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The design argument essay

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Teleological Argument Essay | Bartleby

How to Ace Essay Questions Using the Three Minute Rule. As we tumble toward final exams, I’d be remiss if I didn’t address one of the most dreaded denizens of the season: the blue book essay exam . Nothing strikes more fear into the heart of a liberal arts student than seeing that big blue book, full of empty, lined pages, just waiting to be filled with paragraphs pregnant with novel insight. Essay? These exams are tough. But in this post I will teach you a devastatingly effective trick for squeezing out the most possible points once you sit down for the test itself. Of course, this advice assumes you’ve done smart preparation (see last week’s post on exam prep mistakes for some pointers on this topic). But assuming you know your stuff, this advice will teach you how to strut it. Essay On A Hero? It all comes down to the three simple minutes… There are two ways to lose points on essay questions. First, you don’t answer everything asked by the prompt.

Second, while answering what’s asked, you leave out important relevant arguments covered in class. That’s it. If you can bypass these two pitfalls you’ll do well. (A common myth is that the quality of your writing matters on these exams. This is rarely true.) Fans of Straight-A know my advice for the design argument essay, avoiding the first pitfall: outline! The technique is simple. Before you start writing your answer to an essay question, sketch out an outline of every argument you want to cover in your response. (I used to write my outlines on the back cover of the blue book.) This outline should be a bullet-point list, containing just a couple words on each line reminding you of the larger points you want to include. How Do? Here’s another tip from the red book: after sketching the outline, go back, look at the question description, and make sure you#8217;re addressing every point it asks. It’s common for students, in their rush to answer, to miss one or more pieces of the question, lurking somewhere deep in the design a subordinate clause. Now it#8217;s time to move on the marquee advice#8230; To address the second pitfall mentioned above – bypassing relevant arguments in your answer #8212; there is only one thing to do: slow down . The start of an exam gets the adrenaline pumping.

The fear of running out of time motivates you to start writing as soon and a ghostwriter rap, as fast as possible. It’s exactly this fear that causes students to blow past those argumentative nuances that make the difference between a B and the design essay, a A. Here’s what you should do instead: after you finish sketching your outline for a question stop and think for three full minutes . Literally: look at your watch and time yourself for 180 seconds. Essay On A Hero? While this time passes, quietly ponder the following: What are you missing? What tricky point did you discuss with your professor earlier in the design the semester that would fit perfectly in this answer? What argument from another topic could be reapplied here to interesting and in essay form, informative effect? What argument isn#8217;t really a good fit? These three minutes of reflection – and it has to be three minutes; any less and you won’t generate enough new thinking, any more and you might run out of argument, time #8212; can shake loose all manner of insights that you would have otherwise blown right past. Importance Responsibility For Your Actions? I#8217;ll admit, it’s hard to slow down when your mind is screaming for you to keep moving. But these strategic lacuna can make the difference between a blue book God and just another sweat-stained undergrad furiously scribbling like his life depended on the design argument essay, it. 15 thoughts on “ How to Ace Essay Questions Using the Three Minute Rule ” I#8217;ve found that I remember related points by oedipus essay, writing down the things I do remember, the same way your thoughts can become clearer when you put them to paper.

Maybe this introspection would be best halfway through the the design argument essay session. This very easily translates to law school exams as well. Just outline in actions the accepted law essay form (IRAC or ICRAC) How long does the exam have to the design, be for the 3-minute rule to work? Does it apply to solve math word problems, a 45-minute English essay, or a 45-minute AP history essay? (high school) M.: It is essay, devastatingly successful for AP essays. Our AP teacher emphasized a 5 minute period that we write our outlines and on the importance of taking actions, what we#8217;re going to argument, say before we start writing. It worked for me; I got a 5 on every AP essays test I#8217;ve taken #128578; Hm#8230; what about essay on a hero Theatre Studies (A level)?

I don#8217;t find I can really plan those essays I just have to write and hope what comes out is good enough! Hm… what about Theatre Studies (A level)? I don’t find I can really plan those essays I just have to write and argument essay, hope what comes out is and the oedipus complex essay, good enough! To be honest, I don#8217;t quite know what an A level Theatre Studies essay questions looks like? Why do it after the outline? Why not before? Also I assume we adjust the argument time based on exam length #8212; more if it#8217;s a three-hour-one-essay, less if it#8217;s a one-hour-three-essay #8212; and that the three minutes is separate to the outlining time itself (which I usually spend at least 20% of the allotted exam time on, more like a third most of the time, because I find it so valuable to have a blueprint of importance of taking responsibility for your actions, all the points I need to make when it#8217;s near the end of three hours and the design essay, I#8217;m completely out of hamlet and the complex essay, mental energy) Any advice for finishing blue-book exams on time? Wow this is great! I wish I read this before the SAT last week. Thanks for argument essay, the tip. What i also find helpful, which is the method i take on most essays, is for 2 minutes or so think about you.

Your life is full of events, how can you relate to the topic? Are there any examples form your life you can give? I did this last year on the SAT and got a perfect score. Become Rap? Sometimes, especially for MC questions, double-checking makes it worse for me. I tend to overthink, change my answer and argument essay, come to regret later on. Wow! This great advice, this is one problem that I deal with every time I take a timed essay test.

I always go too fast and oedipus complex, I seem to leave information out the design argument that I know needs to essay on the importance, be in the design essay there. I really like the three minute rule and to help, outline before you start writing. Argument Essay? I will for sure use these tips on how do a paper in essay form, my next essay, thanks for the design essay, the advice! I know the preparation of essay on a hero, bar exam sometime is very difficult, But with proper genuineness and the design argument, tool everyone could crack the bar exam. Thanks for essay on a hero, sharing. I#8217;m about to argument, test these things for my essay test tomorrow. Papers Health Care Reform? hopefully, I could do good and get a perfect score! I'm a computer science professor who writes about how to perform productive, valuable, and meaningful work in an increasingly distracted digital age.

If you're new to Study Hacks, a good place to the design essay, start is the help math word problems blog archive or my new book on the power of deep work. Get the Latest from the Study Hacks Blog in your inbox: You'll receive the blog posts via email. Your email address is never sold or shared. Argument? (The notebook I use to essay on a hero, create my daily plans.) (The definitive academic treatment of deliberate practice.) (A crazy but brilliant book. An important influence.)

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Poverty and Education: A Critical Analysis of the Ruby Payne Phenomenon. Research indicates that poverty rates among American children have reached as high as 22 percent in recent years, and from this historically elevated figure, perhaps a third can be described as experiencing #147;persistent#148; or #147;long-term#148; poverty (Hernandez, 1997; Mayer, 1997; Brady, 2003). It is widely believed that these children pose a major challenge to schools. Many reside in central-city neighborhoods or relatively isolated rural areas, compounding existing obstacles to equal educational opportunities and the design, academic success. (Books, 2004) Yet, studies consistently document that most educators themselves come from help solve math, middle-class backgrounds, making it difficult for them to relate personally with students who live in poverty (Zeichner, 2003). As a result, the capacity of teachers to work with poor children is argument, shaped by teacher educators, school district administrators, educational researchers, and other experts.

It is not clear, however, just what lessons about the essay on a hero, poor are being transmitted to the design teachers and other educators, and how they are being prepared to work with them more effectively. In the essay on a hero, absence of a well-defined research base on educating children affected by poverty and corresponding programs of training and professional development, a wide range of perspectives and approaches can flourish. Arguably, one of today#146;s most conspicuous speakers on issues of poverty and the design, education is how do you write a paper in essay, Dr. Ruby Payne, president of a company called #147;Aha Process, Inc.#148; and author of a self-published book titled A Framework for Understanding Poverty , currently in its fourth revised edition (2005). Payne has sold more than half a million copies of her book since 1996 as well as related workbook materials, and her organization conducts workshops and training sessions for tens of thousands of argument essay, educators, administrators, and word, other human-service professionals across the country and abroad. A principal thrust of argument, these activities is teaching people about poverty and working with poor children in oedipus complex, school settings. Payne#146;s remarkable popularity reflects growing concern about poverty and its effects on the design argument children#146;s educational experiences. As educators grapple with the challenge of meeting performance standards for all groups of students, districts have been actively seeking answers to of taking responsibility the problem of working with children in the design argument essay, poverty. Payne and her organization have been actively involved in these developments, providing professional development designed to explicitly address these issues. In this article, we examine the conceptual and empirical foundations of her work and conduct a critical analysis of descriptive case scenarios included in an accompanying workbook for teacher practice.

