on the job is the sum of assorted indignities which can be denominated as discipline. Foucault has complexified this phenomenon but it is simple enough. Discipline consists of the totality of totalitarian controls at the workplace -- surveillance, rotework, imposed work tempos, production quotas, punching -in and -out, etc. Discipline is what the factory and the office and research paper, the store share with the prison and the school and the mental hospital. It is something historically original and horrible. Ghgf! It was beyond the capacities of such demonic dictators of conclussion, yore as Nero and Genghis Khan and Ivan the Terrible. For all their bad intentions they just didn't have the machinery to control their subjects as thoroughly as modern despots do.
Discipline is the distinctively diabolical modern mode of control, it is an innovative intrusion which must be interdicted at the earliest opportunity. Such is work. Play is ana thesis writing just the opposite. Play is paper discussion always voluntary. What might otherwise be play is ghgf work if it's forced. This is axiomatic.
Bernie de Koven has defined play as the suspension of consequences. This is unacceptable if it implies that play is inconsequential. The point is not that play is paper discussion without consequences. Ghgf! This is to demean play. The point is that the consequences, if any, are gratuitous. Playing and giving are closely related, they are the behavioral and discussion, transactional facets of the same impulse, the play-instinct. They share an aristocratic disdain for results. The player gets something out of playing; that's why he plays. But the core reward is the experience of the activity itself (whatever it is). Some otherwise attentive students of play, like Johan Huizinga (*Homo* *Ludens*), *define* it as game-playing or following rules. I respect Huizinga's erudition but emphatically reject his constraints.
There are many good games (chess, baseball, Monopoly, bridge) which are rule-governed but there is much more to play than game-playing. Conversation, sex, dancing, travel -- these practices aren't rule-governed but they are surely play if anything is. And rules can be *played* *with* at least as readily as anything else. Work makes a mockery of freedom. Ana Thesis Writing! The official line is that we all have rights and live in a democracy. Other unfortunates who aren't free like we are have to live in police states.
These victims obey orders or-else, no matter how arbitrary. The authorities keep them under regular surveillance. State bureaucrats control even the smaller details of everyday life. The officials who push them around are answerable only to higher-ups, public or private. Either way, dissent and disobedience are punished. Informers report regularly to the authorities. All this is supposed to be a very bad thing. And so it is, although it is nothing but a description of the discussion modern workplace. The liberals and conservatives and ghgf, libertarians who lament totalitarianism are phonies and hypocrites.
There is more freedom in any moderately deStalinized dictatorship than there is in paper discussion conclussion, the ordinary American workplace. You find the same sort of hierarchy and discipline in an office or factory as you do in a prison or monastery. In fact, as Foucault and others have shown, prisons and factories came in at about the same time, and their operators consciously borrowed from each other's control techniques. A worker is a par-time slave. The boss says when to ana thesis show up, when to leave, and what to do in the meantime. He tells you how much work to do and how fast. He is free to carry his control to humiliating extremes, regulating, if he feels like it, the clothes you wear or how often you go to the bathroom. With a few exceptions he can fire you for any reason, or no reason. He has you spied on by snitches and supervisors, he amasses a dossier on every employee. Talking back is called insubordination, just as if a worker is a naughty child, and it not only gets you fired, it disqualifies you for unemployment compensation.
Without necessarily endorsing it for research paper discussion them either, it is noteworthy that children at home and in thesis related controlling, school receive much the research discussion conclussion same treatment, justified in their case by their supposed immaturity. What does this say about their parents and teachers who work? The demeaning system of article, domination I've described rules over half the waking hours of paper, a majority of women and beowulf, the vast majority of men for paper conclussion decades, for most of their lifespans. For certain purposes it's not too misleading to call our system democracy or capitalism or -- better still -- industrialism, but its real names are factory fascism and office oligarchy. Anybody who says these people are free is lying or stupid. You are what you do.
If you do boring, stupid monotonous work, chances are you'll end up boring, stupid and monotonous. Work is a much better explanation for the creeping cretinization all around us than even such significant moronizing mechanisms as television and education. People who are regimented all their lives, handed off to auma work from school and research paper discussion, bracketed by the family in the beginning and the nursing home at the end, are habituated to heirarchy and psychologically enslaved. Their aptitude for autonomy is so atrophied that their fear of freedom is ghgf among their few rationally grounded phobias. Their obedience training at work carries over into the families *they* start, thus reproducing the system in more ways than one, and into politics, culture and everything else. Once you drain the vitality from people at paper conclussion work, they'll likely submit to dissertation heirarchy and expertise in everything. They're used to discussion conclussion it. We are so close to the world of work that we can't see what it does to us. Qualitative! We have to rely on outside observers from other times or other cultures to appreciate the extremity and the pathology of our present position. There was a time in our own past when the work ethic would have been incomprehensible, and discussion conclussion, perhaps Weber was on to something when he tied its appearance to thesis statement controlling purpose a religion, Calvinism, which if it emerged today instead of research conclussion, four centuries ago would immediately and appropriately be labeled a cult.
Be that as it may, we have only to draw upon the wisdom of auma, antiquity to research paper put work in perspective. Obama Dissertation! The ancients saw work for what it is, and their view prevailed, the Calvinist cranks notwithstanding, until overthrown by discussion conclussion, industrialism -- but not before receiving the endorsement of its prophets. Let's pretend for a moment that work doesn't turn people into obama, stultified submissives. Research Paper! Let's pretend, in defiance of any plausible psychology and the ideology of its boosters, that it has no effect on the formation of character. And let's pretend that work isn't as boring and tiring and qualitative critique, humiliating as we all know it really is. Even then, work would *still* make a mockery of all humanistic and democratic aspirations, just because it usurps so much of our time. Socrates said that manual laborers make bad friends and bad citizens because they have no time to fulfill the research discussion conclussion responsibilities of friendship and citizenship. He was right. Thesis Statement Related Controlling! Because of work, no matter what we do we keep looking at out watches. The only thing free about so-called free time is that it doesn't cost the boss anything.
Free time is mostly devoted to getting ready for discussion work, going to work, returning from work, and recovering from qualitative article, work. Free time is a euphemism for the peculiar way labor as a factor of production not only transports itself at its own expense to and from the workplace but assumes primary responsibility for its own maintenance and paper conclussion, repair. Coal and steel don't do that. Lathes and typewriters don't do that. But workers do. Ana Thesis! No wonder Edward G. Robinson in one of his gangster movies exclaimed, Work is for saps! Both Plato and Xenophon attribute to Socrates and obviously share with him an awareness of the destructive effects of research discussion conclussion, work on the worker as a citizen and a human being.
Herodotus identified contempt for work as an attribute of the classical Greeks at the zenith of their culture. To take only one Roman example, Cicero said that whoever gives his labor for money sells himself and puts himself in the rank of slaves. His candor is now rare, but contemporary primitive societies which we are wont to look down upon have provided spokesmen who have enlightened Western anthropologists. The Kapauku of West Irian, according to Posposil, have a conception of balance in life and accordingly work only every other day, the day of rest designed to research article critique regain the lost power and health. Our ancestors, even as late as the paper eighteenth century when they were far along the path to our present predicament, at least were aware of beowulf essay, what we have forgotten, the paper discussion conclussion underside of industrialization. Their religious devotion to St. Monday -- thus establishing a *de* *facto* five-day week 150-200 years before its legal consecration -- was the despair of the earliest factory owners. They took a long time in submitting to the tyranny of the bell, predecessor of the time clock. In fact it was necessary for a generation or two to replace adult males with women accustomed to obedience and children who could be molded to fit industrial needs. Even the exploited peasants of the *ancien* *regime* wrested substantial time back from their landlord's work. According to Lafargue, a fourth of the French peasants' calendar was devoted to Sundays and holidays, and Chayanov's figures from villages in most accomplishment essay, Czarist Russia -- hardly a progressive society -- likewise show a fourth or fifth of peasants' days devoted to repose.
Controlling for productivity, we are obviously far behind these backward societies. The exploited *muzhiks* would wonder why any of us are working at all. So should we. To grasp the full enormity of our deterioration, however, consider the earliest condition of humanity, without government or property, when we wandered as hunter-gatherers. Hobbes surmised that life was then nasty, brutish and short. Paper Discussion! Others assume that life was a desperate unremitting struggle for subsistence, a war waged against a harsh Nature with death and disaster awaiting the unlucky or anyone who was unequal to the challenge of the struggle for existence. Actually, that was all a projection of fears for writing the collapse of government authority over communities unaccustomed to doing without it, like the England of Hobbes during the Civil War. Hobbes' compatriots had already encountered alternative forms of paper, society which illustrated other ways of life -- in North America, particularly -- but already these were too remote from their experience to be understandable. (The lower orders, closer to and 13th comparison essay the condition of the Indians, understood it better and often found it attractive. Throughout the seventeenth century, English settlers defected to discussion Indian tribes or, captured in ana thesis writing, war, refused to return. But the research paper discussion conclussion Indians no more defected to white settlements than Germans climb the article Berlin Wall from the west.) The survival of the fittest version -- the Thomas Huxley version -- of Darwinism was a better account of economic conditions in research conclussion, Victorian England than it was of beowulf warrior essay, natural selection, as the discussion anarchist Kropotkin showed in his book *Mutual* *Aid,* *A* *Factor* *of* *Evolution*. (Kropotkin was a scientist -- a geographer -- who'd had ample involuntary opportunity for fieldwork whilst exiled in Siberia: he knew what he was talking about.) Like most social and political theory, the story Hobbes and statement related controlling purpose, his successors told was really unacknowledged autobiography. Paper Discussion! The anthropologist Marshall Sahlins, surveying the data on contemporary hunter-gatherers, exploded the Hobbesian myth in an article entitled The Original Affluent Society.
They work a lot less than we do, and beowulf and 13th warrior comparison, their work is hard to distinguish from what we regard as play. Sahlins concluded that hunters and gatherers work less than we do; and research conclussion, rather than a continuous travail, the food quest is intermittent, leisure abundant, and there is auma a greater amount of sleep in the daytime per capita per year than in any other condition of discussion, society. They worked an average of four hours a day, assuming they were working at all. Their labor, as it appears to us, was skilled labor which exercised their physical and writing, intellectual capacities; unskilled labor on conclussion, any large scale, as Sahlins says, is impossible except under industrialism. Thus it satisfied Friedrich Schiller's definition of play, the statement only occasion on which man realizes his complete humanity by giving full play to both sides of his twofold nature, thinking and feeling. As he put it: The animal *works* when deprivation is the mainspring of research paper discussion conclussion, its activity, and it *plays* when the fullness of its strength is this mainspring, when superabundant life is its own stimulus to activity. (A modern version -- dubiously developmental -- is Abraham Maslow's counterposition of deficiency and significant essay, growth motivation.) Play and freedom are, as regards production, coextensive. Even Marx, who belongs (for all his good intentions) in the productivist pantheon, observed that the realm of discussion, freedom does not commence until the point is passed where labor under the compulsion of necessity and external utility is required. He never could quite bring himself to identify this happy circumstance as what it is, the abolition of work -- it's rather anomalous, after all, to be pro-worker and anti-work -- but we can. The aspiration to go backwards or forwards to a life without work is evident in every serious social or cultural history of pre-industrial Europe, among them M. Beowulf And 13th! Dorothy George's *England* In* *Transition* and Peter Burke's *Popular* *Culture* *in* *Early* *Modern* *Europe*. Also pertinent is Daniel Bell's essay, Work and its Discontents, the first text, I believe, to refer to the revolt against work in so many words and, had it been understood, an important correction to the complacency ordinarily associated with the volume in which it was collected, *The* *End* *of* *Ideology*. Neither critics nor celebrants have noticed that Bell's end-of-ideology thesis signaled not the end of social unrest but the research conclussion beginning of ana thesis writing, a new, uncharted phase unconstrained and uninformed by ideology.
It was Seymour Lipset (in *Political* *Man*), not Bell, who announced at the same time that the fundamental problems of the Industrial Revolution have been solved, only a few years before the post- or meta-industrial discontents of college students drove Lipset from UC Berkeley to the relative (and temporary) tranquility of Harvard. Research! As Bell notes, Adam Smith in *The* *Wealth* *of* *Nations*, for all his enthusiasm for the market and the division of labor, was more alert to (and more honest about) the seamy side of work than Ayn Rand or the Chicago economists or any of auma, Smith's modern epigones. As Smith observed: The understandings of the paper discussion greater part of significant accomplishment essay, men are necessarily formed by their ordinary employments. The man whose life is spent in performing a few simple operations. Research Paper Discussion Conclussion! has no occasion to exert his understanding. He generally becomes as stupid and ignorant as it is possible for a human creature to comparison essay become. Here, in a few blunt words, is my critique of work. Research! Bell, writing in 1956, the Golden Age of Eisenhower imbecility and American self-satisfaction, identified the unorganized, unorganizable malaise of the 1970's and since, the one no political tendency is able to harness, the ana thesis writing one identified in HEW's report *Work* *in* *America*, the one which cannot be exploited and so is conclussion ignored. That problem is the revolt against work. It does not figure in any text by any laissez-faire economist -- Milton Friedman, Murray Rothbard, Richard Posner -- because, in their terms, as they used to say on *Star* *Trek*, it does not compute.
If these objections, informed by the love of liberty, fail to persuade humanists of and 13th warrior, a utilitarian or even paternalist turn, there are others which they cannot disregard. Work is hazardous to paper your health, to ghgf borrow a book title. Research Discussion! In fact, work is mass murder or genocide. Directly or indirectly, work will kill most of the people who read these words. Between 14,000 and 25,000 workers are killed annually in this country on the job. Over two million are disabled. Twenty to twenty-five million are injured every year.
And these figures are based on a very conservative estimation of what constitutes a work-related injury. Thus they don't count the ana thesis writing half million cases of occupational disease every year. I looked at one medical textbook on occupational diseases which was 1,200 pages long. Paper Discussion! Even this barely scratches the qualitative article surface. The available statistics count the research paper conclussion obvious cases like the qualitative critique 100,000 miners who have black lung disease, of whom 4,000 die every year, a much higher fatality rate than for AIDS, for instance, which gets so much media attention. This reflects the unvoiced assumption that AIDS afflicts perverts who could control their depravity whereas coal-mining is a sacrosanct activity beyond question. What the statistics don't show is that tens of millions of people have heir lifespans shortened by discussion conclussion, work -- which is all that homicide means, after all. Consider the doctors who work themselves to death in their 50's. Consider all the other workaholics.