What viewpoints do Payne#146;s ideas about a paper form, poverty represent? And what recommendations are conveyed in these training sessions? Situating Payne#146;s argument within decades of the design, scholarship about poverty, we assess the extent to which it accurately reflects a contemporary, research-based comprehension of the issue. The fact that her characterization of poverty mirrors earlier #147;culture of poverty#148; theses and lacks recognition of social structural dynamics contributing to inequality could have significant implications for how educators ultimately come to view poverty and the children who experience it. Payne#146;s framework for understanding poverty. In the introduction of her book, Payne explains that her expertise on help math problems poverty resulted primarily from being married for over 30 years to the design essay her husband, Frank, who grew up in essay on the responsibility for your actions, #147;situational#148; (or temporary) poverty, but lived for several years with others who were in #147;generational#148; (or long-term) poverty. Argument Essay! As she spent time with his family and got to know #147;the many other players in hamlet and the oedipus, [their] neighborhood,#148; her personal observations led her to conclude that there were major differences between those in generational poverty and those in the middle class#151;the most important of which were not about money (2005, p. 1). These insights were confirmed in her mind after Payne spent six years as a principal in an affluent, Illinois elementary school and was able to further contrast the differences she witnessed between children in poverty, the middle class, and wealth.

Payne recalls several informal conversations she had with concerned colleagues about the growing disciplinary problems they were experiencing as more and more of their students came from the design argument essay, low-income families. She offered them her explanation of why these behaviors were occurring, and then word-of-mouth referrals from teachers, principals, district, and state officials launched her into a series of speaking engagements where she could more formally share her insights with other educational practitioners. Central to Payne#146;s analysis of poverty is the idea that there are #147;hidden rules#148; which distinguish the thinking, values, and behaviors of people in poverty from those who are middle class or wealthy. And because most schools operate from an implicitly middle-class perspective foreign to poor children, educators must first understand the class culture from which their students come and then teach them explicitly the essay on a hero, rules of the the design argument, middle class needed to function more successfully in term papers reform, schools and society. According to Payne, poverty is characterized not only by argument essay lack of financial resources, but also the extent to health care reform which individuals possess other resources such as emotional stability, mental skills, spiritual guidance, physical health and mobility, support systems, role models, and the design argument essay, knowledge of a group#146;s hidden rules (2005, p. 7).

These varied resources are essential to consider because, as Payne states, . Essay On A Hero! . . the reality is that financial resources, while extremely important, do not explain the differences in the success with which individuals leave poverty nor the reasons that many stay in poverty. The ability to leave poverty is more dependent upon other resources than it is upon the design essay, financial resources. (p. Help Solve Math! 8) Payne argues the cultivation of emotional resources is of utmost importance, defined as #147;being able to choose and control emotional responses, particularly to negative situations, without engaging in argument, self-destructive behavior. This is an hamlet and the complex essay, internal resource and shows itself through stamina, perseverance, and choices#148; (2005, p. 7).

The involvement of role models is critical, then, because #147;it is largely from the design argument essay, role models that [a] person learns how to live life emotionally#148; (2005, p. 9). How To Become A Ghostwriter Rap! Although all individuals have role models, Payne cautions, #147;The question is the essay, extent to which the role model is nurturing or appropriate#148; (2005, p. 9). Good role models and help math problems, support systems should be able to offer advice about and demonstrate a more desirable alternative than living in poverty. Being a teacher allows one quite naturally to serve as a role model or support to the design argument children in poverty. Payne explains, Even with the financial resources, not every individual who received those finances would choose to how to a ghostwriter live differently . . The Design! . But it is the essay on a hero, responsibility of educators and the design argument, others who work with the poor to teach the differences and skills/rules that will allow the individual to make the choice. (2005, p. 113) A teacher#146;s involvement is essay on a hero, essential since #147;many individuals stay in argument essay, poverty because they don#146;t know there is a choice#151;and if they do know that, have no one to teach them hidden rules or provide resources#148; (2005, p. 62).

Payne identifies education as: . . . the key to getting out of, and staying out of, generational poverty. Individuals leave poverty for a paper form one of four reasons: a goal or vision of argument, something they want to be or have; a situation that is so painful that anything would be better; someone who #147;sponsors#148; them (i.e., an educator or spouse or mentor or role model who shows them a different way or convinces them that they could live differently); or a specific talent or ability that provides an opportunity for them. Oedipus Essay! (p. The Design Argument Essay! 61) Given the #147;tremendous opportunities to influence some of the non-financial resources that make such a difference in students#146; lives#148; (2005, p. 25), Payne recommends that educators first learn to analyze the resources poor students and their families have before offering advice to improve their situation. To this end, the workbook that accompanies Payne#146;s main text presents fourteen different scenarios of poor children and their current situations for educators to practice evaluating. Payne does not offer any definite, correct answers for the exercises, but they do convey a fairly consistent view of the attitudes and behaviors presumably shared amongst those who are poor. It is term papers reform, useful, for this reason, to carefully examine the the design argument essay, descriptive case scenarios Payne provides in her effort to help educators better understand poverty, its effects on children, and its implications in school settings. What characteristics and circumstances constitute poverty?

As indicated earlier, money is help problems, one of argument, several resources included in Payne#146;s framework for understanding poverty, but she argues that it is of only essay on a hero slight to moderate importance compared to other factors. Argument! The logic of a position that seemingly disassociates one#146;s financial resources with one#146;s class status may initially seem perplexing. However, a closer examination of Payne#146;s descriptive scenarios depicting poor people#146;s lives helps to illuminate her overall view about how different resources function to maintain poverty, as well as her resulting recommendations. For example, in her main text, Payne differentiates between situational poverty , a temporary state caused by circumstances such as death, illness, divorce, and generational poverty , a state which endures for two generations or more (2005, p. 3). The importance of this distinction is linked to the prevailing attitudes she associates with each group#151; people in situational poverty are often too proud to accept charity, whereas people in generational poverty believe society owes them a living (2005, p. 47). Representing the mentality of situational poverty in Payne#146;s accompanying workbook meant for essay on a hero teacher evaluation is essay, Opie, a 12-year-old African American girl, and her mother, Oprah, a 32-year-old widow supporting a senile grandmother and unemployed uncle. Oprah works long hours as a domestic for a doctor, and although she is not paid very much, she takes public transportation and seems able to make ends meet. There is no mention of the family needing public aid, and in fact, Oprah is hoping to be able to save some money for future emergencies that might arise (1998, p. 16). Another example of situational poverty is Steve, a 17 year-old White male who was put out onto the streets by his alcoholic, abusive father.

At 16 he found a full-time job earning minimum wage to secure an apartment for himself and, later, to take care of his brother as well. Steve works hard and #147;all [he] has time to do is go to work, go to school, and sleep#148; (1998, p. 23). In both scenarios, the individuals strive to be self-sufficient through legitimate forms of employment and problems, persist in the design, an effort to improve their life circumstances. In contrast, though, the sense of term papers health reform, entitlement supposedly fostered in generational poverty more commonly leads to illegitimate means of argument, securing financial resources. For example, Juan is a six-year-old Hispanic boy who lives with his grandmother who cannot speak English, and solve problems, a 25-year-old uncle, Ramon. Juan#146;s father was killed in a gang-related shooting and his mother is in jail, so Ramon looks after Juan. In order to argument essay support the papers care reform, family, Ramon sells drugs with his gang and makes an average of $1,000 a week. Ramon does not expect to essay live past his thirtieth birthday because of how do in essay form, his dangerous lifestyle, but he continues leading his gang and plans to kill a rival gang member and then flee to Mexico for the design essay a while (1998, p. 18). A Paper In Essay Form! A similar situation is the design, discussed in the scenario about Geraldo, a 13-year-old Hispanic male who is a prominent gang member in his neighborhood. Geraldo remains involved with his gang as a #147;matter of pride,#148; and makes $4,000 in a week selling drugs, sharing it with 10 other members. Like Ramon, Geraldo anticipates he will be dead before he turns 25 and become a ghostwriter, therefore believes, #147;You might as well enjoy life and girls.#148; Ultimately, Geraldo admits, #147;. The Design! . . faithful is not in my vocabulary.

I#146;m only faithful to them streets#148; (1998, p. 22). The fatalistic views assumed by Ramon and Geraldo are just the opposite of what Payne describes as the essential emotional, mental, and spiritual resources required to escape poverty. Because Payne generally conceives of poverty#151;and staying in poverty#151;as at least partly a matter of choice, an individual must have the ability to identify and reason through various courses of action, particularly those necessitating deferred gratification and personal restraint. The scenario of Magnolia, a 16-year-old White girl in how to a ghostwriter, tenth grade who single-handedly takes care of the design argument essay, her eight siblings because her mother is neglectful and irresponsible, exemplifies a person who possesses these critical resources. Magnolia demonstrates her emotional resources by refusing to steal from others, even though her mother instructs her to do it so they can have food to how to become eat and #147;[she] can#146;t remember a time when [she wasn#146;t] hungry sometime during the week#148; (1998, p. The Design Argument Essay! 24). However, Magnolia#146;s commitment to how to become a ghostwriter rap caring for her siblings is clear as she sneaks the welfare check out of the mailbox to buy food for the family before her mother can waste it gratuitously on herself.

Magnolia gets Bs and Cs in school but aspires to be a teacher. Payne tells us that she could earn As if only there was time to do her homework and the design argument essay, maximize her mental resources. Magnolia, however, is an exceptional case in Payne#146;s workbook. Most of the scenarios depict people who lack emotional, mental, and spiritual resources. For example, Habib is a #147;likeable and easily persuaded#148; 18-year-old, African-American male whose one great attribute is that he is math, #147;one heck of a fighter#148; (1998, p. Argument Essay! 21). Problems! One day when he was sixteen, he returned home to find that his mother had been beaten by her latest boyfriend. After calling an ambulance for her, Habib went looking for the design argument essay her boyfriend but decided it might be a good idea to break into and rob a pawnshop instead. Responsibility! Payne suggests that this course of action represented Habib trying to resolve his anger, and argument essay, when he was caught, he also had a gun in his pocket. Another scenario portrays the lives of Tahiti, a 14-year-old girl of mixed African-American and Mexican parentage, and her best friend Theresa, a 14-year-old Hispanic girl. Essay On A Hero! Neither of the girls does well in school, and Tahiti#146;s family life is fraught with drinking and the design argument, abuse.

In order to give their lives meaning, these girls actively try to get pregnant so they can #147;have something of [their] own#148; (1998, p. 25). All of the people in Payne#146;s scenarios have physical resources, although they function differently for men and women. While men gain advantage from their ability to essay importance for your fight and willingness to utilize violence (as seen in the scenarios of Ramon, Geraldo, and Habib), Payne indicates that women can use their bodies and sex to elicit favors. The scenario of the design argument, John and Adele best illustrates the significance of a woman#146;s physical resources. Adele, a 29-year-old White, single mother of two children, was left by her unfaithful but educated and wealthy husband. Her ex-husband pays minimal child support and Adele works part-time despite being an alcoholic. When Adele#146;s car breaks down, she is hamlet and the, financially unable to have it fixed and may get fired if she cannot report to work the next day. Adele assesses the available choices and determines that one way to solve her problem is to invite the mechanic over for dinner. The mechanic later calls and the design essay, invites her out to dinner instead, mentioning that they might be able to work something out in terms of payment. Adele thinks, #147;It has been a long time since [I] have been out, and papers health care, he is good-looking and essay, seems like a nice man#148; (1998, p. You Write A Paper Form! 15). Payne suggests that Adele would likely benefit from having a support system for times of the design argument essay, need, and that Ramon, Geraldo, and Habib could use role models to teach them appropriate, less destructive behaviors.

The scenario of Wisteria and Eileen attests to the importance that Payne attributes to support from extended family. In this case, Wisteria, a 70-year-old woman on Social Security, provides a home for Eileen, her 10-year-old granddaughter who was abandoned by her drug-addicted, prostitute, and currently incarcerated mother. Wisteria only receives about $150 a week and is in declining health, but her willingness to take care of Eileen means that the child will not be placed in a foster home. Furthermore, Wisteria has accumulated modest financial resources and enlists support from the church where she has been a member for how do you write in essay 40 years (1998, p. 17). The church is a critical institution in Payne#146;s view, but it is unable to address the problems of poverty by essay itself. A church serves as a social support in the scenario about Maria and Noemi, a Hispanic mother-and-daughter pair from a devout Catholic family that receives food stamps but is otherwise quite loving and essay on a hero, intact.

What Payne suggests 10-year-old Maria learns from Noemi#146;s role-modeling, however, is that she should get married, have children, and stay home like her mother (1998, p. 19). Similar patterns of the design, early pregnancy are also perpetuated by essay on a hero the maternal example in the design, the scenario of Tijuana Checosovakia, a 14-year-old African-American girl who had her first child when she was 11 (1998, p. 20); Sally#146;s 15-year-old sister in the scenario of Sally and of taking, Sueann (1998, p. 10); and Vangie, an African-American woman who conceived her first child at 13 (1998, p. 12). Again, for Payne it is emotional and moral resources that count more than financial support. Even if the the design, individuals and families in her various scenarios have adequate material means of subsistence, it is their values and behavior that most critically determine their prospects for escaping poverty. Interestingly, the primary positive role models mentioned in Payne#146;s scenarios are educators. This is hardly surprising, given her involvement in professional development activities for teachers. Hamlet And The Complex! For instance, Magnolia#146;s aspiration to become a teacher (discussed earlier) was inspired by the kindness of her own fifth-grade teacher who provided a Thanksgiving meal for her hungry family. As a result, Magnolia believes that she could help kids too if she was a teacher. In the scenario about Steve (also discussed earlier), it is the design, a school counselor who persuades him to help solve problems stay in school and graduate even though he is exhausted trying to balance a full-time job and classes. The counselor expresses faith in the design essay, Steve#146;s ability to become learn, and the design argument essay, personally meets him at 7:00 in hamlet and the essay, the morning to provide algebra tutorials. Through these interactions with teachers and other school officials, Magnolia and Steve have role models who can serve as their #147;sponsors#148; out of poverty.

They can, in other words, finally be provided an opportunity to learn the essay, hidden rules of the middle class to do well in how to become, school and the design, become financially self-supporting, successful members of our society. Of course, these also are examples of papers reform, educators who are going beyond the general call of duty, working with students outside of the argument, normal workday and using their own resources rather than those of the school or district. What these individuals draw upon are emotional and importance responsibility, moral resources as well, and their examples in Payne#146;s scenarios reinforce the the design argument, emphasis that she places upon these attributes. In framing the social problem of poverty in such basic human terms, Payne adds considerable force to her arguments about its origins and the possibilities for its resolution. On the other hand, the reality of working with such students is term papers health reform, often considerably more complicated than her scenarios may suggest, and essay, poverty may not be as closely tied to morality and associated #147;hidden rules#148; as she seems to believe. A critique of Payne#146;s framework. Without doubt, the conceptual clarity and solve, apparent applicability of the design argument essay, Payne#146;s framework for understanding poverty are among its primary assets. Papers Care Reform! Yet, given the heated scholarly debates regarding poverty over the last several decades, her authoritative-sounding pronouncements about children#146;s socioeconomic status and their educational and the design, behavioral outcomes are rather remarkable.

This apparent certainty appeals to many people#146;s common-sense notions of how poverty functions and how it can be eliminated. It is important to note, however, that the underlying logic of Payne#146;s conception of hamlet oedipus complex essay, poverty is not well-supported by contemporary social science research, and the design argument, her straightforward explanations and how do you write form, conclusions may hold problematic implications for argument poor children and those educators who serve them. In the discussion that follows, we consider a number of potential criticisms of term care reform, Payne#146;s work, including her selective use of social science research to support her arguments about the impact of poverty on education and other outcomes for children in society. One problem in Payne#146;s framework of poverty is the extent to which she essentializes the values, behaviors, and orientations of those who are poor. Although Payne distinguishes between different circumstances of poverty, she routinely describes the poor in sweeping fashion as individuals who differ markedly from the design argument essay, others in the middle and wealthy classes. For example, Payne explains that poor people lack the ability to govern their own behavior which is necessary for functioning in the middle class (2005, p. 77). As a result, the scenarios discussed earlier in this article are intended to illustrate how #147;the line between what is legal and illegal is thin and often crossed#148; so that the essay on the importance of taking for your actions, poor #147;simply see jail as a part of life and not necessarily always bad#148; (2005, p. 22). Essay! Also, she maintains that the poor assume their life circumstances are inevitable, so money is papers health care, either shared or spent immediately.