Even if you aren't killed or crippled while actually working, you very well might be while going to work, coming from work, looking for work, or trying to forget about work. Auma Obama! The vast majority of victims of the automobile are either doing one of research paper discussion, these work-obligatory activities or else fall afoul of those who do them. To this augmented body-count must be added the victims of auto-industrial pollution and ghgf, work-induced alcoholism and drug addiction. Both cancer and discussion, heart disease are modern afflictions normally traceable, directly, or indirectly, to ghgf work. Work, then, institutionalizes homicide as a way of life. People think the Cambodians were crazy for exterminating themselves, but are we any different? The Pol Pot regime at least had a vision, however blurred, of an egalitarian society.
We kill people in the six-figure range (at least) in research paper discussion conclussion, order to sell Big Macs and Cadillacs to ana thesis writing the survivors. Our forty or fifty thousand annual highway fatalities are victims, not martyrs. They died for nothing -- or rather, they died for work. But work is nothing to die for. Bad news for liberals: regulatory tinkering is useless in this life-and-death context. The federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration was designed to police the core part of the problem, workplace safety. Even before Reagan and the Supreme Court stifled it, OSHA was a farce. At previous and (by current standards) generous Carter-era funding levels, a workplace could expect a random visit from an OSHA inspector once every 46 years. State control of the economy is no solution. Work is, if anything, more dangerous in the state-socialist countries than it is here. Thousands of Russian workers were killed or injured building the Moscow subway.
Stories reverberate about covered-up Soviet nuclear disasters which make Times Beach and Three-Mile Island look like elementary-school air-raid drills. On the other hand, deregulation, currently fashionable, won't help and research, will probably hurt. Ghgf! From a health and safety standpoint, among others, work was at its worst in the days when the economy most closely approximated laissez-faire. Historians like Eugene Genovese have argued persuasively that -- as antebellum slavery apologists insisted -- factory wage-workers in the Northern American states and in Europe were worse off than Southern plantation slaves. No rearrangement of relations among bureaucrats and businessmen seems to make much difference at the point of production. Serious enforcement of even the rather vague standards enforceable in research, theory by statement related controlling purpose, OSHA would probably bring the economy to a standstill. The enforcers apparently appreciate this, since they don't even try to paper discussion conclussion crack down on most malefactors.
What I've said so far ought not to be controversial. Qualitative Research Article Critique! Many workers are fed up with work. There are high and rising rates of absenteeism, turnover, employee theft and sabotage, wildcat strikes, and overall goldbricking on the job. There may be some movement toward a conscious and paper discussion, not just visceral rejection of work. And yet the prevalent feeling, universal among bosses and most significant essay, their agents and also widespread among workers themselves is that work itself is inevitable and research paper discussion, necessary.
I disagree. It is thesis statement related controlling now possible to abolish work and replace it, insofar as it serves useful purposes, with a multitude of new kinds of free activities. Research! To abolish work requires going at it from two directions, quantitative and qualitative. On the one hand, on the quantitative side, we have to qualitative research article cut down massively on the amount of work being done. Paper Discussion! At present most work is useless or worse and we should simply get rid of it.
On the other hand -- and I think this the crux of the matter and the revolutionary new departure -- we have to take what useful work remains and transform it into ghgf, a pleasing variety of game-like and craft-like pastimes, indistinguishable from research paper conclussion, other pleasurable pastimes, except that they happen to yield useful end-products. Surely that shouldn't make them *less* enticing to do. Then all the ghgf artificial barriers of power and property could come down. Creation could become recreation. And we could all stop being afraid of research paper conclussion, each other. I don't suggest that most work is salvageable in this way. But then most work isn't worth trying to save. Only a small and diminishing fraction of comparison essay, work serves any useful purpose independent of the defense and discussion conclussion, reproduction of the and 13th warrior essay work-system and its political and legal appendages.
Twenty years ago, Paul and research paper, Percival Goodman estimated that just five percent of the auma obama dissertation work then being done -- presumably the figure, if accurate, is lower now -- would satisfy our minimal needs for food, clothing, and shelter. Discussion! Theirs was only an ghgf educated guess but the main point is quite clear: directly or indirectly, most work serves the unproductive purposes of commerce or social control. Right off the bat we can liberate tens of millions of salesmen, soldiers, managers, cops, stockbrokers, clergymen, bankers, lawyers, teachers, landlords, security guards, ad-men and research, everyone who works for them. There is a snowball effect since every time you idle some bigshot you liberate his flunkeys and underlings also. Thus the economy *implodes*. Forty percent of the workforce are white-collar workers, most of whom have some of the most tedious and idiotic jobs ever concocted. Entire industries, insurance and banking and real estate for instance, consist of nothing but useless paper-shuffling. It is no accident that the tertiary sector, the service sector, is growing while the secondary sector (industry) stagnates and the primary sector (agriculture) nearly disappears.
Because work is unnecessary except to those whose power it secures, workers are shifted from research article critique, relatively useful to relatively useless occupations as a measure to research paper assure public order. Anything is most significant accomplishment essay better than nothing. That's why you can't go home just because you finish early. They want your *time*, enough of it to make you theirs, even if they have no use for most of it. Otherwise why hasn't the research discussion conclussion average work week gone down by more than a few minutes in the past fifty years? Next we can take a meat-cleaver to production work itself. No more war production, nuclear power, junk food, feminine hygiene deodorant -- and auma dissertation, above all, no more auto industry to discussion conclussion speak of. Ghgf! An occasional Stanley Steamer or Model-T might be all right, but the auto-eroticism on which such pestholes as Detroit and Los Angeles depend on paper conclussion, is out auma obama, of the question. Already, without even trying, we've virtually solved the energy crisis, the research paper discussion environmental crisis and assorted other insoluble social problems. Finally, we must do away with far and away the largest occupation, the one with the longest hours, the lowest pay and ghgf, some of the most tedious tasks around. I refer to *housewives* doing housework and discussion conclussion, child-rearing.
By abolishing wage-labor and critique, achieving full unemployment we undermine the research sexual division of labor. The nuclear family as we know it is an inevitable adaptation to the division of labor imposed by modern wage-work. Like it or not, as things have been for the last century or two it is economically rational for the man to bring home the bacon, for thesis statement the woman to do the shitwork to research paper provide him with a haven in related, a heartless world, and for the children to be marched off to youth concentration camps called schools, primarily to keep them out of Mom's hair but still under control, but incidentally to acquire the habits of conclussion, obedience and punctuality so necessary for workers. If you would be rid of patriarchy, get rid of the nuclear family whose unpaid shadow work, as Ivan Illich says, makes possible the work-system that makes *it* necessary. Bound up with this no-nukes strategy is the abolition of ghgf, childhood and the closing of the schools.
There are more full-time students than full-time workers in this country. We need children as teachers, not students. They have a lot to contribute to the ludic revolution because they're better at playing than grown-ups are. Adults and children are not identical but they will become equal through interdependence. Only play can bridge the generation gap. I haven't as yet even mentioned the possibility of cutting way down on the little work that remains by automating and cybernizing it. All the scientists and paper discussion, engineers and ana thesis writing, technicians freed from bothering with war research and planned obsolescence would have a good time devising means to eliminate fatigue and tedium and danger from activities like mining. Undoubtedly they'll find other projects to amuse themselves with. Perhaps they'll set up world-wide all-inclusive multi-media communications systems or found space colonies.
Perhaps. I myself am no gadget freak. I wouldn't care to live in a pushbutton paradise. I don't what robot slaves to do everything; I want to do things myself. There is, I think, a place for labor-saving technology, but a modest place. The historical and pre-historical record is not encouraging. When productive technology went from hunting-gathering to agriculture and on to industry, work increased while skills and self-determination diminished. Research Discussion Conclussion! The further evolution of industrialism has accentuated what Harry Braverman called the degradation of work. Intelligent observers have always been aware of this.
John Stuart Mill wrote that all the labor-saving inventions ever devised haven't saved a moment's labor. Karl Marx wrote that it would be possible to write a history of the inventions, made since 1830, for the sole purpose of supplying capital with weapons against the revolts of the working class. The enthusiastic technophiles -- Saint-Simon, Comte, Lenin, B. F. Writing! Skinner -- have always been unabashed authoritarians also; which is to research paper conclussion say, technocrats. We should be more than sceptical about the ghgf promises of the computer mystics. *They* work like dogs; chances are, if they have their way, so will the rest of us. But if they have any particularized contributions more readily subordinated to human purposes than the paper conclussion run of high tech, let's give them a hearing. What I really want to see is work turned into play. A first step is to discard the notions of a job and an occupation.
Even activities that already have some ludic content lose most of warrior essay, it by being reduced to jobs which certain people, and only those people are forced to do to the exclusion of all else. Is it not odd that farm workers toil painfully in the fields while their air-conditioned masters go home every weekend and putter about in discussion conclussion, their gardens? Under a system of permanent revelry, we will witness the Golden Age of the dilettante which will put the Renaissance to significant shame. There won't be any more jobs, just things to do and people to do them. Research Paper Conclussion! The secret of turning work into play, as Charles Fourier demonstrated, is to arrange useful activities to take advantage of whatever it is that various people at various times in fact enjoy doing. To make it possible for some people to do the things they could enjoy it will be enough just to eradicate the irrationalities and statement related controlling purpose, distortions which afflict these activities when they are reduced to work.
I, for instance, would enjoy doing some (not too much) teaching, but I don't want coerced students and I don't care to suck up to pathetic pedants for tenure. Second, there are some things that people like to do from time to time, but not for discussion too long, and certainly not all the time. You might enjoy baby-sitting for a few hours in warrior comparison, order to share the company of kids, but not as much as their parents do. The parents meanwhile, profoundly appreciate the time to themselves that you free up for them, although they'd get fretful if parted from their progeny for paper too long. These differences among individuals are what make a life of free play possible. The same principle applies to statement controlling purpose many other areas of activity, especially the primal ones. Research Discussion Conclussion! Thus many people enjoy cooking when they can practice it seriously at their leisure, but not when they're just fueling up human bodies for work. Third -- other things being equal -- some things that are unsatisfying if done by beowulf warrior essay, yourself or in unpleasant surroundings or at the orders of an overlord are enjoyable, at least for a while, if these circumstances are changed. This is probably true, to some extent, of all work. People deploy their otherwise wasted ingenuity to make a game of the least inviting drudge-jobs as best they can. Activities that appeal to some people don't always appeal to paper conclussion all others, but everyone at least potentially has a variety of most accomplishment, interests and an interest in variety.
As the saying goes, anything once. Fourier was the master at speculating how aberrant and perverse penchants could be put to use in post-civilized society, what he called Harmony. He thought the Emperor Nero would have turned out paper discussion, all right if as a child he could have indulged his taste for bloodshed by obama, working in a slaughterhouse. Small children who notoriously relish wallowing in filth could be organized in Little Hordes to clean toilets and empty the garbage, with medals awarded to the outstanding. I am not arguing for these precise examples but for the underlying principle, which I think makes perfect sense as one dimension of an overall revolutionary transformation. Bear in mind that we don't have to take today's work just as we find it and match it up with the proper people, some of whom would have to research paper discussion be perverse indeed. If technology has a role in all this it is less to automate work out of writing, existence than to open up new realms for re/creation. Research! To some extent we may want to return to handicrafts, which William Morris considered a probable and desirable upshot of communist revolution. Art would be taken back from the snobs and collectors, abolished as a specialized department catering to an elite audience, and its qualities of beauty and creation restored to integral life from qualitative research critique, which they were stolen by work. It's a sobering thought that the grecian urns we write odes about and showcase in museums were used in their own time to store olive oil. I doubt our everyday artifacts will fare as well in the future, if there is one.
The point is that there's no such thing as progress in the world of paper discussion, work; if anything it's just the qualitative critique opposite. We shouldn't hesitate to pilfer the past for what it has to offer, the ancients lose nothing yet we are enriched. The reinvention of research paper discussion, daily life means marching off the edge of our maps. There is, it is true, more suggestive speculation than most people suspect. Besides Fourier and Morris -- and most accomplishment, even a hint, here and there, in Marx -- there are the writings of Kropotkin, the syndicalists Pataud and paper, Pouget, anarcho-communists old (Berkman) and new (Bookchin). The Goodman brothers' *Communitas* is exemplary for illustrating what forms follow from given functions (purposes), and there is comparison something to be gleaned from the conclussion often hazy heralds of critique, alternative/appropriate/intermediate/convivial technology, like Schumacher and especially Illich, once you disconnect their fog machines.
The situationists -- as represented by research paper discussion conclussion, Vaneigem's *Revolution* *of* *Daily* *Life* and in the *Situationist* *International* *Anthology* -- are so ruthlessly lucid as to be exhilarating, even if they never did quite square the endorsement of the most rule of the worker's councils with the discussion abolition of work. Better their incongruity, though than any extant version of leftism, whose devotees look to be the last champions of work, for if there were no work there would be no workers, and without workers, who would the controlling purpose left have to organize? So the abolitionists would be largely on research paper, their own. No one can say what would result from unleashing the creative power stultified by work. Anything can happen. The tiresome debater's problem of freedom vs. necessity, with its theological overtones, resolves itself practically once the statement controlling production of use-values is coextensive with the consumption of paper discussion, delightful play-activity.
Life will become a game, or rather many games, but not -- as it is now - -- a zero/sum game. An optimal sexual encounter is the paradigm of productive play, The participants potentiate each other's pleasures, nobody keeps score, and everybody wins. The more you give, the more you get. In the ludic life, the best of sex will diffuse into the better part of daily life. Generalized play leads to accomplishment the libidinization of life. Sex, in turn, can become less urgent and desperate, more playful. If we play our cards right, we can all get more out of life than we put into it; but only if we play for keeps. No one should ever work.
Workers of the world. *relax*!
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Discussion and Conclusions - Springer
Politics and the English Language. Most people who bother with the matter at research paper conclussion, all would admit that the auma, English language is in a bad way, but it is research paper conclussion, generally assumed that we cannot by conscious action do anything about it. Our civilization is decadent and our language — so the argument runs — must inevitably share in the general collapse. It follows that any struggle against the abuse of language is a sentimental archaism, like preferring candles to electric light or hansom cabs to aeroplanes. Ghgf! Underneath this lies the half-conscious belief that language is a natural growth and not an instrument which we shape for our own purposes. Now, it is research paper discussion conclussion, clear that the decline of ana thesis a language must ultimately have political and economic causes: it is not due simply to the bad influence of this or that individual writer. But an research paper, effect can become a cause, reinforcing the beowulf and 13th comparison, original cause and producing the same effect in an intensified form, and so on indefinitely. A man may take to research discussion conclussion drink because he feels himself to be a failure, and then fail all the and 13th warrior, more completely because he drinks.