Disciplinary action is argument, seen as being about penance and forgiveness rather than really changing negative behaviors; men value hard labor and oedipus complex essay, identify as #147;a lover#148; and #147;a fighter#148; with bars and work as their main social outlets; and women learn that #147;sex will bring in the design argument, money and favors. Values are important, but they don#146;t put food on the table#151;or bring relief from intense pressure#148; (2005, p. Help Math Word! 23#150;24). Payne paints provocative pictures, but they are usually variations on the design argument essay a single theme. Life in poor families is characterized by constant chatter and background noise from the TV which is almost always on; disorganization and clutter; matriarchal and extended family structures; and multiple internal feuds #147;with nearly everyone having multiple relationships, some legal and some not#148; (2005, p. 51#150;56). Such scenarios convey powerful images, and a ghostwriter, all but a couple of them depict poor people as engaging in behavior of the design, questionable moral character. Even if the main character in a story is of taking responsibility, a largely innocent student, she or he is argument essay, usually presented as contending with adults who have proven to be morally weak. Whether it is an out-of-work uncle or a father in jail, an unwed pregnant sister or a drunken mother, the math word problems, children in these stories are victims of the adults who have failed them.

While Payne presents the stories in a straightforward fashion to encourage analysis, they are ultimately morality tales inviting judgment from an audience of largely middle-class professionals. A second concern is that Payne#146;s essentialized portrayal of the poor and problems related to the design poverty can lead to misconceptions or contribute to popular stereotypes about people in poverty. As noted earlier, central to Payne#146;s analysis of poverty is the and the oedipus, idea that there are #147;hidden rules#148; or #147;mental models#148; which distinguish the essay, thinking and behavior of people who are poor from those who are middle class and wealthy. In identifying these characteristics, Payne appears to rely heavily on the work of Oscar Lewis (1968), Michael Harrington (1962), Richard Sennett (Sennett Cobb, 1973), and other writers from the 1960s and early 1970s who, to one degree or another, endorsed a #147;culture of poverty#148; thesis about behavioral differences between the poor and help solve problems, others. Payne herself uses this term sparingly, but throughout the the design essay, book she argues that individuals in generational poverty exhibit characteristics consistent with the culture of poverty thesis. As evident in the descriptive scenarios, the poor are generally depicted as having a weak work ethic, little sense of internal discipline or future orientation, and leading lives characterized to one extent or another by disorder and and the, violence. The Design Argument! In making these characterizations, Payne seems to be unaware of the many studies dating from the late 1960s that challenged the culture of poverty thesis, in many instances directly testing the extent to which traits such as these were more prevalent among the poor than other groups. By and large, these studies found that such characteristics were not more likely to be evident in poor individuals or households. Indeed, people in poverty valued work, saving money, behaving properly, maintaining stable families, and a number of other #147;middle-class#148; attributes as much as their counterparts in higher social and economic strata. These results, moreover, held across groups with experiences of differing duration in poverty and across racial and ethnic lines (Roach Gursslin, 1967; Irelan, Moles, O#146;Shea, 1969; Coward, Feagin, Williams, 1974; Davidson Gaitz, 1974; Abell Lyon, 1979; Carmon, 1985; Jones Luo, 1999).

To put the matter another way, this body of research suggests that many of the attitudes that Payne attributes to the poor are also evident to varying degrees among the non-poor, groups that Payne would describe as the #147;middle class#148; and term care, the #147;wealthy.#148; After all, there is considerable evidence that individuals in these groups have characteristics of the sort that Payne attributes only to the poor: a variable work ethic, inability to save money, and uncertainty in interpersonal relationships. Recent studies indicate that traditional middle-class values on a range of issues have shifted in the past several decades. The Design Argument! Divorce, for instance, is now widely seen as acceptable, a broad range of personal behavior is tolerated or accepted, and work judged to be demeaning is often spurned, even in the face of unemployment. Essay Of Taking For Your! (Thornton Young-DeMarco, 2001; Jaynes, 2000) Mainstream values of the sort Payne holds up as exemplary appear to be considerably less prevalent today than in the past, throughout all segments of the population. Much of the behavior Payne describes, consequently, is not exclusively a problem of the poor and may therefore reflect values that she incorrectly attributes to poverty. Argument! Middle-class or upper-class individuals, of course, are less likely to suffer as a result of such behaviors because, as Payne notes, having monetary resources makes the a paper, consequences of such attitudinal or behavioral characteristics considerably less dire.

However, a major problem in her interpretation is suggesting that there may be a causal force to these attributes. Argument Essay! While they may make it difficult for some to escape poverty under current social and economic conditions, there is little evidence that such traits are especially prevalent among the poor, and how to become rap, they do not explain why some people fall into poverty and others do not. Studies challenging the culture of poverty thesis have cast serious doubt on the proposition that a clearly distinguishable #147;culture of poverty#148; in argument essay, fact exists. By and large, it is of taking responsibility for your actions, a term that has fallen out of use in the social science literature today. The studies that Payne does reference offer little support for her formulation of #147;mental models#148; that distinguish the behavior of the poor. One study she cites a great deal is Susan Mayer#146;s (1997) book, What Money Can#146;t Buy . Mayer argues that #147;. . . activities, possessions and housing environments that are important to children#146;s outcomes are only moderately related to parental income#148; (p.

113). In other words, the poor do not lack in resources necessary for children to succeed, and middle-class status is hardly a guarantee of a child#146;s success. What matters are the #147;values#148; of parents, and Mayer (like many other researchers) offers scant evidence that the poor have different values than other groups. On the surface, of course, this point would appear to support Payne#146;s argument, and the design essay, it is no doubt for this reason that she cites Mayer#146;s work. But Mayer#146;s position is more complicated than this, and directly addresses the question of whether income is related to parenting practices, an term health care, issue at the core of essay, Payne#146;s argument. In examining this matter, Mayer reports that there is negligible difference between the poor and other families. After reviewing the evidence from survey data, she concludes, #147;These results provide little evidence that parents#146; income has a large influence on parenting practices. Nor do the results in this chapter suggest that parental income has a large effect on parents#146; psychological attributes other than their feelings of efficacy. And parental efficacy has only a moderate effect on children#146;s outcomes#148; (1997, p. 124). By and large, according to papers health Mayer, parenting practices and the values that inform them are generally unrelated to income. This is hardly a finding that provides support for Payne#146;s framework for the design essay understanding poverty, despite her use of Mayer#146;s book for confirmation of her theories.

Mayer does indicate that #147;some persistently poor parents are shiftless and neglectful,#148; adding that their households exhibit #147;neither the moral nor the material standards that most Americans believe children require#148; (1997, p. 151). But she also makes it clear that families falling into this category are only a part of the persistently poor, who also suffer from illness, depression, and other limitations quite separate from their moral predilections. This suggests that poor families of the essay on a hero, sort that Payne describes as reflecting #147;generational poverty#148; represent a modest proportion of the poor, perhaps less than a quarter and probably lower. Given these figures, it stands to reason that the argument, children in such families would be a rather small fraction of all children, possibly just 3 or 4 percent. As Mayer concludes, #147;poverty alone is papers health reform, not synonymous with incompetence,#148; and as the number of the design argument, families living in poverty rises, #147;the average poor person becomes more like the average middle-class person#148; (1997, p. 152). This too is an argument in sharp distinction from Payne#146;s, which suggests that the numbers of attitudinally deviant poor families are increasing (Payne, 2005, p. 61). Another book Payne cites a number of essay on a hero, times is a collection of argument, studies edited by Greg J. Duncan and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn (1997) titled, Consequences of Growing Up Poor . How Do You Write Form! Again, Payne appears to have been rather selective in choosing quotes from the design argument, this source, as the various studies provide little support for her analysis. In the chapter examining the how do you write a paper, link between income levels and the design essay, parenting practices, for instance, Hanson, McLanahan, and Thomson (1997) echo Mayer#146;s points described above, #147;We found that household income and debt are only weakly related to effective parenting. Consequently, differences in the levels of parenting do not account for much of the association between economic resources and children#146;s well being#148; (p. 219). While the importance of taking responsibility actions, researchers did find evidence that various approaches to parenting had different effects in poor and the design, non-poor households (with control and supervision being less important in the latter), this did not materially affect the how do you write a paper in essay, relationship between income and children#146;s outcomes.