It is research, rather the same thing that is accomplishment, happening to the English language. It becomes ugly and inaccurate because our thoughts are foolish, but the slovenliness of our language makes it easier for us to have foolish thoughts. The point is that the process is research, reversible. Comparison! Modern English, especially written English, is full of bad habits which spread by imitation and research paper conclussion, which can be avoided if one is willing to take the necessary trouble. If one gets rid of these habits one can think more clearly, and to think clearly is a necessary first step toward political regeneration: so that the fight against bad English is not frivolous and is not the exclusive concern of auma obama dissertation professional writers. I will come back to this presently, and I hope that by that time the meaning of what I have said here will have become clearer. Meanwhile, here are five specimens of the English language as it is now habitually written. These five passages have not been picked out because they are especially bad — I could have quoted far worse if I had chosen — but because they illustrate various of the mental vices from which we now suffer. They are a little below the research paper conclussion, average, but are fairly representative examples. I number them so that I can refer back to them when necessary: 1. I am not, indeed, sure whether it is not true to say that the research article, Milton who once seemed not unlike a seventeenth-century Shelley had not become, out of an experience ever more bitter in each year, more alien [sic] to research discussion the founder of that Jesuit sect which nothing could induce him to tolerate.
Professor Harold Laski (Essay in Freedom of beowulf comparison Expression ) 2. Above all, we cannot play ducks and drakes with a native battery of idioms which prescribes egregious collocations of research discussion vocables as the Basic put up with for tolerate , or put at a loss for bewilder . Professor Lancelot Hogben ( Interglossia ) 3. On the one side we have the free personality: by auma dissertation definition it is not neurotic, for it has neither conflict nor dream. Its desires, such as they are, are transparent, for they are just what institutional approval keeps in the forefront of consciousness; another institutional pattern would alter their number and intensity; there is little in them that is natural, irreducible, or culturally dangerous. But on the other side , the social bond itself is nothing but the mutual reflection of these self-secure integrities. Recall the research paper discussion conclussion, definition of love. Is not this the very picture of a small academic? Where is most accomplishment, there a place in this hall of paper mirrors for accomplishment, either personality or fraternity? Essay on psychology in Politics (New York) 4. All the ‘best people’ from the gentlemen's clubs, and all the frantic fascist captains, united in common hatred of paper Socialism and bestial horror at the rising tide of the mass revolutionary movement, have turned to acts of and 13th essay provocation, to foul incendiarism, to medieval legends of poisoned wells, to legalize their own destruction of paper discussion proletarian organizations, and rouse the thesis controlling purpose, agitated petty-bourgeoise to chauvinistic fervor on behalf of the research paper discussion, fight against ghgf, the revolutionary way out of the crisis. 5. If a new spirit is to be infused into research paper, this old country, there is one thorny and contentious reform which must be tackled, and qualitative research critique, that is the paper, humanization and galvanization of the ana thesis writing, B.B.C.
Timidity here will bespeak canker and atrophy of the soul. The heart of Britain may be sound and of strong beat, for conclussion, instance, but the British lion's roar at present is like that of Bottom in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream — as gentle as any sucking dove. A virile new Britain cannot continue indefinitely to research critique be traduced in the eyes or rather ears, of the world by the effete languors of research conclussion Langham Place, brazenly masquerading as ‘standard English’. When the Voice of Britain is heard at nine o'clock, better far and infinitely less ludicrous to hear aitches honestly dropped than the present priggish, inflated, inhibited, school-ma'amish arch braying of ghgf blameless bashful mewing maidens! Letter in research paper conclussion, Tribune. Each of these passages has faults of ana thesis writing its own, but, quite apart from avoidable ugliness, two qualities are common to all of them.
The first is staleness of imagery; the other is lack of precision. The writer either has a meaning and cannot express it, or he inadvertently says something else, or he is discussion conclussion, almost indifferent as to ana thesis writing whether his words mean anything or not. This mixture of paper discussion conclussion vagueness and sheer incompetence is the most marked characteristic of modern English prose, and thesis statement related, especially of research discussion any kind of political writing. As soon as certain topics are raised, the concrete melts into the abstract and no one seems able to think of purpose turns of speech that are not hackneyed: prose consists less and research paper, less of words chosen for the sake of their meaning, and most essay, more and more of phrases tacked together like the sections of a prefabricated hen-house. I list below, with notes and examples, various of the research paper discussion conclussion, tricks by means of which the work of prose-construction is habitually dodged. DYING METAPHORS.
A newly invented metaphor assists thought by obama dissertation evoking a visual image, while on the other hand a metaphor which is technically ‘dead’ (e. g. iron resolution) has in effect reverted to being an ordinary word and can generally be used without loss of vividness. But in between these two classes there is a huge dump of worn-out metaphors which have lost all evocative power and research conclussion, are merely used because they save people the trouble of inventing phrases for themselves. Examples are: Ring the changes on, take up the cudgel for, toe the ghgf, line, ride roughshod over, stand shoulder to shoulder with, play into the hands of, no axe to research paper discussion grind, grist to the mill, fishing in troubled waters, on auma dissertation the order of the day, Achilles’ heel, swan song, hotbed . Many of these are used without knowledge of their meaning (what is a ‘rift’, for instance?), and incompatible metaphors are frequently mixed, a sure sign that the writer is not interested in what he is saying. Paper Discussion! Some metaphors now current have been twisted out of their original meaning without those who use them even being aware of the fact. For example, toe the thesis statement, line is sometimes written as tow the line . Another example is the research discussion conclussion, hammer and the anvil , now always used with the and 13th warrior, implication that the anvil gets the worst of paper it. Auma! In real life it is always the anvil that breaks the hammer, never the other way about: a writer who stopped to think what he was saying would avoid perverting the research discussion conclussion, original phrase. OPERATORS OR VERBAL FALSE LIMBS. Research Critique! These save the trouble of picking out appropriate verbs and nouns, and at the same time pad each sentence with extra syllables which give it an paper discussion, appearance of auma dissertation symmetry. Characteristic phrases are render inoperative, militate against, make contact with, be subjected to, give rise to, give grounds for, have the effect of, play a leading part (role) in, make itself felt, take effect, exhibit a tendency to, serve the research discussion conclussion, purpose of, etc., etc. Significant Essay! The keynote is the elimination of simple verbs.
Instead of being a single word, such as break, stop, spoil, mend, kill, a verb becomes a phrase , made up of a noun or adjective tacked on to some general-purpose verb such as prove, serve, form, play, render . In addition, the passive voice is wherever possible used in preference to the active, and noun constructions are used instead of gerunds ( by examination of instead of by examining ). The range of verbs is conclussion, further cut down by means of the -ize and de- formations, and the banal statements are given an thesis statement controlling purpose, appearance of profundity by means of the not un- formation. Simple conjunctions and prepositions are replaced by such phrases as with respect to, having regard to, the fact that, by dint of, in research paper discussion conclussion, view of, in the interests of, on the hypothesis that ; and the ends of sentences are saved by anticlimax by such resounding commonplaces as greatly to be desired, cannot be left out of auma dissertation account, a development to research discussion be expected in the near future, deserving of serious consideration, brought to a satisfactory conclusion, and so on most accomplishment essay and so forth. PRETENTIOUS DICTION. Research Discussion! Words like phenomenon, element, individual (as noun), objective, categorical, effective, virtual, basic, primary, promote, constitute, exhibit, exploit, utilize, eliminate, liquidate, are used to dress up a simple statement and give an air of scientific impartiality to beowulf warrior essay biased judgements. Adjectives like epoch-making, epic, historic, unforgettable, triumphant, age-old, inevitable, inexorable, veritable, are used to dignify the sordid process of international politics, while writing that aims at glorifying war usually takes on an archaic colour, its characteristic words being: realm, throne, chariot, mailed fist, trident, sword, shield, buckler, banner, jackboot, clarion. Foreign words and expressions such as cul de sac, ancien regime, deus ex machina, mutatis mutandis, status quo, gleichschaltung, weltanschauung, are used to give an air of culture and elegance. Except for the useful abbreviations i. e., e. g. and etc., there is no real need for paper discussion conclussion, any of the hundreds of qualitative article foreign phrases now current in the English language. Bad writers, and especially scientific, political, and sociological writers, are nearly always haunted by the notion that Latin or Greek words are grander than Saxon ones, and unnecessary words like expedite, ameliorate, predict, extraneous, deracinated, clandestine, subaqueous, and hundreds of research paper discussion conclussion others constantly gain ground from their Anglo-Saxon numbers (1) . The jargon peculiar to Marxist writing ( hyena, hangman, cannibal, petty bourgeois, these gentry, lackey, flunkey, mad dog, White Guard, etc.) consists largely of words translated from Russian, German, or French; but the normal way of coining a new word is to use Latin or Greek root with the appropriate affix and, where necessary, the ana thesis, size formation. It is often easier to make up words of this kind ( deregionalize, impermissible, extramarital, non-fragmentary and so forth) than to think up the English words that will cover one's meaning.
The result, in research paper, general, is an increase in slovenliness and vagueness. MEANINGLESS WORDS. In certain kinds of writing, particularly in art criticism and literary criticism, it is normal to come across long passages which are almost completely lacking in meaning (2) . Words like romantic, plastic, values, human, dead, sentimental, natural, vitality, as used in art criticism, are strictly meaningless, in the sense that they not only ghgf do not point to any discoverable object, but are hardly ever expected to do so by the reader. When one critic writes, ‘The outstanding feature of Mr. X's work is its living quality’, while another writes, ‘The immediately striking thing about Mr. X's work is its peculiar deadness’, the reader accepts this as a simple difference opinion. If words like black and white were involved, instead of the research paper, jargon words dead and living , he would see at once that language was being used in an improper way. Many political words are similarly abused. The word Fascism has now no meaning except in thesis related, so far as it signifies ‘something not desirable’. Research! The words democracy, socialism, freedom, patriotic, realistic, justice have each of them several different meanings which cannot be reconciled with one another.
In the case of a word like democracy , not only is there no agreed definition, but the attempt to make one is resisted from all sides. It is almost universally felt that when we call a country democratic we are praising it: consequently the defenders of every kind of regime claim that it is qualitative research critique, a democracy, and fear that they might have to stop using that word if it were tied down to any one meaning. Words of this kind are often used in a consciously dishonest way. That is, the person who uses them has his own private definition, but allows his hearer to conclussion think he means something quite different. Statements like Marshal Petain was a true patriot, The Soviet press is the freest in the world, The Catholic Church is opposed to persecution, are almost always made with intent to deceive. Other words used in variable meanings, in most cases more or less dishonestly, are: class, totalitarian, science, progressive, reactionary, bourgeois, equality. Now that I have made this catalogue of swindles and perversions, let me give another example of the kind of writing that they lead to. This time it must of its nature be an imaginary one.
I am going to translate a passage of ana thesis good English into modern English of the research paper conclussion, worst sort. Here is obama, a well-known verse from Ecclesiastes : I returned and saw under the sun, that the race is not to research paper the swift, nor the battle to the strong, neither yet bread to ana thesis writing the wise, nor yet riches to men of understanding, nor yet favour to discussion conclussion men of skill; but time and chance happeneth to them all. Here it is in modern English: Objective considerations of contemporary phenomena compel the conclusion that success or failure in ghgf, competitive activities exhibits no tendency to be commensurate with innate capacity, but that a considerable element of the unpredictable must invariably be taken into account. This is a parody, but not a very gross one. Exhibit (3) above, for instance, contains several patches of the same kind of English. It will be seen that I have not made a full translation.
The beginning and ending of the sentence follow the original meaning fairly closely, but in the middle the concrete illustrations — race, battle, bread — dissolve into the vague phrases ‘success or failure in paper discussion conclussion, competitive activities’. This had to be so, because no modern writer of the kind I am discussing — no one capable of warrior essay using phrases like ‘objective considerations of contemporary phenomena’ — would ever tabulate his thoughts in that precise and detailed way. The whole tendency of modern prose is away from concreteness. Now analyze these two sentences a little more closely. Research Paper Discussion! The first contains forty-nine words but only sixty syllables, and all its words are those of everyday life. The second contains thirty-eight words of ninety syllables: eighteen of dissertation those words are from Latin roots, and one from Greek. The first sentence contains six vivid images, and only one phrase (‘time and chance’) that could be called vague. The second contains not a single fresh, arresting phrase, and in spite of its ninety syllables it gives only a shortened version of the meaning contained in research paper discussion conclussion, the first. Yet without a doubt it is the second kind of controlling purpose sentence that is paper, gaining ground in auma obama, modern English.
I do not want to exaggerate. This kind of writing is not yet universal, and outcrops of simplicity will occur here and research paper, there in the worst-written page. Still, if you or I were told to write a few lines on ana thesis writing the uncertainty of human fortunes, we should probably come much nearer to my imaginary sentence than to the one from Ecclesiastes . As I have tried to show, modern writing at its worst does not consist in picking out words for research paper conclussion, the sake of their meaning and inventing images in order to make the meaning clearer. It consists in gumming together long strips of words which have already been set in order by someone else, and making the results presentable by qualitative research critique sheer humbug. The attraction of research discussion conclussion this way of writing is that it is easy. It is easier — even quicker, once you have the and 13th essay, habit — to say In my opinion it is not an unjustifiable assumption that than to say I think . If you use ready-made phrases, you not only don't have to hunt about for the words; you also don't have to bother with the rhythms of your sentences since these phrases are generally so arranged as to research paper conclussion be more or less euphonious. When you are composing in a hurry — when you are dictating to a stenographer, for instance, or making a public speech — it is natural to and 13th comparison fall into paper conclussion, a pretentious, Latinized style.
Tags like a consideration which we should do well to bear in mind or a conclusion to which all of significant accomplishment us would readily assent will save many a sentence from coming down with a bump. By using stale metaphors, similes, and paper conclussion, idioms, you save much mental effort, at the cost of leaving your meaning vague, not only for auma obama, your reader but for yourself. Conclussion! This is the significance of mixed metaphors. Research! The sole aim of a metaphor is to paper call up a visual image. When these images clash — as in The Fascist octopus has sung its swan song, the jackboot is thrown into the melting pot — it can be taken as certain that the writer is warrior essay, not seeing a mental image of the objects he is naming; in other words he is not really thinking. Research Paper Discussion Conclussion! Look again at the examples I gave at the beginning of auma obama this essay. Professor Laski (1) uses five negatives in discussion, fifty three words.
One of these is most significant accomplishment, superfluous, making nonsense of the whole passage, and in addition there is the slip — alien for akin — making further nonsense, and several avoidable pieces of research conclussion clumsiness which increase the general vagueness. Professor Hogben (2) plays ducks and drakes with a battery which is most essay, able to write prescriptions, and, while disapproving of the everyday phrase put up with , is unwilling to conclussion look egregious up in the dictionary and see what it means; (3), if one takes an uncharitable attitude towards it, is simply meaningless: probably one could work out its intended meaning by reading the whole of the article in which it occurs. In (4), the writer knows more or less what he wants to say, but an accumulation of stale phrases chokes him like tea leaves blocking a sink. In (5), words and meaning have almost parted company. People who write in this manner usually have a general emotional meaning — they dislike one thing and want to express solidarity with another — but they are not interested in ghgf, the detail of what they are saying. A scrupulous writer, in every sentence that he writes, will ask himself at least four questions, thus: What am I trying to say? What words will express it? What image or idiom will make it clearer? Is this image fresh enough to paper discussion have an significant accomplishment, effect?
And he will probably ask himself two more: Could I put it more shortly? Have I said anything that is avoidably ugly? But you are not obliged to research paper go to all this trouble. Ana Thesis Writing! You can shirk it by simply throwing your mind open and letting the ready-made phrases come crowding in. The will construct your sentences for you — even think your thoughts for you, to a certain extent — and at need they will perform the important service of partially concealing your meaning even from yourself. It is at this point that the special connection between politics and the debasement of language becomes clear. In our time it is broadly true that political writing is research paper conclussion, bad writing. Where it is not true, it will generally be found that the writer is some kind of thesis purpose rebel, expressing his private opinions and not a ‘party line’. Orthodoxy, of whatever colour, seems to demand a lifeless, imitative style. The political dialects to be found in pamphlets, leading articles, manifestos, White papers and the speeches of undersecretaries do, of course, vary from party to party, but they are all alike in research paper conclussion, that one almost never finds in them a fresh, vivid, homemade turn of and 13th warrior comparison speech.
When one watches some tired hack on paper discussion the platform mechanically repeating the familiar phrases — bestial, atrocities, iron heel, bloodstained tyranny, free peoples of the and 13th, world, stand shoulder to shoulder — one often has a curious feeling that one is not watching a live human being but some kind of dummy: a feeling which suddenly becomes stronger at moments when the light catches the speaker's spectacles and turns them into discussion conclussion, blank discs which seem to have no eyes behind them. And this is not altogether fanciful. A speaker who uses that kind of phraseology has gone some distance toward turning himself into a machine. The appropriate noises are coming out of his larynx, but his brain is not involved, as it would be if he were choosing his words for ana thesis writing, himself. If the speech he is making is one that he is accustomed to make over and over again, he may be almost unconscious of what he is saying, as one is when one utters the responses in church.
And this reduced state of consciousness, if not indispensable, is at any rate favourable to research discussion conclussion political conformity. In our time, political speech and writing are largely the defence of the qualitative research critique, indefensible. Things like the continuance of British rule in India, the Russian purges and research paper, deportations, the beowulf and 13th warrior essay, dropping of the atom bombs on Japan, can indeed be defended, but only by arguments which are too brutal for most people to face, and which do not square with the professed aims of the political parties. Thus political language has to paper conclussion consist largely of euphemism, question-begging and sheer cloudy vagueness. Defenceless villages are bombarded from the air, the inhabitants driven out into the countryside, the cattle machine-gunned, the huts set on fire with incendiary bullets: this is called pacification . Millions of peasants are robbed of their farms and sent trudging along the roads with no more than they can carry: this is called transfer of population or rectification of research article critique frontiers . People are imprisoned for research discussion conclussion, years without trial, or shot in the back of the neck or sent to die of ghgf scurvy in conclussion, Arctic lumber camps: this is called elimination of unreliable elements . Such phraseology is needed if one wants to name things without calling up mental pictures of them. Consider for instance some comfortable English professor defending Russian totalitarianism. He cannot say outright, ‘I believe in killing off your opponents when you can get good results by doing so’. Probably, therefore, he will say something like this: ‘While freely conceding that the Soviet regime exhibits certain features which the humanitarian may be inclined to deplore, we must, I think, agree that a certain curtailment of the right to political opposition is an unavoidable concomitant of transitional periods, and that the rigors which the Russian people have been called upon to undergo have been amply justified in beowulf warrior essay, the sphere of concrete achievement.’ The inflated style itself is a kind of euphemism.
A mass of Latin words falls upon the facts like soft snow, blurring the outline and covering up all the paper discussion conclussion, details. The great enemy of clear language is insincerity. Qualitative Article Critique! When there is a gap between one's real and one's declared aims, one turns as it were instinctively to long words and exhausted idioms, like a cuttlefish spurting out paper discussion conclussion, ink. In our age there is no such thing as ‘keeping out of politics’. All issues are political issues, and politics itself is a mass of lies, evasions, folly, hatred, and schizophrenia. Ghgf! When the research paper conclussion, general atmosphere is bad, language must suffer. I should expect to find — this is a guess which I have not sufficient knowledge to verify — that the German, Russian and Italian languages have all deteriorated in beowulf comparison essay, the last ten or fifteen years, as a result of dictatorship.
But if thought corrupts language, language can also corrupt thought. A bad usage can spread by tradition and discussion, imitation even among people who should and do know better. The debased language that I have been discussing is in some ways very convenient. Ana Thesis! Phrases like a not unjustifiable assumption, leaves much to be desired, would serve no good purpose, a consideration which we should do well to bear in mind, are a continuous temptation, a packet of aspirins always at one's elbow. Look back through this essay, and for certain you will find that I have again and again committed the very faults I am protesting against. By this morning's post I have received a pamphlet dealing with conditions in Germany. The author tells me that he ‘felt impelled’ to write it. I open it at random, and here is almost the first sentence I see: ‘[The Allies] have an opportunity not only of achieving a radical transformation of Germany's social and political structure in such a way as to avoid a nationalistic reaction in Germany itself, but at the same time of laying the paper conclussion, foundations of a co-operative and unified Europe.’ You see, he ‘feels impelled’ to write — feels, presumably, that he has something new to say — and yet his words, like cavalry horses answering the bugle, group themselves automatically into the familiar dreary pattern. Ghgf! This invasion of one's mind by paper ready-made phrases ( lay the foundations, achieve a radical transformation ) can only be prevented if one is constantly on guard against them, and every such phrase anaesthetizes a portion of one's brain. I said earlier that the decadence of our language is probably curable.
Those who deny this would argue, if they produced an ana thesis writing, argument at all, that language merely reflects existing social conditions, and that we cannot influence its development by research paper conclussion any direct tinkering with words and and 13th comparison, constructions. So far as the general tone or spirit of a language goes, this may be true, but it is not true in detail. Silly words and expressions have often disappeared, not through any evolutionary process but owing to the conscious action of research discussion a minority. Two recent examples were explore every avenue and leave no stone unturned , which were killed by the jeers of a few journalists. There is a long list of flyblown metaphors which could similarly be got rid of if enough people would interest themselves in the job; and it should also be possible to laugh the not un- formation out of existence (3) , to reduce the amount of Latin and thesis related purpose, Greek in research conclussion, the average sentence, to drive out foreign phrases and beowulf and 13th, strayed scientific words, and, in general, to make pretentiousness unfashionable. Research Paper Discussion Conclussion! But all these are minor points.
The defence of the English language implies more than this, and perhaps it is best to start by saying what it does not imply. To begin with it has nothing to do with archaism, with the salvaging of significant accomplishment obsolete words and turns of speech, or with the setting up of a ‘standard English’ which must never be departed from. On the contrary, it is especially concerned with the scrapping of every word or idiom which has outworn its usefulness. It has nothing to do with correct grammar and syntax, which are of no importance so long as one makes one's meaning clear, or with the avoidance of Americanisms, or with having what is conclussion, called a ‘good prose style’. Related! On the other hand, it is not concerned with fake simplicity and the attempt to research paper discussion make written English colloquial. Nor does it even imply in beowulf warrior comparison essay, every case preferring the Saxon word to the Latin one, though it does imply using the fewest and shortest words that will cover one's meaning.
What is above all needed is to let the meaning choose the word, and not the other way around. In prose, the research paper discussion conclussion, worst thing one can do with words is surrender to them. When you think of a concrete object, you think wordlessly, and then, if you want to describe the thing you have been visualising you probably hunt about until you find the exact words that seem to fit it. When you think of something abstract you are more inclined to use words from the start, and unless you make a conscious effort to prevent it, the ana thesis, existing dialect will come rushing in and do the job for you, at the expense of blurring or even changing your meaning. Probably it is discussion, better to put off using words as long as possible and get one's meaning as clear as one can through pictures and sensations.
Afterward one can choose — not simply accept — the phrases that will best cover the meaning, and then switch round and decide what impressions one's words are likely to make on another person. And 13th Warrior Comparison! This last effort of the research, mind cuts out all stale or mixed images, all prefabricated phrases, needless repetitions, and humbug and vagueness generally. But one can often be in doubt about the effect of a word or a phrase, and one needs rules that one can rely on when instinct fails. I think the following rules will cover most cases: Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of speech which you are used to critique seeing in print. Research Paper Discussion Conclussion! Never use a long word where a short one will do. If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out. Never use the passive where you can use the active. Beowulf And 13th Warrior Essay! Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday English equivalent. Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous.
These rules sound elementary, and so they are, but they demand a deep change of attitude in anyone who has grown used to writing in paper discussion conclussion, the style now fashionable. Beowulf Essay! One could keep all of them and still write bad English, but one could not write the kind of stuff that I quoted in those five specimens at paper, the beginning of this article. I have not here been considering the literary use of language, but merely language as an instrument for expressing and not for concealing or preventing thought. Stuart Chase and others have come near to research article claiming that all abstract words are meaningless, and research, have used this as a pretext for advocating a kind of ghgf political quietism. Since you don't know what Fascism is, how can you struggle against discussion, Fascism? One need not swallow such absurdities as this, but one ought to recognise that the present political chaos is connected with the decay of language, and that one can probably bring about some improvement by starting at the verbal end. If you simplify your English, you are freed from the worst follies of orthodoxy. You cannot speak any of the necessary dialects, and when you make a stupid remark its stupidity will be obvious, even to yourself. Political language — and with variations this is true of all political parties, from Conservatives to Anarchists — is designed to make lies sound truthful and murder respectable, and to give an appearance of beowulf and 13th warrior solidity to pure wind.
One cannot change this all in a moment, but one can at paper discussion, least change one's own habits, and from time to time one can even, if one jeers loudly enough, send some worn-out and useless phrase — some jackboot, Achilles’ heel, hotbed, melting pot, acid test, veritable inferno, or other lump of verbal refuse — into the dustbin where it belongs. George Orwell: ‘Politics and the English Language’ First published: Horizon . — GB, London. — April 1946. Reprinted: — ‘Shooting an Elephant and auma obama, Other Essays’. — 1950. — ‘The Orwell Reader, Fiction, Essays, and Reportage’ — 1956. — ‘Collected Essays’. — 1961. — ‘Decline of the English Murder and Other Essays’. — 1965. — ‘The Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters of George Orwell’. — 1968.
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A Heroic Act Essays and Research Papers. Q: Describe Antony and Cleopatra as a heroic act written in research paper discussion, a post- heroic age. Antony and Cleopatra is ghgf, a tragic . play written by William Shakespeare; embodying the basic notions of most of the discussion Jacobean tragedies that occurred during the reign of and 13th comparison essay King James the first of England. The story follows a historical imitation of the events that occurred during the reign of the Egyptian and Roman Empire under the research paper conclussion power of Cleopatra of beowulf and 13th Alexandria and research conclussion the Triumvirs i.e. Ana Thesis Writing. Ceaser, Antony and research discussion conclussion Lepidus of Athens. Qualitative Article. Antony and Cleopatra , Character , Drama 1507 Words | 4 Pages. Ignorant Heroics If one were to walk methodically through an . art gallery viewing the lovely artworks of the past you'd have to research paper discussion conclussion really stop and notice those of the Renaissance. These statues usually period pieces from qualitative research article critique, Italian or French masters such as Donatello or Praxiteles were always sculpting realistic visions of the Gods such as Hermes. In a more popular example even modern man was made too look grand yet realistic. Achilles , Athena , Hero 1126 Words | 3 Pages.
Heroic Code in conclussion, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Heroic Code in the Iliad and the Odyssey In Webster's Dictionary, a hero is defined as a person noted for courageous acts or . nobility of purpose, especially if this individual has risked or sacrificed his life. In the Iliad and the Odyssey, the code which administers the conduct of the Homeric heroes is a straightforward idea. The aim of every hero is to achieve honor. Throughout the Iliad and the Odyssey, different characters take on the role of thesis statement purpose a hero. Honor is essential to the Homeric.
Achilles , Diomedes , Homer 964 Words | 3 Pages. Iverson The Heroic Code The life of a warrior is not always filled with glamour and research paper discussion conclussion glory. Warriors cannot simply waltz through a tough . battle, shedding blood left and right and accomplishment essay taking all the paper discussion conclussion glory and credit for themselves. There are often tough decisions to warrior be made. Warriors also cannot just think of themselves, for their decisions often affect the lives of others as well. They need the heroic code to research paper discussion conclussion guide them in their decision making. Ana Thesis. In this essay, I will describe the heroic code and research conclussion share. Achilles , Epic poetry , Hero 1176 Words | 4 Pages. What is a hero? What do you consider is a heroic act ? Every human being in the world is different.
No two are born alike. Ghgf. We are . individuals that differ from each other, and that is paper conclussion, why each and beowulf and 13th every one of us is special and unique, in our own dissimilar way. However, most people nowadays spend their whole lives searching and copying ‘trends’. They do what everybody does; they like what everybody likes; they think what everybody thinks. But, is that really necessary? Must we conform to the ‘trends’.
Cognition , Creativity , Difference 482 Words | 2 Pages. The Heroic Transformation Of Beowulf. ?The Heroic Transformation of Beowulf The poem Beowulf presents the research discussion conclussion transformation of Beowulf from a brave warrior to an honorable King. Purpose. . Research Discussion Conclussion. The evolution of Beowulf shows how he fulfills his obligations to the warrior’s heroic code and then transcends into a King who loyally protects his Kingdom. Beowulf’s transformation is research article, shown through a progression of three increasingly more difficult conflicts he must overcome- first with Grendel, then Grendel’s mother and conclussion finally against the mighty dragon. Beowulf , Christianity , Grendel 1992 Words | 6 Pages. Explain the ghgf Germanic (includes Anglo-Saxon and Norse) heroic ideal ( heroic code) and define its main elements. Cite specific . Research Paper Conclussion. examples in Beowulf. Choose many elements---from the beginning, middle, and end of the poem. The examples do not have to be told in detail (don’t drift into plot summary). The epic poem Beowulf demonstrates how the Germanic heroic code supports the warrior lifestyle. (Greenblatt 5) The heroic code was based on the idea that “the most important of human relationships was that. Beowulf , Courage , Epic poetry 669 Words | 3 Pages. Medea and Achilles possess similarities in their rage.
There are five major similarities. They both acknowledge the heroic code, they feel . dishonored and beowulf warrior comparison essay unjustly slighted, they react with anger and rage causing them to turn down any advice, they’re referred as “wild beasts” and “savages,” and research paper they sacrifice the lives of loved ones and friends to satisfy their need for revenge. The heroic code is a hero that is willing to confront death. Both Achilles and Medea acknowledge this idea. Medea feels as.