In another study, Canadian researchers found little evidence of a relationship between poverty and behavioral problems in the schools (Pagani, Boulerice, Tremblay, 1997). These and similar conclusions throughout the book indicate that the relationship between poverty, the argument essay, values and behavior of parents, and the welfare of children are a good deal more complicated than Payne suggests. What is perhaps most problematic about Payne#146;s framework for solve math word understanding poverty is its underlying logic that suggests poor people have choices about argument, whether to remain in#151;or escape from#151;poverty. As illustrated in the scenarios described earlier, Payne argues that the poor may not realize they have a choice to live differently, and even if they do recognize their own agency, they may be reluctant to exercise it without the aid of a sponsor who can model the appropriate use of essay responsibility for your, emotional resources. Payne explains that in poverty,

There is a freedom of verbal expression, an appreciation of individual personality, a heightened and intense emotional experience, and a sensual, kinesthetic approach to life usually not found in the design argument essay, the middle class or among the educated. These patterns are so intertwined in the daily life of the poor that to have those cut off would be to lose a limb. Many choose not to live a different life. And for some, alcoholism, laziness, lack of motivation, drug addiction, etc., in effect make the choices for the individual. (2005, p. 113) As a result, Payne indicates that helping poor children develop self control requires both structure and and the oedipus complex essay, choice so that they can recognize what behaviors are expected of them, identify the consequences accompanying particular actions, and ultimately #147;emphasize that the individual always has a choice#151;to follow or not to follow the the design essay, expected behaviors#148; (2005, p. 78).

Emphasizing that emotional resources are the rap, most important factor in the design essay, the perpetuation of poverty implies it is the poor themselves who bear the greatest responsibility for their condition, despite the extensive research literature suggesting otherwise. Term Health Care Reform! For example, Payne overlooks the predominant social and economic causes of poverty highlighted in social science literature such as deindustrialization, discrimination, unequal educational resources, and socioeconomic segregation (Massey Denton, 1993; Wilson, 1996). These studies dispel prevalent beliefs that changing individuals#146; values and behavior can affect their social mobility, or that children in argument essay, poor and lower-class households have the same objective opportunities for inter-generational social mobility as children from more affluent families. Recent research on the state of the very poor in American society suggests that their social environment is considerably more influential than Payne#146;s book indicates. The Gatreaux project in Chicago, for instance, has demonstrated that moving families out of inner-city communities with highly concentrated poverty can have a significant effect on the life chances of children and how do a paper form, adults alike. Once relocated to middle-class neighborhoods, children performed better in school, adults found employment, and family prospects improved. (Kaufman Rosenbaum, 1992) This research casts considerable doubt on the #147;mental models#148; theory that Payne postulates in her book. The failure to consider this perspective is a major shortcoming of her analysis. Furthermore, although Payne#146;s reference to individuals in situational and generational poverty does not correspond to data categories on the census and are thus difficult to quantify exactly, the research literature on essay poverty indicates that the largest group of these children are racial/ethnic minorities (mostly African-American) living in central-city neighborhoods where local employment opportunities are severely restricted.

Payne, however, suggests that race is largely unrelated to you write poverty. The Design Argument! In doing so, she sidesteps the critical issue of systematic, historical patterns of discrimination and exploitation that have contributed to the persistence of essay on the importance of taking responsibility for your actions, widespread poverty in the United States. Here, too, she ignores the the design argument essay, very research upon which her book purportedly relies. A study cited by Payne reports that African-American families in in essay, 1980 were more than seven times more likely to experience #147;persistent#148; poverty (more than six years) than Whites. African-Americans also were more likely to live in a neighborhood where more than a fifth of the residents were persistently poor by the design about the same margin (Brooks-Gunn, Duncan, Maritato, 1997). Children in these families often live in environments where the effects of #147;concentrated poverty#148; are evident, a term employed by help word William Julius Wilson to argument describe to in essay describe the impact of deindustrialization and long-term unemployment on the design argument essay inner-city communities (Wilson, 1987, 1996). These statistics tell a different story about the relationship between poverty and race than Payne describes, particularly with respect to of taking responsibility for your the #147;persistent#148; poor. Meaningful efforts to essay educate poor children and work towards the elimination of poverty in society at essay on a hero, large necessitate a commitment to argument understanding and reforming the existing structure of socioeconomic stratification. Essay On A Hero! This entails a critical analysis of contemporary economic shifts and needs (Books, 2004; Kantor, 1999; Ranney, 1999; Wilson, 1987), as well as attention to the advantageous functioning of the system to particular groups of privileged people (Gans, 1995; Jencks, 1972). For example, although there is greater parity in amount of the design argument, education received by Blacks and Whites in the United States, this has not translated into more equal occupational success or earnings (Conley, 1999, p. 86). Even larger economic disparities can be captured when considering wealth rather than income between groups, as some social scientists have suggested.

Oliver and Shapiro (1997) explain, Wealth is money that is a paper form, not typically used to purchase milk, shoes, or other necessities. Sometimes it bails families out of financial and personal crises, but more often it is used to create opportunities, secure a desired stature and standard of living, or pass along a class status already obtained to a new generation. (p. The Design! 171) The measure of one#146;s wealth#151;including things such as inheritance, investments, and property#151;has the #147;particular attribute of quantifying the hamlet and the, social value of ideas or objects#148; (Conley, 1999, p. 144). Payne concludes that in conceptualizing poverty,

Naming the problem is the first step toward a solution, and the most important step, for if the problem is not named accurately the course of action based on that faulty assumption will only lead further and further from a solution. So naming problems accurately#151;making the correct diagnosis#151;is crucial because it is on those definitions that the theories of argument essay, change and program activities are based. How To A Ghostwriter Rap! (2005, p. 169) Yet, Payne#146;s own viewpoint is largely unsubstantiated in the design, current research literature. Through a detailed analysis of the descriptive scenarios Payne provides to you write a paper in essay form accompany her framework for understanding poverty, it is clear that the poor are portrayed rather monolithically in their values and behaviors, which generally correspond to the culture of poverty thesis of the the design argument, late 1960s and how do you write, early 1970s. In like fashion, then, Payne recommends that educators serve to the design argument essay inspire and model change so the poor know there is a more desirable way of living. If only the problem of poverty could be so simply diagnosed, then the remedy would be fairly straightforward. Yet Payne#146;s work may misinform well-intentioned efforts to educate poor children by locating the problem of poverty within the individual without regard to the larger social context in which they live and are expected to succeed.

The Payne phenomenon in perspective. Given the issues identified above, the influence of Dr. Ruby Payne presents something of term papers care reform, a puzzle. If her viewpoint is so heavily tilted toward a certain perspective and the research base for the design her work is so questionable, what explains the popularity of her book and the apparent success of her workshops? As suggested above, the clarity of her explanation for poverty and related issues, along with the confident tone of her narratives and recommendations, may explain part of the appeal. The fact that she purports to term papers care reform draw upon decades of academic research no doubt lends credibility to her enterprise and its publications. But it is also possible that a good deal of the interest her perspective draws from educators is rooted in their own middle-class conceptions about the poor and the causes of poverty. Most educators, after all, are unfamiliar with the the design essay, extensive research literature on poverty and its effects on children, and if Payne#146;s citations seem to support their own views about the poor, they would hardly be in a position to challenge the interpretation of research that Payne offers. If they are predisposed to believing that the poor are lazy and impulsive as well as unreliable and temperamental, they are more likely to agree with Payne#146;s analysis than to hamlet and the essay question it. The Design! In short, Payne may be popular simply because she echoes commonplace assumptions about why some individuals appear to succeed in American society while others do not.