Achilles , Agamemnon , Greek mythology 2016 Words | 5 Pages. Heroic Values A hero is defined as someone with distinguished courage or ability, admired for obama dissertation his brave deeds and research discussion noble qualities. Significant Essay. But is research paper discussion, . that the only criterion that makes up a hero? Sometimes there are heroes who are not admired by everyone initially. Dissertation. Other times a person might not always have distinguished ability, but pulls through at conclussion, the right time to make himself a hero. The truth is, there are no exact qualities that make up a hero. One person may be seen as a hero to some people, but.
Achilles , Epic of qualitative Gilgamesh , Greek mythology 1367 Words | 4 Pages. A hero can be represented in many ways. It can be anyone either in mythology or in modern day literature. The term hero also does not discriminate on . Research. gender. As much as men, women can do heroic deeds too. In the novel The Five People You Meet in Heaven by Mitch Album, Eddie is a hero just as Atlanta in Heroes, Gods, and ghgf Monsters of the research paper conclussion Greek Myths by Bernard Evslin. “A hero is any person, especially a man, admired for courage, nobility, etc.”(Webster 228) In the novel The Five People You Meet. Bear , Calydonian Boar , Greek mythology 720 Words | 2 Pages. Beowulf: A Heroic Elegiac Poem Beowulf is definitely a heroic -elegiac poem.
Beowulf was a hero to many. He exhibited, the . traits of a “good king”. He was a warrior with extraordinary abilities which made him seem superhuman. Most Essay. He was selfless choosing to protect the masses rather than himself. This was an act of discussion generosity, as well as, great loyalty. There are many references in the poem to the ancestors of both Beowulf and Hrothgar.
They are referred to qualitative critique with reverence regardless. Beowulf , Grendel , Grendel's mother 754 Words | 4 Pages. The characters in Homer’s Iliad follow the Heroic Code which is all about honor. For them, honor is the most important thing and a person who . Discussion. dies without honor is worth nothing. To be someone honorable, one must standout from the ghgf army, like Akhilleus and Hektor. The two are recognized as the best in their army and community. But the Heroic Code is research paper, more than just exerting more effort as a warrior, more than being the significant accomplishment best warrior there is and research paper discussion conclussion more than doing something that the army, community and. Achilles , Hector , Homer 1249 Words | 4 Pages. The Search for Eternal Glory Through The Heroic Code. protects his nation and its allies from foes, earns the respect of others, and takes actions to ensure the well being of the ghgf society. Combined, these traits . form the heroic code. Beowulf lives his life by research discussion, the heroic code in search of glory for him and his nation.
Early on in Beowulf, Beowulf assists his allies, the Danes. Beowulf uses the research heroic code to bring glory to him and the Geat nation. “He knows he can trample down you Danes / to his hearts content, humiliate and paper discussion conclussion murder / without fear of reprisal. Beowulf , Grendel , Grendel's mother 923 Words | 3 Pages. Ghgf. delight when she is in his presence. Odysseus is honored by the nobles and research discussion gods of Greece and he, for the most part, is the greatest example of what the . Greeks believed morally. Not even considering his incredible physical abilities and courageous acts in the Trojan War, Odysseus is a prime example of how good we can become if we truly try and persevere. Odysseus does use poor judgment at times, but he is still constantly trying to be the best he can be. Odysseus learns many things about himself. Athena , Greeks , Homer 1066 Words | 3 Pages. Obama Dissertation. November 16th 2011 This essay will document research performed on three respective sources concerning the heroic values of Beowulf, and how . those heroic values ultimately contribute to Beowulf’s behaviour. Discussion. The three sources used in ana thesis writing, this essay consist of an excerpt from a book titled ‘ Heroic Identity in the World of Beowulf’ by Scott Gwara, a journal article titled ‘Friends and friendship in research paper discussion conclussion, heroic epics: with a focus on Beowulf, Chanson de Roland, the Nibelungenlied, and Njal’s Saga’ by significant accomplishment, Albrecht Classen. Beowulf , English heroic legends , Epic poetry 1952 Words | 6 Pages.
HUMAN ACTS Introduction Human persons – intelligent and free ¦ - capable of determining our own lives . by our own free choices ¦ HOW? ¦ - by freely choosing to shape our lives and actions in accord with the truth > by making good moral choices - These choices performed as free persons are called HUMAN ACTS DEFINITION OF HUMAN ACTS ? Acts which man does as man =. Choice , Epistemology , Free will 611 Words | 3 Pages. clear why one act is better than another. 2. To have an paper orderly social life. 3. To intelligently appraised and criticized moral conduct . and ethical systems. 4. Ghgf. To point out the true values of discussion life.
Assumptions of Ethics Assumptions are fundamental beliefs or statements that are accepted to be true without the burden of proving or of proof. 1. Man is ghgf, a rational being. 2. Man is research paper discussion conclussion, free. The Objects of Ethics 1. The Physical Object of Ethics – the doer of an act is the beowulf warrior essay physical. Ethics , Human , Morality 820 Words | 3 Pages.
The Development, Relief, and paper discussion conclussion Education for Alien Minors Act , or DREAM Act of 2011, proposes to allow children of undocumented . immigrants that were brought to the United States before their fifteenth birthday who have lived in America for at thesis statement, least five years straight to apply for permanent residency once they graduate from high school or achieve a GED. Conditionally, these children must be admitted into a college and complete a two-year degree or serve two years in the military. They must also be. Alien , Human migration , Illegal immigration 1073 Words | 3 Pages. Research Paper Discussion. Coercive Acts and research article Quebec Act The Coercive Acts and the Quebec Acts were British responses to . actions that were taking place in paper conclussion, the British colonies in America.
The Coercive Acts were a series of four acts passed during the spring of ghgf 1774. Discussion. The Boston Port Act closed the port of Boston until the people paid for all the tea that was thrown overboard during the Boston Tea Party. The amount of tea thrown over was equal to more than seven hundred thousand dollars in the year 2007. Parliament also passed. American Revolution , Boston Port Act , British Army 978 Words | 3 Pages. ? An act of ghgf revenge or no? “ON THAT GLORIUS NOONDAY when Dulce Rosa Orellano was crowned . with jasmines of Carnival Queen, the mothers of the paper discussion conclussion other candidates murmured that it was unfair for auma obama dissertation her to win just because she was the only daughter of the most powerful man in the entire province, Senator Anselmo Orellano” (Charters, 2011, p.42).
This first paragraph of the passage as well as the title of the story leads the reader to prepare for some sort. ACT , Human sexual behavior , Human sexuality 1628 Words | 4 Pages. Research Paper. ? HEROIC LEADERSHIP Rizal defined his life and most accomplishment leadership in Ultimo Adios, his final poem safely tucked inside the discussion alcohol burner that he . gave to his sister Trinidad, the day before his execution. In the research poem, he remembered the distant past, his childhood, his friends, his family, and everything that motivated his actions and finally brought him to this destiny. He recalled the incident that led him to dedicate his life and work to his country, and to paper discussion conclussion his early dreams of a happy and free Philippines. Country music , Drackett , Prayer 937 Words | 3 Pages. known as the auma dissertation heroic journey. In the first stage of the journey, the departure, the hero leaves their known world and begins their adventure. . After the hero undergoes the departure, they then move on research discussion, to the next stage, the initiation, where they are put through tests and venture into the world of hero or magic or the and 13th comparison previously unknown. The third and final stage is that of the discussion conclussion return, where the hero must return back to his home. A perfect example of someone that underwent the heroic journey is Odysseus. Achilles , Athena , English-language films 906 Words | 3 Pages. judged on their material possessions. This idea of material wealth determining a person’s social status is part of what is known as the Heroic . Ideal. The Heroic Ideal also includes ideas such as life should be a quest for glory through courageous and noble actions, immortality of one’s name is the highest form of glory, and boasting is a virtue.
In Beowulf, the Heroic Ideal is most notably symbolized by the treasures that are presented, exchanged and discovered. Throughout this epic poem, Beowulf. Anglo-Saxons , Beowulf , English heroic legends 905 Words | 4 Pages. Beowulf Essay. 3/26/2015 The Meaning of research paper discussion conclussion Being Heroic The word heroic comes from the Latin word heroicus “of a hero” and the Greek word . heroikos “pertaining to heroes”. One meaning of heroic is to be impressive; surpassing the ordinary, or larger than life. Another is to show extreme courage. I feel soldiers, firefighters, and police are all very heroic . But to me the events of 9/11 proved even everyday people can do very heroic acts in the face of evil.
A great example people being heroic played out in the fatal crash. Crash , Crashing , English-language films 470 Words | 2 Pages. Qualitative. Thre Birth of the discussion 1965 Voting Rights Act. The Murders of the Mississippi Summer Project Member and most the Birth the 1965 Voting Rights Act SOCI140 Essay February 6, 2011 The . nefarious act in1964 marked the research paper conclussion historic event that changed America history. The Mississippi Summer Project traveled to Mississippi to encourage African America citizens to practice their First Amendment rights. Controlling. Mississippi was a state known for apartheid, bias, and paper discussion contemptuousness enforcement.
The civil rights supports traveled though Mississippi retrieving votes. Andrew Goodman , Edgar Ray Killen , Freedom Summer 1215 Words | 4 Pages. Research Paper The Patriot Act 12-10-08 Eng101:423 Argumentative Essay The Patriot Act America is based on two . things: Blood and the Constitution. Ghgf. America is currently at war, fighting for our freedom. But what use is that if our Constitution, the very thing that grants us freedom, is no longer valid? Only five weeks after the September 11 attacks congress passed an act granting greater judicial power to information gathering agencies. The Patriot act , passed October 26 2001(New York. Federal Bureau of Investigation , First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Human rights 1479 Words | 5 Pages. BRITISH IMPERIAL POLICY THE AMERICAN REACTION TO THE BRITISH POLICY THE BRITISH REACTION TO THE AMERIAN REACTION 1. The Molasses Act (1733): . This act placed a high tariff on molasses being imported by colonists from the French West Indies; it was passed in response to complaints by British West Indian planters that they were losing money. American merchants responded to the act by bribing and smuggling their way around the law, actions that foreshadowed the impending imperial crisis.
British planters. American Revolution , Boston Tea Party , British Empire 1433 Words | 6 Pages. The USA PATRIOT Act , more commonly known as the Patriot Act , was an Act of the U.S. Congress that was signed into paper discussion, . law by President George W. Auma Dissertation. Bush. This paper will review and analyze the stance of the government and where government is in the passing and regulation of the legislation, the original legislation as it was put into research, law, litigation that questioned and expressed concern about the constitutionality of statement related Patriot Act and subsequent legislation due to the outcome of some of those lawsuits. . Democratic Party , Federal Bureau of Investigation , George W. Bush 2370 Words | 7 Pages. Paper Discussion Conclussion. ? Anti Patriot Act Annotated Bibliography Ann-Sophie Porry Young Harris Ron Wyden and Mark Udall. . (2013).
The Patriot Act must not be used to violate the rights of law-abiding citizens. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/jun/07/patriot- act -violate-privacy Summarize : This article discusses about the NSA surveillance controversy. It shows that secret data collection does not strike the 'right balance' between protecting US. Civil liberties , Constitution , Democratic Party 835 Words | 3 Pages. Accomplishment. The Payment of Bonus Act , 1965 The Payment of Bonus Act , 1965 ( Act No. 21 of 1965) is an important law on the . Research Conclussion. topic of wages and bonus. It has 40 sections and 4 schedules.
Background * Article 43 of Constitution of India under the Directive Principles of State Policy expects 'Living Wages' for all workers * Bonus helps in qualitative research, two manners: * Increases employee wages so that they are closer to 'living wages' * Employee efforts are recognized and this encourages work more - earn. Employment , Employment compensation , Mathematics 1030 Words | 4 Pages. Research Paper Discussion Conclussion. The Stamp Act : What a Disaster! “No taxation without representation!” This was the cry that came forth from the American rebellion after . George Greenville proposed the Stamp Act in England’s House of Commons. George Greenville had a plan to help pay off debt and help pay for soldiers to qualitative article critique protect the American frontier. Discussion Conclussion. The Stamp Act , Greenville’s plan, was proposed on March 9th 1765 and took effect on accomplishment, March 22nd 1765. Conclussion. The act was to tax printed documents such as ship papers, legal papers, newspapers. American Revolution , Benjamin Franklin , Canada 1745 Words | 5 Pages. MODULE 1 THEORIES OF LEARNING: ACT – R (Adaptive Control of Thought - Rational) by John Anderson I. Objectives At the end of the . module, the students are expected to: a. define ACT – R; b. apply the ACT – R Theory in learning; and c. appreciate the importance of ACT – R in significant essay, learning II. Research Discussion Conclussion. Introduction of the Topic ACT -R (Adaptive Control of Thought--Rational) is a cognitive architecture mainly developed by critique, John Robert Anderson at Carnegie Mellon University, which is also a theory. Cognition , Cognitive psychology , Declarative memory 1906 Words | 7 Pages. ? Christine Lopez . Nov 26, 2012 English I Mr. Budge The Heroic Cycle of Shrek Shrek, produced by Dreamworks and shown in 2001, is about an ogre who needs to paper discussion conclussion rescue a princess in ghgf, order to get his swamp back from being inhabited by the fairytale creatures Lord Farquaad forced to be there.
With the company of Donkey, he ventures across. Lord Farquaad , Princess Fiona , Shrek 906 Words | 3 Pages. Equality Act 2010- How has this act promoted anti-discriminatory practice and how successful has this been? The equality . act (2010) was introduced to provide a modern framework with a clear law to effectively tackle disadvantage and paper discussion discrimination. The Act is intended to ana thesis simplify the law by bringing together existing anti-discrimination legislations, such as, the research paper Equal Pay Act (1970), the sex discrimination act (1975), the Race relations act (1976) and most accomplishment the disability discrimination act (1995). Ageism , Discrimination , Gender 1179 Words | 3 Pages. The Patriot Act and Civil Liberties The Patriot Act and Civil Liberties With today’s society of advanced . technology, it has become imperative for the United States to research discussion conclussion develop new laws to ana thesis keep up with emerging threats and to combat illegal activities within the country as well as abroad. Without the research paper discussion ability to monitor communications and information, the War on Terrorism becomes an unsymmetrical battle that is ghgf, detrimental to the American way of life. Research Conclussion. Devoid of such significant.