As historian Michael Katz has noted, traditional views toward the poor have existed in the country for at least two-hundred years (Katz, 1986). In the past, observers of the poor distinguished between those considered #147;worthy#148; and #147;unworthy.#148; The difference was typically linked to personal rectitude, much like the distinctions that Payne notes in separating #147;situational#148; from and the, #147;generational#148; poverty. Her #147;mental models#148; conceptual framework and the scenarios she describes echo the ideas of middle-class welfare reformers from the past, for whom poverty was more a moral condition than a matter of economic status. Now, as then, children are depicted as victims of the problematic attitudes and behaviors their parents exhibit and deemed highly susceptible to inheriting the the design argument essay, same dysfunctional worldviews. While this may elicit sympathy and concern for students who live in poverty, and perhaps cause teachers to how to a ghostwriter rap devote more time and attention to their needs, it is unlikely to create a sound, research-based comprehension of the problems presented by poverty and the best ways to address them. Because of this, it seems unlikely that Payne#146;s framework will lead to meaningful, long-term change in the circumstances of poor children#146;s lives and the ability of schools to work with them. Ultimately, it is necessary to consider whether the apparent success of essay, Ruby Payne and her organization represents a failure on the part of teacher educators and the many social science researchers who have addressed the connections between poverty and schooling over the past several decades. After all, if thousands of professional educators have been misinformed to help solve word problems one extent or another by Payne#146;s analytical framework, it is at least partly because the training they received in colleges and universities did not prepare them to critically assess its problems.

If teachers and principals lack an understanding about how poverty and social class affect children#146;s education, it may be because their own professional education provided little information or theory for them to draw upon for this purpose. At the same time, researchers focusing on these issues have not contributed to the development of successful in-service education programs that acknowledge the realities and needs of teachers and other education professionals in the classroom. Ruby Payne has thus filled a critical vacuum in the design essay, the field. This, too, explains some of her success. Where others have been uninterested or perhaps unable to help teachers understand just how poverty and how to a ghostwriter rap, education are related, Payne and her collaborators have been quite willing to step into the breach. Perhaps it is time for the research and teacher education community to take up the challenge of poverty and the design essay, begin to engage the questions that Ruby Payne has addressed so actively for the past decade or so. This is not an easy undertaking since the links between poverty and schooling are far from fully understood. Help Math! As a number of studies have noted, the particular mechanisms that account for why some individuals and the design argument, families end up in poverty and remain there for essay on a hero any length of the design argument, time are still poorly comprehended (Sawhill, 1988).

Quantitative studies using large national or even local databases, despite their many important contributions, are unlikely to provide definitive answers. As the authors of a chapter on #147;intergenerational transmission of poverty#148; in the Duncan and Brooks-Gunn volume note, #147;While we know that growing up poor reduces children#146;s economic mobility, these analyses tell us little about why#148; (Corcoran Adams, 1997, p. 514). In their concluding chapter, Duncan and Brooks-Gunn refer to the absence of strong relationships between parental income and school performance in quantitative studies as an essay on the, #147;enigma#148; (Duncan Brooks-Gunn, 1997, p. 603). More fine-grained analyses of the effect of schooling and development of children living in essay, poverty are needed before answers to these questions can be generated. While teachers and hamlet essay, schools do have an important role in addressing issues of educational opportunity and the design argument essay, equity for poor children, much additional research will be necessary before effective programs of professional assistance for them can or should be undertaken. Ruby Payne#146;s program, while doubtless well intentioned, is not based on a sound or thorough understanding of poverty and its causes.

However, if her efforts to address the problems, difficulties educators face in working with poor children generates increased research attention and a resolution to better connect researchers#146; findings with educators#146; instructional concerns, then perhaps her work will turn out to have been significant indeed. Abell, T., Lyon, L. (1979). Argument Essay! Do the differences make a difference? An empirical evaluation of the culture of poverty in the United States. American Ethnologist, 6 (3), 602#150;621. Books, S. (2004) Poverty and schooling in the U.S.: Contexts and consequences. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Brady, D. (2003). Rethinking the sociological measurement of poverty. Social Forces , 81 (3), 715­#150;752.

Brooks-Gunn, J., Duncan, G. J., Maritato, N. (1997) Poor families, poor outcomes: The well being of children and youth. How To Become! In G. J. Duncan J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of growing up poor (pp. 1#150;17). New York, NY: Russell Sage. Carmon, N. (1985). Argument Essay! Poverty and culture: Empirical evidence and implications for how to a ghostwriter public policy. The Design Argument Essay! Sociological Perspectives, 28 (4), 403#150;417. Conley, D. (1999). Being black, living in the red: Race, wealth, and social policy in America . Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Corcoran, M. Adams, T. (1997). Race, sex and the intergenerational transmission of help word problems, poverty. In G. J. The Design Argument Essay! Duncan J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of growing up poor (pp. 461#150;517). Hamlet Oedipus Complex Essay! New York, NY: Russell Sage. Coward, B. E., Feagin, J. Argument! R., Williams, Jr., J. A. (1974). The culture of poverty debate: Some additional data. Social Problems , 21 (5), 621#150;634.

Davidson, C. Gaitz, C. M. (1974). In Essay! Are the poor different? A comparison of work behavior and attitudes among the urban poor and nonpoor. Social Problems , 22 (2), 229#150;245. Duncan, G. J., Brooks-Gunn, J. (1997). Income effects across the life span: Integration and the design argument, interpretation. In G. J. Duncan J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of growing up poor (pp. Complex Essay! 596#150;610). New York, NY: Russell Sage. Gans, H. J. (1995).

The war against the design the poor: The underclass and antipoverty policy . You Write! New York, NY: Basic Books. Hanson, T. L., McLanahan, S., Thomson, E. (1997). The Design Argument Essay! Economic resources, parental practices, and children#146;s well-being. In G. J. Duncan J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of solve word, growing up poor (pp. 190#150;238). New York, NY: Russell Sage. Harrington, M. (1962).

The other America: Poverty in the United States . New York, NY: Macmillan. Hernandez, D. J. (1997). Poverty trends. In G. Argument! J. Duncan J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of solve word, growing up poor (pp.18#150;34). New York, NY: Russell Sage.

Irelan, L. M., Moles, O. C., O'Shea, R. The Design Essay! M. (1969). Ethnicity, poverty, and selected attitudes: A test of the #147;culture of poverty#148; hypothesis. Social Forces, 47 (4), 405#150;413. Jaynes, G. D. (2000). Identity and economic performance. Essay On The Importance Responsibility For Your Actions! The Annals of the American Academy of Political and argument essay, Social Science , 568 (3), 128#150;139. Jencks, C. (1972). Inequality: A reassessment of the effect of family and schooling in America . New York, NY: Basic Books. Jones, R. K., Luo, Y. (1999). The culture of term papers, poverty and African-American culture: An empirical assessment. Sociological Perspectives , 42 (3), 439#150;458.

Kantor, H. (1999). Race, education, and joblessness in the design essay, the inner city, 1970­#150;1990. The Urban Review , 31 (3), 225#150;242. Katz, M. B. (1986). Help Solve! In the shadow of the poorhouse: A social history of welfare in America. New York, NY: Basic Books. Lewis, O. (1968). A study of slum culture: Backgrounds for La Vida . New York, NY: Random House. Massey, D. S., Denton, N. A. Argument Essay! (1993). Oedipus Complex! American apartheid: Segregation and the making of the underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Mayer, S. The Design Essay! (1997). What money can't buy: Family income and children's life chances. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Oliver, M. L., Shapiro, T. M. (1997). Black wealth/white wealth: A new perspective on racial inequality . New York, NY: Routledge. Pagani, L., Boulerice, B. Tremblay, R. (1997). The influence of poverty on children#146;s classroom placement and behavior problems. In G. J. Duncan J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of growing up poor (pp. 311#150;339).

New York, NY: Russell Sage. Payne, Ruby K. (1996). A framework for understanding poverty: Modules 1#150;7 workbook . Highlands, TX: aha! Process, Inc. Payne, Ruby K. (2005). A framework for understanding poverty . Highlands, TX: aha! Process, Inc. Ranney, D. Solve Problems! C. (1999). Class, race, gender, and poverty: A critique of some contemporary theories.

In L. Kushnick J. Jennings (Eds.), A new introduction to poverty: The role of race, power, and politics (pp. 39#150;56). New York, NY: New York University Press. Roach, J. The Design Essay! L., Gursslin, O. R. (1967). An evaluation of the concept #148;culture of poverty#148;. Social Forces , 45 (3), 383#150;392. Sawhill, I. V. (1988). Poverty in the U.S.: Why is it so persistent? Journal of Economic Literature, 26 (3), 1073#150;1119.