Democratic Party , Federal Bureau of Investigation , Russ Feingold 1920 Words | 5 Pages. Significant Accomplishment Essay. The PATRIOT Act Michael J Parrish AJS 552 May 20, 2013 The PATRIOT Act After the events of . September 11, 2001 the research US Congress had little resistance and and 13th warrior comparison passed legislation known as the Uniting and Strengthening America by paper discussion, Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (USA Patriot Act ). This act along with many other regulations allowed the federal government to become more involved in ana thesis writing, personal affairs for the security of. Discussion. American Civil Liberties Union , Crime , Federal Bureau of essay Investigation 1096 Words | 4 Pages. USA Patriot Act Name: Number: Course: Lecturer: Date: Abstract With the developments and the recent attacks on the internet, there . has been a need to ensure that cyber attacks and terrorism have been the most common concerns for government regulations. After the numerous attacks and cyber attacks that are common on the internet, there has been the need to have laws and acts to control these terrorist acts . This is the reason why the USA patriot Act was formulated.
The main intention. Democratic Party , Domestic Security Enhancement Act of 2003 , Federal Bureau of Investigation 2067 Words | 6 Pages. What is the function of ‘ Act 1’ In ‘Journeys End?’ After reading ‘ Act 1’, we instantly get given a slight insight on some . of the horrendous conditions of war, which is something you do initially expect to entice before reading a war play. Research Paper Discussion. It plays a role of developing audiences feelings and expectations by aspects such as stage directions, the setting, sounds and lighting giving you a deeper depth of ana thesis writing realisation of research discussion conclussion how men really lived in the trenches, how they really acted and how they. Writing. Protagonist , The Play , Trench warfare 1421 Words | 4 Pages. Business Ethics Provisions in company act 2013 with respect to CSR and Corporate Governance Provisions in company . act 2013 with respect to CSR and Corporate Governance The long-awaited Companies Bill 2013 got its assent in research paper discussion conclussion, the Lok Sabha on 18 December 2012 and in the Rajya Sabha on beowulf and 13th warrior, 8 August 2013. After having obtained the assent of the President of India on research discussion conclussion, 29 August 2013, it has now become the much awaited Companies Act , 2013 (2013 Act ). An attempt has been made to reduce.
Audit , Company , Corporation 1519 Words | 5 Pages. LAW ASSIGNMENT-1 INTRODUCTION:- Right to Information Act , 2005 ( Act No. 22 of 2005) [As Modified up to qualitative 1st February, 2011] . Right to Information Act also known as RTI is an act which has been passed by Parliament of India in 2005 and came into force on October 12, 2005 which mandates timely response to any queries or government information asked by citizens of India. The importance of RTI is paper, that the qualitative article critique act gives right to citizens to securely access the research discussion information. Accountability , Freedom of thesis statement controlling information legislation , Government of India 835 Words | 8 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- Information Technology Act 2000 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | . | The Information Technology Act 2000 (also known as ITA-2000, or the IT Act ) is an Act of the Indian Parliament (No 21 of 2000) notified on October 17, 2000. This act is being opposed by Save Your Voice campaign and other civil society organizations in India. | ------------------------------------------------- History of the Act The United Nations General Assembly by resolution. 1916 , 1917 , 1918 630 Words | 3 Pages. ? Acts of Kindness Observation Gender 004 Olivia Thompson February 17, 2014 I would like to paper begin by saying I . really enjoyed doing this assignment because it is something I feel a lot of people, even myself, receive and it doesn’t get the attention it deserves. Often times, people experience random acts of kindness on an everyday bases without even realizing it happened. Such acts that happen that may not cross our mind vary from general manners such as saying please. Acts of the Apostles , Communication , Facial expression 1419 Words | 6 Pages. Mojados Ya No Son Indocomentados1 The “Support and Pass the Dream Act ” article was published by the California Dream Act . Network (California Dream Network) in 2011 on the change.org website.
The authors use a mixture of elements to ana thesis draw in the reader’s attention. The Dream Act is research, not a just a law trying to be passed but also serves as a life changing act that plays into essay, the lives of young Hispanic Latinos raised in California. Citizens from paper, all over most significant, California have come together to make statement. California , Education , Illegal immigration 1291 Words | 4 Pages. difference between Act and Rule Utilitarianism (25 marks) Throughout this essay I will be comparing the Act and Rule variations . of Utilitarianism to uncover the difference between the two. Utilitarianism is teleological or consequentialist approach to ethics, which argues that something is good or bad according to discussion its benefit for writing the majority of the people. Jeremy Bentham formalized this theory through his principle of Utility, “the greatest good for the greatest number”. Act Utilitarianism is often. Animal rights , Consequentialism , Ethical theories 777 Words | 2 Pages. ? Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 Michael Perez University of Phoenix ACC 561 Moises Rodriguez February 21, 2014 Sarbanes-Oxley . Act of 2002 In 2002, change came to the financial reporting sector for entities in conclussion, the form of ana thesis regulation and governance.
The change, Sarbanes-Oxley or Sox Act , was a new federal law, setting new standards for research financial reporting that public entities, management, and accounting firms to qualitative article obey by. Sox put accountability on management to now certify the research discussion accuracy. Audit , Auditing , Balance sheet 618 Words | 5 Pages. THE ADVOCATES ACT , 1961 The legal profession as it exists today was created and developed during the British period. Qualitative Article. However, it is . notable that in conclussion, earlier days of the British period the legal profession was not paid due attention and it was not well organized. Qualitative Research. Actually the east India Company was not interested in organizing the legal profession. There was no uniform judicial system in the settlements of the east India Company. After introduction of so many charters by the company it. Paper Discussion Conclussion. Advocate , Bar association , Barrister 816 Words | 3 Pages. The passing of the Stamp Act by Parliament in 1765 caused a rush of angry protests by significant accomplishment, the colonists in British America that perhaps aroused . and unified Americans as no previous political event ever had. It levied a tax on legal documents, almanacs, newspapers, and nearly every other form of paper used in research paper discussion conclussion, the colonies.
Adding to this hardship was the need for the tax to be paid in British sterling, not in article critique, colonial paper money. Although this duty had been in effect in research conclussion, England for over half a. American Revolution , British Empire , Canada 1329 Words | 4 Pages. ? UK EU Legislation The Equality Act 2010 The Equality Act came into force in October 2010 and was set up in order to writing . legally protect people from discrimination in the workplace and outer society. The Equality Act replaced all of the anti-discrimination laws such as Sex Discrimination Act 1975, Equal Pay Act 1970, Race Relations Act 1976 and paper the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 with one law covering them all. The Act protects employees from being discriminated against in the work place and. Basic income , Discrimination , Employment 1074 Words | 3 Pages. The DREAM ACT The Development, Relief, and thesis related controlling purpose Education for research paper discussion Alien Minors (DREAM) Act is a bipartisan legislation that addresses the . situation faced by young people who were brought to auma obama dissertation the United States years ago as undocumented immigrant children and research conclussion who have since grown up here, stayed in dissertation, school, and research paper discussion kept out of trouble (National Immigration Law Center, 2009). It was first introduced in 2003 under the 107th Congress. It has been on hold and remained that way in the House and Senate Committee until.
College , Education , High school 2715 Words | 7 Pages. The DREAM Act America harbors a dream that is the very essence that defines us for who we are as a country, and obama separates us from any other . nation in the world. It is the reason we are proud to research paper discussion conclussion call ourselves American, for we live the statement related controlling dream that others ache to experience. All around the globe, people clinging to paper their last strand of hope leave behind their homes and set out for America's soil. Their safety is a small price to pay when the only dream they wish to accomplish is accomplishment essay, living out the American. American culture , DREAM Act , Illegal immigration 1766 Words | 5 Pages. believe their kids will have more opportunities then back at home. Paper Conclussion. An Act was introduced in ana thesis writing, 2001 then reintroduced in May 2011 to potentially . help immigrant children, The DREAM Act . The DREAM Act is for alien minors who are brought to America under the age of 16 years old by undocumented parents. In the research paper article Basic Information about the Dream Act Legislation I read the requirements you need in order to qualify for the DREAM Act . An individual must have entered America before the ana thesis writing age of 16, also.
Alien , Human migration , Illegal immigration 1203 Words | 3 Pages. DREAM Act “Last year, President Obama and discussion Democrats in Congress introduced the DREAM Act . The controversial bill sought to . offer a pathway to citizenship for hundreds of thousands of young illegal immigrants by giving green cards to ana thesis undocumented residents who had come to the U.S. at the age of research paper fifteen or younger, graduated from an American high school, and completed either two years at an institution of higher learning or time in the armed forces.” “Assuming no fraud, we conservatively estimate. Critique. Alien , Economy of the United States , Graduation 1398 Words | 4 Pages. Research Paper Discussion Conclussion. ?Yarimar serges Ms. Frate English III 4/22/14 Acts of kindness . Act of kindness #1 Category: Community Description of Act : Today I went to portage Park (which is very close to my house) and I picked up garbage with my pink gloves in a trash bag around the whole Park. Reflection: Since I live close to portage Park I go there a lot and when I go there I see that there’s a lot of trash around and nobody picks it up. 2005 singles , 2008 singles , Billboard Hot Country Songs number-one singles 1996 Words | 4 Pages. Brief Overview of The Book of Acts Luke wrote the Acts of the Apostles as a follow-up to significant essay his Gospel account of the paper life of . Warrior Essay. Christ.
The Acts should be seen as a description of the ongoing work of Jesus Christ by the power of the Holy Spirit through His apostles and followers. Luke’s aim is to give an historical record of the early church from its birth in Jerusalem to research discussion how it reached around the world with the Gospel. Through this work Luke reveals that everything that was said previously about Jesus. Acts of the Apostles , Christianity , Eucharist 1351 Words | 4 Pages. after 9/11 terrorist attack on the United States, the USA Patriot Act passed Congress, it's also known as the “Uniting and Strengthening . America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism” Act , or more simply, the ghgf Patriot Act . The Patriot Act was created with the noble intention of finding and prosecuting international terrorists operating on American soil; however, the paper unfortunate consequences of the Act have been drastic. Many of the Patriot Act’s provisions are. Federal Bureau of Investigation , Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution , Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution 843 Words | 3 Pages. 1. a) An Act of Parliament comes about when a bill is passed by initially the House of Commons and then The House of Lords in various stages. . Once the reading stages and article critique the committee stages of the bill are complete in research paper conclussion, both houses it is finally passed as an Act of article critique Parliament by Royal Assent. An Example of an Act of Parliament is The Suicide Act 1961. b) The highest proportion of research conclussion legislation is passed by accomplishment, way of Delegated legislation which is where an Act of Parliament is passed that provides the. Research Paper Discussion Conclussion. Appeal , Common law , House of Lords 1103 Words | 3 Pages. Week 4 Assignment 2: Computer Laws No Electronic Theft Act of research 1997 Assignment 2: Computer Laws No Electronic Theft . Act of 1997 Today, there are many laws that address different acts of computer crimes. It is very important to understand what laws are applicable in a given situation.
The law I have selected is the “no electronic theft act of 1997.” The no electronic theft act is also known as the net act , it came into law under presidents Clinton in discussion conclussion, 1997. This was used to protect. Ghgf. Copyright , Copyright infringement , Crime 1003 Words | 3 Pages. Assessment task – TDA 3.2 Schools as organisations (continue) * Summarise the research discussion laws and practise affecting work in schools Data Protection . Act 1998: This act is a way for qualitative critique people to control information about paper themselves. It mentions that personal information should only ghgf be kept for intended purpose and only what you need it for. It should be kept securely onsite for example locked away or password protected. Also this information is to be classed as confidential and is not to be shared unless asked. Childhood , Disability Discrimination Act 1995 , Education 979 Words | 3 Pages. as well as opponents of research paper conclussion fiscal conservatism tend to view the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) Act 2003 as a curb on ana thesis, large . Paper. deficits. Research Article. The Act came into effect on paper discussion conclussion, July 5, following the issue by beowulf and 13th warrior comparison essay, the Finance Ministry of the notification and the FRBM Rules 2004 made under the Act . Research Paper. This article looks at the likely impact of the new law.
What the Act requires The FRBM Act has four main requirements. Ana Thesis. First, it requires the Government to place before Parliament three statements each. Deficit , Deficit spending , Fiscal conservatism 1955 Words | 6 Pages. Public Administration and Policy April 23rd, 2013 Topic: Immigration Act As with many laws of paper discussion Belize there are discrepancies, loopholes, . laws not practised and others that officers’ practise which are not the rightful law as stated by the Laws of Belize. Based on beowulf and 13th warrior comparison, the Immigration Act , Chapter 156, Revised Edition 2003, showing the subsidiary laws as at 31st October, 2003 and the Immigration Act , Chapter156, Revised Edition 2000, showing the substantive Law as at 31st December,2000; I realized.
History of Belize , Illegal immigration , Immigration 988 Words | 3 Pages.
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essay exam law write In most law schools, the exam counts for the entire grade in paper a course. Your class participation might count only if it is extraordinary. Beowulf Warrior Comparison? It's entirely up to conclussion the professor. Needless to say, this puts enormous stress on students to perform, which is comparison essay, all the more reason to understand exactly how exams are given and what the professor is research paper, looking for. Law school exams pose a hypothetical problem and ask you to resolve the ghgf, legal issues. Usually, the professor casts the question in the form of a dispute between two fictional parties. Your role in the drama is to act as either a lawyer counseling one of the parties or a judge deciding the case. The professor tests two skills . Issue spotting requires you to know what factual circumstances signal various legal problems for research discussion your client.
Analysis requires you to apply the rule of qualitative article law to discussion the set of facts. Some professors may want you to also recite the rule, but most schools don't test on rote memorization skills. After all, you can always look up the rule of law. Professors want to test whether you know when a problem is present (i.e. issue-spotting) and secondarily whether you have an understanding of the rule through your analysis. Usually, there is no right answer to the dispute. The professor draws up the question so that either party could win in order to see how well you can weigh the various factors. A good exam acts as a review of the entire course by touching on each of the major issues. Since the ghgf, exam is normally the only grade for paper discussion the course, the professor wants to cover as much territory as possible. Needless to say, this doesn't allow for in-depth analysis given that the average exam lasts only three hours.
Consequently you only have time for a big picture analysis. Another way of putting it is that the writing should be wide and shallow. You should hit on all of the issues covered in the course, but not spend too much time going into the details. In the words of one professor, the best exams have the character of qualitative article inspired superficiality . 1. 1 University of California, Berkeley Boalt Hall School of Law Professor Willie Fletcher. The first principle of exam writing (or any writing for that matter) is to know your audience, then write specifically for that audience's level of research paper understanding. Your audience is one person - the professor. Every professor has different quirks and weighs the factors differently in deciding on a grade - much like different courts applying a common law rule. You should ask your professor what she values in an exam. Some will insist that you state the rule; others favor policy arguments.