Sennett, R., Cobb, J. (1973). The hidden injuries of essay on a hero, class. New York, NY: Vintage Books. Thornton, A., Young-DeMarco, L. (2001). Four decades of trends in attitudes toward family issues in the United States: The 1960s through the 1990s. Journal of Marriage and the Family , 63 (4), 1009#150;1037. Wilson, W. J. (1987). The truly disadvantaged: The inner city, the underclass, and argument essay, public policy . Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Wilson, W. J. (1996). When work disappears: The world of the new urban poor . New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf. Zeichner, K. Essay On A Hero! M. (2003).

The adequacies and inadequacies of three current strategies to the design argument essay recruit, prepare, and become, retain the essay, best teachers for essay on the importance responsibility for your actions all students. Argument Essay! Teachers College Record , 105 (3), 490#150;519. ID Number: 12596, Date Accessed: 10/4/2017 7:07:00 AM. University of Kansas. JENNIFER C. NG is an assistant professor in the School of Education at importance responsibility for your actions, the University of Kansas. The Design! Her primary research interests include the socialization of beginning teachers in urban schools, as well as such multicultural issues as race, class, and gender. Her recent publications have appeared in you write a paper, Educational Studies and Education and Urban Society. University of Kansas.

JOHN L. The Design! RURY is a professor of education at the University of Kansas. His area of specialization is the history of American education, with special reference to problems of solve word, inequality and discrimination in schooling.

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I’m a hard worker… (but so is everyone else!) Surefire Techniques to the design argument essay a Successful Job Interview. In my job-seeking consultancy, job seekers overwhelmingly feel the job interview is the most difficult, anxiety-filled and mysterious part of the complex, job seeking process. “How do I make myself stand out?” “How do I talk about myself without bragging?” “What are employers REALLY looking for during the job interview?” #8220;I feel powerless at an interview and don#8217;t feel I have control of the design argument, my answers.#8221; When you think about term papers health, it, job interviews are a combination of a test of knowledge, background, expertise and skills, as well as a way for employers to get a feeling for the design argument essay, how your personality would fit in the culture of the company. As a matter of fact, in the final job interview, each of the finalists for the position could theoretically perform the hamlet and the complex, job: their resumes have been checked, their references called and all have proven they have the pre-requisite backgrounds and the design argument essay, qualifications for the position; but only one of those finalists will get the job offer! In my experience, job seekers who get the term papers health care reform, job offer are able to turn a one-sided interview into#8230; a two-way conversation. And that is a very different type of interaction. A conversation divides the power of the discussion and the job seeker now has the ability to lead the discussion down the path THEY want it to the design go.

Using techniques we#8217;ll discuss further, a job seeker who can turn an interview into a paper in essay form, a conversation will allow themselves to create a level of imagination in the interviewer#8217;s mind about how their skills, background, experiences, accomplishments, knowledge and personality would be the best fit not only for essay, the job but for a paper in essay, the culture of the company. How do you prepare for a job interview to secure the job offer? How do you differentiate yourself in the interview? How do you turn an interview into a conversation and create the imagination in argument essay, the interviewer#8217;s mind that you’d be a good ‘fit’ within the culture of the a paper in essay, company or the department? Anticipate the most commonly asked interview questions . Argument? First off, anticipate and practice your answers to the most commonly asked questions in a job interview. Here are several you’ll most likely get in essay on the importance of taking responsibility for your, interview: So, can tell me about yourself? Why do you want to work here? Why are you leaving your current (or why did you leave your last) job?

What skills do you bring to this job? If your former boss/supervisor/former colleagues/employees were here today, what would they say about you? Tell me about one of the the design essay, proudest accomplishments/projects at a previous job. Essay On A Hero? What is argument a weakness of yours? What is one thing you believe differentiates you from other candidates for this position? Sit down with a friend and have them ask you these questions and practice responding out loud. On The Responsibility For Your? Don#8217;t forget to smile, show passion and enthusiasm, and the design, look people in the eye as you respond. Decipher the job posting to prepare for specific questions related to the job . Hamlet? While you are considering your answers to these questions, go back to the original job description and review the qualifications, the job description and any other knowledge you may have ascertained that is germane to argument essay the job, the company, the on the of taking responsibility actions, culture or the essay, department. It#8217;s pretty easy to pick out the 4-5 different areas related to the job you#8217;ll be asked about. What are the problems you will be required to solve?

What are the goals of the company and the department? What specific skills and experiences do you have that are tied to the job? What about this job makes you believe you’d be a good fit? These are also areas you#8217;ll be asked about in the interview. As you are reviewing this information, start to formulate in your mind the health care, things that connect your background, skills, previous jobs, accomplishments, levels of expertise and knowledge and come up with a short list of things that you want to get across during the argument, interview. Called #8220;the rule of three,#8221; these are the term care, top three things you want to get across in the design argument, the interview. You should actually memorize and work to stitch these three things into the answers you give during the interview. For example: Specific examples of what differentiates you from others. Sorry, but ‘hard worker’ ‘highly organized’ or ‘able to multi-task’ are not relevant differentiators unless you back it up with specific examples demonstrating your hard work. Specific examples of my best work that is relevant.

Be prepared to tell stories about previous work accomplishments that connects your skills, experience and expertise to and the oedipus complex the job you are applying. Argument Essay? Make sure these stories demonstrate the math word problems, challenge, the the design argument, execution and the results. If you have quantifiable analytics (we increase sales by 35%; our click-through rates rose by 50%) use them to demonstrate the relation to your work and complex essay, the result of your success. Specific examples of how I add value to your organization. How are you going to hit the ground running?

What knowledge, relationships, skills related to the company’s industry will be valuable to them? What specific skills do you have that will help them solve the problem this position is tied to? There are certainly other things you might want to get across depending on the design argument, the position itself, and it is up to you, the essay on a hero, job seeker, to argument determine what these things are, but by preparing yourself this way, you’ll see that it is much easier to feel in control of your answers throughout the interview. How do you weave these things into papers health, the answers to the interview questions? An important interview technique is “bridging.” Bridging is a powerful means for taking charge of and the design argument, controlling an interview. The goal of an word problems, interview is to focus the interviewer on argument essay, a few key messages that are true, accurate, clear, concise, brief, and memorable.

If done well, bridging significantly increases the probability that your key messages will get across. By using bridging techniques, you can re-focus or re-direct the interview to on the of taking responsibility the points that are most important, relevant and critical to YOU. Remember, you want to establish your credibility as the subject matter expert and bridging helps you to do this. Here are some bridging statements you should consider practicing in anticipation of your answers to interview questions. The Design Argument? These statements help you to direct your answers to the things that YOU want to get across during an interview: “Great question. I had a similar experience at my last job and here’s how I managed it#8230;#8221; “That’s a terrific question. Here’s what my experience has taught me#8230;” “That is an essay on a hero, important issue that is argument tied to oedipus complex my strengths (expertise, past job)#8230;” “My last boss appreciated my experience in this area#8230;” “A tough decision I had to make surrounding this issue was when#8230;” “I’m recognized as an expert at#8230; here’s why#8230;” “There were a few different times in my career that gave me this experience#8230;” “My experience is tied to the challenges of your industry. Here’s how#8230;” “Based on the design argument essay, your organization’s goals, my experience can be helpful in that#8230;” “And that reminds me of a time at on the of taking for your my last job#8230;” “My employees appreciated that I could see the the design argument essay, big picture surrounding this challenge#8230;” Bottom line: Very few people are natural interview subjects and most job seekers feel powerless in an interview.

Interviewing requires anticipating questions, practicing answers and understanding strategies and techniques that allows you to be able to direct the interview to your strengths and establish you as the credible expert. When approached this way, the interview becomes less overwhelming and complex essay, more manageable and gives you the argument, power to control your answers and to lead the become, direction of the interview in your favor. For job seekers, modesty is over-rated, but confidence never goes out of style. I was in the park with my young kids the other day and heard a conversation between a child, his mother and one of his mom’s friends. “David, how have you been?” “I’ve been great! I play baseball now!” “How’s that going?” “Terrific! In my last game, I had three hits and the design argument, a homerun!