Some professors add and detract points for your use (or misuse) of the English language. Since the tools of a lawyer are briefs and contracts, a facility with the language should be part of the overall test. Some professors are even irrationally quirky, such as the one who marks down for using black ink instead of blue. Questions to ask your Professor before the exam: Do you want the rule stated or should we incorporate the ghgf, rule into the analysis? How many questions will there be on the exam? What are the time restraints for research paper discussion conclussion each question? Can we bring in outlines or other source material? Do you want case names cited? Do you have any formatting preferences such as double spacing instead of single spacing?
How do you distinguish between an excellent exam and a good exam? By listening closely during semester, you should have a good idea of what type of person your professor is. Ana Thesis Writing? Does she list long-winded, detailed analyses that step through every nuance of paper conclussion a rule? Or does she like quick answers that are based on broad policy concerns? Realize that your professor may be reading as many as one hundred of these essays during the winter holidays after the fall semester or the Memorial Day weekend that kicks off summer. Also realize that your professor has probably read essays like these for ana thesis writing a long time. In other words, your professor has seen it all. The point here is conclussion, that it pays to be brief and to get to the point. You should avoid cute language or adoring passages on how well you liked the class. Be thorough and touch on any issue you might see, but don't belabor the point.
You only get so many points. Ultimately, professors have to come up with some sort of auma obama dissertation point system for grading; otherwise the subjective quality of essays would result in unfairness. The professor will develop a checklist and just mark points as she reads the exam. Paper Conclussion? This means that you probably don't have to worry about most accomplishment essay stylistic issues, such as sentence construction and discussion conclussion, so on. The professor is looking for ana thesis writing concepts, not grammatical mistakes.
Be aware, however, that good writing is likely to be appreciated. The most conscientious professors will read the exams three times. Research Paper Discussion Conclussion? On the first pass, she roughly ranks the essays to see how well the class did as a whole. This gives her a benchmark against which to qualitative critique grade each exam. On the second pass, the professor actually scores the exam. On the last pass she just flips through the research paper conclussion, exams to make sure that she got it right.
Step One: Take three deep breaths . Auma Obama? This not only research paper discussion conclussion, calms you down, it literally brings oxygen to your brain, which helps you think more clearly. Step Two: Get the big picture . Spend one minute and research, flip through the entire exam to get the big picture. See how many questions there are and make some snap decisions on how to allocate your time based on the number of points assigned to each section. You should also note the nature of the essay questions. For a Torts exam consisting of three questions, for instance, you know the teacher is likely to ask one question about each of the major areas - intentional torts, negligence and product liability. Research Paper? Confirm that this is the case so that you have a good sense of how to allocate your time. Step Three: Allocate your time . One of the big mistakes students make is to beowulf warrior comparison essay thoroughly answer the first three questions and leave only a scant answer on the fourth essay. Getting an paper discussion, overview and allocating your time allows you to pinpoint when you have to move onto the next issue. You should even allocate time within each essay question so you know how much time you have to spend on each major issue.
For a one-hour essay, I suggest spending as much as ten to fifteen minutes reading and organizing the answer. For the writing section, make a decision of how much time you'll spend on writing each major issue or potential lawsuit. Just split the time evenly among the issues. Paper Conclussion? The idea here is to establish a strict time limit and keep your writing to that limit. Once, the time expires, move onto the next essay. Step Four: Read the first question twice . Most Significant Essay? On the first pass, make notes in the margins of the paper discussion, big issues. Pay attention to the call of the question. What is the professor asking you to dissertation answer? Many students have programmed themselves to write a completely thorough answer the minute they spot an issue. However, sometimes the professor may provide enough facts to do a complete analysis but really only want you to answer a specific question about the discussion, case. Qualitative? Be sure to note that one of the things professors like to test is whether you can follow directions.
Step Five: Outline an answer . See below. Most students start writing as soon as they read the research paper conclussion, question. Most? They freak out because they spot a dozen issues and think that they won't be able to thoroughly address all of the issues in the time allotted. It pays to think before writing . Outlining helps you spot the issues. Even if you just jot down the major facts in a case, you will break the hypo into stages or elements. It will soon become apparent that the facts are meant to give rise to certain issues. If your professor has constructed an issue-laden exam, then it's critical to break the hypothetical into its component parts and organize the essay around the most important issues. How you outline an answer differs with each course. In a Contracts exam, you usually write about events chronologically. Timing about what was said when is usually an important factor in Contracts, thus the best way to analyze is chronologically.
In contracts, Torts exam are usually organized according to parties. In Torts, the big question is who is liable for what harm? Consequently, there are usually many different people or companies that can sue one another. You can make the best sense of a Torts question by paper conclussion outlining according to the party. Another important step during outlining is to adopt a position . Unless your professor says otherwise, you should at this point decide which party you are going to most argue for. You should have some flexibility to change your mind on some issues, but you need to choose one way or the other. Typically, the exam will be written in such a way that it's easy to go either way. One common trap for first year law students is to always want to paper prove the rule or legal theory to be true. Remember that you can find for either side. You need to adopt a point of view that you feel is strongest.
Finally, remember that the exam outline is not something you hand in for credit. Consequently, don't spend time making it look pretty. Rather, develop shorthand for the principle issues in the case law. For instance, in Contracts, you might use. for the issues of Offer, Acceptance and Consideration, which are the principal building blocks of a valid contract. Professors usually pack more issues into an exam than anyone can reasonably answer within the time allotted. Always address every issue even if only one or two elements are proven by the facts.
Although there may not be enough evidence to ghgf prove guilt or liability, you should still spot the paper, issue for the professor. Professors purposefully make an issue ambiguous to see if you will bring it to her attention. Of course, you need to rank the statement related controlling, issues according to importance. Write thoroughly about those issues that are more prominent or may have a greater impact. The sub-issues you can deal with in research paper discussion one or two sentences as you move through the analysis. Another problem that arises is differentiating between issues of fact and issues of law . In issues of fact, the question is merely whether there is enough evidence to satisfy one of the elements of an established rule. Here, it is up to a trier of fact - usually a jury - to decide which party is telling the truth. Depending on the nature of the rule, one of the parties may bear the burden of proving the writing, truthfulness of the fact. These conditions should be apparent from the statement of the rule in research paper discussion the case law.
An issue of law is one in which the facts are undisputed. The parties agree on what happened. Beowulf And 13th Comparison? The disagreement is on how the law should interpret these particular facts. Judges -not juries - rule on questions of law. One of the best ways to issue spot is to outline or diagram what happens in the hypothetical. By identifying the research, parties involved or breaking major facts out ana thesis of the hypo, you get a sense of where to focus your analysis. First impressions are important. Professors can usually tell the quality of the exam from the discussion conclussion, first paragraph. There are two different methods for writing the first paragraph: Summary of Outcome paragraph Or Issue Identification paragraph.
In the summary of outcome paragraph, you tell the professor the bottom line - i.e. your resolution of the case - and most significant accomplishment, why. It helps to research paper discussion conclussion give a framework for the rest of the paper. Qualitative Research Article? The problem with the summary of the outcome paragraph is that students sometimes change their mind on the conclusion of the problem in the middle of the essay. In the process of the analysis, they see something that leads them to another way of thinking. However, if you've already written your first paragraph, that realization makes for paper discussion conclussion a lot of stress since you're now defending a position you don't think is correct. The second technique is to article mention the general framework of the issues but not give any specifics on your conclusions. This method is particularly useful if you don't quite know where you're going in the analysis before you start writing. One technique that many students use is to leave space in the exam booklet for research the first paragraph, but write that paragraph last. By leaving a space, you give yourself some room to change your mind on the outcome while writing. Unless your professor says otherwise, jump right into ghgf, the analysis of the problem.
Don't recite the facts of the hypothetical as you would for a case memorandum in a legal writing class. It's a common mistake for conclussion first year students to apply the techniques of their legal research and writing course to exam writing. It's natural to thesis statement purpose think that there should be only one way to paper discussion write in the legal field and to ghgf adopt those techniques for the exam. However, the exam tests different skills. The professor doesn't require that you repeat the research paper discussion conclussion, facts. Thesis Statement Purpose? After all, she wrote up the hypothetical. However, this doesn't mean that you don't mention the facts. Use the research paper discussion conclussion, facts to prove or disprove the rule. (See below.) Furthermore, don't spend a lot of time stating the rule. Up until now, we have placed a lot of emphasis on breaking the dissertation, rule into discussion, its component parts (or terms of art) and then proving the rule through tests, etc. One mistake that most students make in an exam is to spend most of writing their time citing the rule of law in order to prove to the professor that they know the law.
Most professors know that you know the law and know that you know how to look up the law. What they want to test is your ability to paper discussion conclussion analyze. Make the following your maxim for exam writing: Use the rule to focus on the analysis, but don't make the rule the focus of your exam. Go to qualitative the heart of the issue by focusing on the ambiguous elements that have to be proven. Ask yourself what is the question on paper conclussion which the resolution of that problem turns? If there is something central to statement related purpose the fact situation that most of the elements are easily present for the rule to apply except for one element, don't spend a lot of time on research discussion conclussion the elements that are present. Analyze the one missing element by getting into the heart of the analytical proofs that are required.
Successful exam writing can be a formula. You can save time and earn stylistic points by pre-writing your exam. This involves setting up an thesis statement related purpose, analytic formula and having set phrases that you can plug into discussion, the essay as you come to auma obama the relevant issue. Use the following formula to pre-write your essay. State the research, issue. Identify the significant accomplishment essay, rule, but don't waste time stating the rule. 2.
Summarize the elements of the conclussion, rule that are easily satisfied by the facts. State the sticking point on which this issue turns - i.e. the ambiguity in the facts that makes it a difficult question. Apply one or more of the four types of Analysis to auma obama the problem. Contrast conflicting authority. What are the defenses? Make a conclusion. Go to the next issue.
To illustrate the process, here is a sample exam question. EXAMPLE ESSAY QUESTION. Peter Plaintiff and research discussion, David Defendant are neighbors who bear each other a grudge. One day David is hammering boards together on the public sidewalk outside of his house. Critique? Peter sees David hammering and research conclussion, walks behind him in order to avoid talking with him. As Peter walks behind David, David brings his hammer back to hammer the boards and ana thesis writing, hits Peter in research paper conclussion the head causing substantial injury. Step One: State the and 13th, issue . Write one sentence that identifies the issue as suggested by the facts. Get used to stating the research discussion conclussion, issue by using every fact that you can. The key issue is whether battery occurs when a defendant with a grudge who is hammering nails hits the plaintiff walking behind him as he swings the hammer. Step Two: Identify the most significant accomplishment essay, rule , but don't waste time analyzing the rule.
Rather, incorporate the rule into your analysis of the research paper conclussion, facts. 3. The governing law on the issue of battery depends on thesis related controlling purpose the jurisdiction, though most commonly the Common Law rule suggests that the key elements are intent, harm and research discussion, causation. Step Three: Summarize the elements of the ghgf, rule that are easily satisfied by the facts . Make sure that you don't make up or infer facts from the hypothetical. It's a common mistake to just insert an inference of a harm done in order to satisfy the rule. If you do make an assumption on a factual situation then be sure to state that you are making that assumption. Here, the element of harm is satisfied since the plaintiff suffered severe trauma to his head. Furthermore, the research paper conclussion, element of causation is proven because but for the defendant's swinging the most accomplishment essay, hammer, the research conclussion, plaintiff would not have been harmed. Step Four: State the sticking point on which this issue turns - i.e. the ambiguity in auma the facts that makes it a difficult question.
The real question in research paper discussion this suit is whether the defendant intended to hit the plaintiff on the head. Although there was animosity between the two parties, the facts suggest that this may have been an accident. Step Five: Apply one or more of the four types of Analysis to the problem. Contrast conflicting authority. Use one or more of the four types of ana thesis writing proof to prove or disprove the rule. Reasoning by analogy: Case law suggests that these facts (would/would not) satisfy the (element). Balancing Test: The following factors weigh in determining whether the (element) is satisfied. Judicial Test: Courts have applied the following test to prove whether the (element) is satisfied. Policy: The underlying policy of the conclussion, rule (is/is not) furthered by its application in this scenario. (Cite policy.)
EXAMPLE - Judicial Test. The standard test that courts apply for the general intent necessary to auma hold the defendant liable is that he knew with substantial certainty that harmful consequences would result from his action. Here, the defendant must know both that swinging a hammer with someone behind him would result in harm and that the person was, in conclussion fact, behind him at ghgf that point in time. Whether the defendant knew with substantial certainty is an issue of fact that is research discussion, up to a jury or judge to most decide. Paper Discussion Conclussion? Animosity by thesis statement related controlling purpose itself, or even a motive, does not prove intent. Step Six: Contrast conflicting authority . Some jurisdictions rule that in circumstances where there is an unlikely accident, then motive alone might infer intent.
Here, the suspiciousness of the discussion conclussion, accident and the deep hatred between the defendant and plaintiff suggest that the defendant may have faked an accident in order to harm the plaintiff. Step Seven: What are the defenses ? Be sure to recognize that defenses are also rules that require analysis using one of the ghgf, four reasoning methods. The defendant has the affirmative defense of self-defense. Discussion? If the defendant had a reasonable belief that the plaintiff was about to be attacked from behind, then he could assert self-defense. However, the defendant has the burden to prove he used only as much force in swinging the auma, hammer as was reasonably necessary to protect himself from potential injury. Step Eight: Make a conclusion . In writing the discussion, Conclusion you want to hedge. Language you could use would be as follows: The court would probably hold as follows. A probable result would be.
Given the auma dissertation, facts, it is highly likely that. Do pre-write your exam by having formulaic answers to research paper key issues ready to spit out. The conclusion of the issue should nearly always be stated as a probability. Since different courts can come out different ways you want to make sure that you leave room for auma obama dissertation a different interpretation. There usually is no right answer. The art is in the analysis. In all likelihood, the defendant will not be able to assert a credible defense of self-defense because there is no evidence that the plaintiff was going to attack the defendant. However, the defendant may not need a defense since I think it is also unlikely that the plaintiff can prove battery under these facts since he has not shown that the defendant had the requisite intent to commit battery. Consequently, the defendant will probably not be held liable for battery and the plaintiff will have to seek relief under a negligence theory. Step Nine: Go to the next issue . Peter will seek to paper recover damages in negligence if he can prove.
Proceed through each issue methodically and with as much analysis as you can. Try to use every fact to either prove or disprove an issue. 2 Unless your professor says otherwise. 3 Unless your professor says otherwise. One of the most frequently asked questions that students pose prior to an exam is whether they have to remember case names.
The answer is that it entirely depends on the professor. Remembering case names will get you some points but usually isn't critical. Most professors prefer that you use case names to ghgf illustrate an analogy rather than in showing how much you remember. Discussion Conclussion? If you do want to cite a case, just be very sure that you have the thesis statement controlling, name attached to research paper discussion conclussion the right case. If you are citing a case for some principle and auma obama dissertation, end up citing the wrong case, the professor may think that you have not learned the research paper discussion, principle correctly. You should make liberal use of headlines in your essay to signal the start and end of sections. By making the essay easier to read, your exam will have the thesis purpose, appearance of being better organized than others. Do pre-write your exam by paper discussion having formulaic answers to key issues ready to spit out. Do outline your answer using about ten minutes for an hour-long answer. Do leave space at the beginning to write a summary paragraph after you've written the entire essay. Do jump right into the analysis of the major issues.
Do mention every issue even if it's an ambiguous result or if no liability is likely. Do use every fact as proof or disproof of the validity of a rule. Do pay attention to ghgf the call of the question . Do state assumptions you've made in writing the research discussion, answer to ambiguous fact situations. Writing? Do leave your biases at paper conclussion home . Do write legibly . Don't restate the facts of the problem. Don't answer questions the professor doesn't ask about. Don't repeat yourself with an obama dissertation, analysis that applies equally well in one scenario as another.
Make the distinction then refer back to a previous analysis. Don't waste time on your outline making it look pretty. You don't get credit for paper discussion an outline. Don't spot issues that are not suggested by the facts just because you studied it in class. Take a break. Don't start studying for your next exam right away. Schedule yourself some down time to have fun and clear your mind. You may be tempted to jump right into the next subject, particularly if you think you didn't do well in the last exam.
However, you run the thesis related controlling, risk of diminishing returns. Paper Discussion? Tests take a lot out of you physically and mentally. If you don't give your body and mind a chance to rest, you'll end up expending more energy to go a shorter distance than if you rest to recharge your stamina.
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coppelia kahn essays Throughout literature, there are many different kinds of mother. There is the caring mother: the one whocares for, protects and guides her child. Paper Conclussion! Then there is the neglectful mother: the one who does nothing for the benefit of her child, who only ana thesis, does things for paper discussion, her own benefit. Regardless of what kind of mother a child has, at least there is a mother. There is a maternal figure whom the child will look up to for guidance and support. Thesis Controlling Purpose! However, are the children doomed for disaster if there is no mother present in the work? What happens when the mother-child relationship is missing? In William Shakespeare’s plays, the mothers of some of the discussion conclussion, major characters are missing; they are seldom mentioned and sometimes there is ana thesis, not even any passing reference to them.
Shakespeare has left out the paper discussion, maternal figure in many of his plays including King Lear , Much Ado About Nothing and Taming of the Shrew . His absent mother in King Lear has been the topic of many essays including Coppelia Kahn’s essay “The Absent Mother in King Lear” and ghgf Myra Glazer Schotz’s essay “The Great Unwritten Story: Mothers and Daughters in research discussion conclussion, Shakespeare.” King Lear , Taming of the Shrew and Much Ado About Nothing share the same family structure: a father raising his daughters alone. Thomas Mcfarland’s essay, “The Image of the Family in King Lear,” discusses this idea of the broken home as influential on the action of this play. Purpose! The lives of many of the other characters, not just the children’s, are badly affected because of the absent mother. In King Lear , the mother of Cordelia, Goneril and Regan is missing, leaving Lear to raise his three daughters alone. Research Paper Discussion! In spite of her upbringing without a mother, his youngest daughter, Cordelia, has grown up to be an honest and obama dissertation loving woman. The other two daughters, on the other hand, have grown up to be cheating and power-hungry. Perhaps with a mother in the picture, the two older daughters would have turned out differently. Coppelia Khan notes, “both sexes begin to develop a sense of self in research paper conclussion, relation to and 13th warrior comparison essay a mother-woman. But a girl’s sense of femaleness arises through her infantile union with the mother and research conclussion later identification with her” (Ferguson 37). Ana Thesis! Since a mother was not there to show her daughters how to discussion act and behave like women, they had no choice but to follow in men’s footsteps.
But how can three women be raised in most accomplishment, the same situation and turn out so differently? One possible answer to this question is research discussion, because Cordelia is article, Lear’s favorite daughter. Conclussion! Lear’s bias towards Cordelia is probably what leads to Regan’s and Goneril’s character flaws. Myra Glazer Schotz states, “focusing on the ‘masculine predicament of kingship and fatherhood,’ the Lear world presents us with daughters but predicates itself on dissertation, the absence of their mother, the absence of a Queen, the absence of paper discussion, a feminine principle to act as symbolic and psychological counterbalance to male authority” (Davidson 47). Although the Kent and the Fool are there to counteract Lear’s authority, they do not as much influence his wife would. Kent advises against obama Cordelia’s banishment but is research discussion conclussion, then himself banished. Lear’s wife, the mother of his daughters, is article critique, probably the only one who could have prevented Cordelia’s banishment.
There exists a parallel between Lear and Gloucester, because neither of them has a mother for research paper, their children, and statement related they both have disowned their children who are actually truthful and loving to them. When Lear asks his daughters to say how much they love him, Cordelia says that words cannot express how she feels for him, but apparently her sisters can easily find the right words to please their father: “Cordelia cannot produce golden words, cannot ‘coin her heart in words,’ but her heart has love of research paper discussion conclussion, a better and research article critique weightier metal” (Muir 8). Instead of saying what her father wants to hear, Cordelia replies, “Nothing, my lord” ( King Lear . I.i.91). Lear tells her, “Nothing will come of research discussion, nothing” ( King Lear . I.i.94). Lear is telling her that if she does not speak her feelings for him then she will not get anything from him. Beowulf And 13th Comparison! This scene is similar to the one in discussion, which Gloucester disowns his legitimate son, Edgar, and professes his love for his devious illegitimate son, Edmund. Ana Thesis Writing! In the research paper discussion conclussion, scene where Gloucester denies that Edgar, a good child, is his son we can observe a similar attitude in Lear towards his kind daughter, Cordelia. Most Significant Accomplishment Essay! Gloucester says, “I never got him,” meaning he never fathered Edgar (Muir, 64). Research Discussion! Both men have no mother to significant consult, and both men are blinded by paper discussion, false affection and loyalty which ultimately lead to their destruction. In King Lear a mother is mentioned twice, both times in a negative manner. A reference in Act II, scene iv, when Lear says, “O! how this mother swells up toward my heart.” The word ‘mother’ in this statement refers to a sickness that felt like a child in a mother’s womb.
It is dissertation, also like the suffocation of the mother (Muir 85). Mother is related to the womb, the supposed seat of hysteria. Another reference to paper conclussion a mother is made when Lear is talking with Regan. He says, “I think you are [my child]; I know what reason I have to ghgf think so: if thou shouldst not be glad, I would divorce me from thy mother’s tomb, sepulchering an adultress” ( King Lear . II.iv.136-139). Lear is research discussion, telling her that he knows she is his legitimate daughter and since he has given her his kingdom she should treat him better. Qualitative Research Article! According to Lear, the mother can easily be blamed for the unfavorable way her daughters, Regan and Goneril, have turned out. The events that occur as a result of paper discussion conclussion, Cordelia’s banishment in and 13th comparison, the beginning might have been avoided. A mother might have been able to tell Lear that he is being irrational and discussion conclussion should not be so hasty to disown his favorite daughter.
A maternal figure in this play might have made it possible for Cordelia to take control of her father’s throne at the appropriate time, saving many lives. A mother might have also saved all three of her daughters from being killed in the end of the play. Although Goneril and Regan are both deceitful children who abuse their power, a mother could have prevented them from causing their own deaths and the unnecessary deaths of Lear, Gloucester and many others. Auma! However, because there is no mother, the events that take place are bound to happen. Paper Discussion Conclussion! This is ghgf, not William Shakespeare’s only play in which the lack of paper discussion conclussion, a mother figure leads to unfavorable situations. Thomas McFarland notes that in Shakespeare’s plays the recurring theme of the broken home is what leads to tragic events (Danson 106).
In Much Ado About Nothing , there exists a similar scenario in which fathers raise daughters. The mothers of the two major characters, Hero and Beatrice, are never mentioned. Nevertheless, there were women who gave birth to these two young ladies. Leonato is the father of Hero and the uncle of Beatrice; he is the ghgf, one who raises them. There is only one mention of a mother in the entire play. In Act II, scene i, Don Pedro asks Beatrice to marry him. When she says no, he tells her that “she was born in a merry hour” and Beatrice replies, “No sure my lord, my mother cried, but then there was a star danced, and under that was I born” ( Much Ado . II.i.275-280). In this play there is an acknowledgment of a mother; Beatrice recognizes the fact that she once did exist. Discussion Conclussion! However, there is never another mention of a mother by either of the two major characters in the play; both women are raised by a single father.
Hero’s mother is completely overlooked and is not referred to in any context. In this play we see a father who loves his daughter unconditionally and is willing at all costs to ana thesis writing defend her honor. Leonato makes judgments about his daughter when Claudio first makes his claim that Hero is paper, unchaste. Leonato believes him without question and wishes that his daughter was dead because of the dishonor she has supposedly caused. Ana Thesis Writing! He says: O Fate! take not away thy heavy hand. Death is the fairest cover for her shame. That may be wish'd for. ( Much Ado . IV.i. 117-119). He doubts her virginity without even asking her about the authenticity of what Claudio has said about paper discussion, her.
However, after Hero wakes up and says that she has not been with anyone, Leonato appears to be suspicious of her accusers. Leonato says: If they speak but truth of her, These hands shall tear her; if they wrong her honour, The proudest of them shall well hear of it (Much Ado. IV.i. 196-198). His statement shows that Leonato is more interested in the truth than in believing the worst about significant accomplishment, his daughter. He is showing the caring aspect of his parenthood. Whereas in King Lear , Lear disowns his daughter for something as trivial as her not expressing her love for him. Dishonoring the research paper discussion conclussion, family is a far more serious matter that would have given Leonato a better excuse for abandoning his daughter.
However, Leonato joins in the scheme to reveal the truth. The objective attitude that Leonato displays is a quality a mother would exercise if her daughter’s honor is in question. A mother might be more willing to doubt the motives of others rather than to jump to conclusions and initially to doubt her own child ( Much Ado . Related Purpose! IV.i). The lack of the mother in this play leads briefly to disaster but not to a tragic outcome. Perhaps if a maternal figure were present in the play, then the turn of events would have been different. Paper Conclussion! Hero’s virginity might not have been questioned for warrior essay, very long. Her mother could have interrupted her father’s attack on her when he heard Claudio’s claim. However, in this play, as opposed to King Lear , there is not a tragic loss due to the lack of the mother. Research Paper! Shakespeare has created a father who is willing to die for his daughter: I speak not like a dotard nor a fool,
As under privilege of age to accomplishment essay brag. What I have done being young, or what would do. Were I not old. Know, Claudio, to thy head, Thou hast so wrong'd mine innocent child and me. That I am forced to lay my reverence by.
And, with grey hairs and bruise of many days, Do challenge thee to discussion conclussion trial of a man ( Much Ado . V.i.). In this speech, “Leonato announces that despite his great age, he challenges Claudio to a duel for the crime Claudio has committed against Hero by ruining her good name”(Sparknotes: Much Ado). Leonato makes another speech before this in which we learn about his love for his daughter: “Bring me a father that so loved his child”( Much Ado . V.i.9). Here we see a father who is ghgf, willing to research discussion die for the sake of his daughter’s honor without question, whereas Lear was willing to disown his daughter in a second. In Much Ado About Nothing , we see a father who takes the roles of both the mother and father and research does both extremely well. When Claudio makes his announcement at the wedding, Leonato is distraught, but he later goes along with the plan of research paper discussion conclussion, faking Hero’s death to clear his daughter’s name. The Taming of the Shrew is another one of Shakespeare’s plays that lacks a mother. Beowulf Warrior Comparison Essay! The mother of Katherina and Bianca is not mentioned in research paper conclussion, the play. Their father, Baptista Minola, similar to the fathers in both King Lear and Much Ado About Nothing , raises the two daughters. Because there is thesis purpose, only one parent, there exists a struggle for his affection.
A mother creates the balance between the paper discussion, father and the children. However, because there is no mother in the play, both daughters are seeking their father’s affection, and it appears that Katherina feels that her father shows favoritism toward her sister, Bianca. When Baptista enters the room and breaks up the fight between Katherina and Bianca, Katherina asks: What, will you not suffer me? Nay, now I see. She is your treasure, she must have a husband; I must dance bare-foot on her wedding day ( Taming . II.i. 31-33). She says s he will end up an ghgf old maid dancing at paper discussion her sister’s wedding. This passage seems to imply that her father’s love may not seem to satisfy Katherina. Perhaps she notices the maternal affection that is thesis related, missing from her life. It appears that she thinks she will end up alone and only a mother can help her overcome her concern (Thompson 81).
Although there is research conclussion, not any evidence of most accomplishment essay, a mother in discussion conclussion, this play neither Katherina nor Bianca will suffer. Their father is determined to see them both happily married. His statement that Bianca cannot marry until Katherina does shows that he does indeed love them equally. Auma Dissertation! If Bianca as the younger and apparently sweeter sister gets married first, then Katherina will inevitably become an old maid. She will never get married and eventually she will die alone.
He sees that Bianca is getting all the marriage proposals but that there are no prospective husbands for research discussion, Katherina. Her bitter attitude is similar to Regan and Goneril’s in King Lear ; it appears that they all have a negative attitude because their father show more affection towards their sisters. Katherina’s harshness is what keeps her from getting marriage proposals. Her perception that her father prefers her sister ignites her anger towards men. Perhaps if her mother was there to comfort her, she might have felt a little differently. Qualitative Research Article! Any maternal figure’s affection in this play would have changed her negative attitude. Most of the paper discussion, characters in beowulf warrior, the play speak of research, her rather than to her. When Baptista asks who wants to court his daughter, Katherina, Gremio says to Hortensio on and 13th comparison essay, the side: To cart her rather: she's too rough for me. There, There, Hortensio, will you any wife? ( Taming . I.i.55-56).
Both men see Katherina as being mean, call her a devil and research paper conclussion Tranio even says, “That wench is stark mad or wonderful froward” ( Taming . I.i.68). However, Baptista is ana thesis writing, determined to see both of his daughters married which is research discussion, why he offers the large dowry. Without the research article critique, assistance of a mother, Baptista tries to make sure that his daughters are both taken care of. In all three plays, King Lear, Much Ado About Nothing and Taming of the Shrew, we see the father raising his daughters without any meaningful mention of the research paper discussion conclussion, mother. This deliberate omission of the mother has a deep impact on the characters in the plays. Regan and most essay Goneril cause the tragic end in King Lear ; Hero’s reputation is questioned in paper, Much Ado About Nothing ; and Katherina is seen as being the auma obama dissertation, devil in Taming of the Shrew . However, regardless of the absent mother, the discussion conclussion, daughters in each play have grown up to be women. Each woman is unfortunate not to have a mother in related controlling purpose, her life.
A present mother could have prevented some of the hardships her daughter faces.