I also pitched and got four strikeouts! My coach named me the player of the game!” “Now Davey! You shouldn’t brag! Remember, there were other kids on that team that helped win the game too!” Everyone probably remembers a conversation like this from their own childhood. Ever since we were kids we’ve been reminded that it is impolite to brag, take all the hamlet and the essay, credit or boast about our accomplishments. In my job seeking consultancy the most difficult question to answer is, “So, can you tell me about yourself?” Our awkwardness in taking ownership for our career accomplishments is argument also often reflected in resumes and cover letters. So here’s the deal, job seekers: Your ‘aw-shucks’ modesty is not endearing; it is hamlet and the oedipus essay hurting your chances of the design argument, getting a job! Employers will not correctly guess what your strengths are nor will they safely assume that your skills and accomplishments are a good fit for the job you are applying.

The only way others will know how your hard work, education and background is a paper tied to your success is when you TELL THEM. The only way your future employer will know that you have the best skill sets, the most relevant experience and the differentiators that set you apart from your competition is when you make these things crystal clear in every touch point of the job application process. Argument? So, how do you this? The number one strategy of the hamlet essay, successful job seekers I’ve interviewed is a focused, red-hot confidence. Confidence is not bragging nor is it boasting. The Design? It’s simply and hamlet complex, directly stating and describing your very real accomplishments. Start with your resume. If you are using ‘wimp’ or ‘fluff’ words and essay, phrases like #8220;Coordinated,#8221; #8220;Helped,#8221; #8220;Highly talented,#8221; #8220;Motivated,#8221; or #8220;Hard working,#8221; your resume will most likely not be seriously considered. If you describe yourself using results-oriented words such as #8220;Senior level,#8221; #8220;Expert in#8230;.,#8221; #8220;Led,#8221; #8220;Managed,#8221; #8220;Created,#8221; followed by result-oriented accomplishments, a recruiter will put your resume on the top of the pile. In addition, if you have quantifiable results use these results to emphasize your accomplishments. For example, #8220;increased sales by complex essay 30%,#8221; #8220;Improved customer satisfaction by essay 25%,#8221; #8220;Increased website traffic by 25%,#8221; #8220;Increased revenue by $25 million in one quarter.#8221; Lastly, if you are having a hard time talking about yourself in an interview or feel awkward taking credit for your success, ask yourself the following question, #8220;What is your proudest career accomplishment?#8221; Was it a project?

Was it something you did to earn a promotion? Was it an accomplishment that relied on hamlet, all of argument essay, your skills, expertise and how to a ghostwriter, integrity? What was required of you to be successful? What part of argument, your background — your education, your experience, your intuition — did you call on to be successful? Did you have to inspire others? Did you have convince your boss? How did you measure the results of your accomplishment? When you start thinking about the things in help solve word, your career that have made you successful, you start to understand and the design argument essay, recognize that describing your successes is NOT bragging, it is a ghostwriter rap simply taking ownership of all of the things that make you, YOU! That is something every employer wants to understand — what makes you tick? What are the things that made you successful in the past that are going to make you successful at our organization? Bottom line?

Confidence means not being afraid to take ownership for your successful career. It means providing a deliberate and detailed explanation of how your talents and skills, your accomplishments, your promotions, your leadership and your results are tied to argument essay the job your are applying and how those things are valuable to you write a paper in essay your future employer. Let#8217;s cut to the chase: What do you want to do? So often, I get calls from the design essay, job seekers who have been at the job search for a while. They are frustrated because after months of sending out resume after resume, they are still not getting any traction. There are few interviews and they don#8217;t seem any closer to landing a job. Term Health Reform? A common misconception in job seeking is that the argument, first thing you should do when looking for a job is to write a resume.

After studying the habits of hundreds of on the importance of taking responsibility, successful job seekers, it is the design essay clear that resumes, while important, are not the solve problems, first strategy in beginning your job search. A typical conversation will go something like this: ME: #8220;So you#8217;ve been at it for a while, but you are frustrated with your job search. The Design Argument Essay? What do you want to do?#8221; Job seeker: #8220;Well, my background is in marketing, but I#8217;ve got some skills in graphic design and worked on trade show management as well and I#8217;ve been looking at job postings that match these skills.#8221; ME: #8220;Yes, your background is interesting, but WHAT DO YOU WANT TO DO?#8221; Job seeker: #8220;Well, maybe that#8217;s my problem, I am applying for a lot of how do you write, jobs that I think match my skills and argument essay, experiences. I#8217;m willing to do anything that is how do you write a paper connected to those.#8221; And so on and so on#8230; Usually the resume of this type of the design argument, job seeker is pretty jumbled; a hodge-podge of skills and talents mixed together with some general qualities, but no laser focused definition of a.) what type of position best fits their background and b.) a complete lack of relevance to the company, the industry or the position they are applying for. I know the question, #8220;What do you want to oedipus complex essay do?#8221; might seem intimidating or a little scary. There are a lot of different things that could (and should!) go into answering that question. But taking the time to really dig deep and consider your answer to that question can be really helpful in clarifying and defining your job search focus. Usually, the the design essay, question is how do a paper in essay more easily answered with an examination of the design, your core values and what that means to you in your career and the jobs and companies you are considering applying to. What makes you tick? What makes you fulfilled in how do you write a paper form, your career? What are the things that you rank as being most important when you are thinking about a new job?

Is it money? Is it the workplace culture? Is it the ability to make a difference or feel as if your job is giving you the opportunity to thrive and grow? What about the positions you#8217;ve held in your career in the past? What were the elements of jobs that you really enjoyed?

What about the companies you worked for that drove you crazy? What were the things there that you DON#8217;T want to repeat in a new company? Think about it: These are critical things you need to consider before you just start blasting off resumes! Your values will (and should!) be represented in every communication touch point you have with a potential new employer. I#8217;ve created a short series of questions that can help get you started. Argument Essay? Answering these questions might get you to consider re-writing your resume, which can be a good thing! Remember, your resume is how do you write a paper form YOUR ADVERTISEMENT to employers and it needs to define what it is that you want to do and how your background is connected to that goal. If you are feeling insecure about your resume, I highly recommend that you have your resume written by the design argument essay a professional resume writer. It#8217;s an important investment in your job search. I#8217;ll be writing more about that in the coming weeks. But in the meantime, try answering the following questions: 2.) What do you value most about how to become, work? b. The Design? Job duties (what you do) __. c. Help Solve Math Word? Ethical company __. d. Like the people you work with __. e. Work/Life balance __.

g. Driving distance to work __. h. Opportunity to be promoted __. The Design Argument Essay? i. A Ghostwriter? Respect your boss __. 4.) In 500 words or less, describe your career to argument essay date. 5.) What technical skills do you possess? What do you consider yourself to be an term papers care reform, expert at? (“Hard worker” is not a skill it#8217;s an expectation.) 6.) What positive work qualities do you possess? If your last boss was describing you, what would they say? 7.) In 500 words or less, describe a few successful accomplishments in your career (projects, promotions, examples of success, etc.) that you are really proud of. (Think of these as case studies: Describe how you succeeded – what type of hard work was involved? How did you inspire others to follow you? Was leadership involved? Did you have to convince your boss/superiors? What were the the design argument essay, challenges? How did you measure the essay on a hero, success?) Looking for a job?

Before you apply, read this. After you#8217;ve scanned the list and found the position(s) you want to essay apply for, here are some tips on what to do next: 1.) Before you apply, determine that you#8217;re qualified for the job. A good rule of thumb is to apply for on the importance of taking responsibility actions, a job where you match 75% or higher of the key job qualifications. Measure your strengths based on what the job requires in argument, terms of help solve math, background, education, job responsibilities and the design argument, other key criteria. 2.) Look for become a ghostwriter, the clues. Each job posting provides you with clues to what the company believes are the key areas they will be ranking candidates to determine if they will be granted an the design, interview. Usually, there are 4-5 critical phrases in the job posting that will help you to understand what the company is looking for. Based on how do form, these phrases, customize each resume and the design argument, cover letter to help solve math word show how your relevant background and the design argument, skills make you the ideal candidate for the position. You can never assume that someone will connect the dots you have to be specific and essay on a hero, clear in showing the the design, recruiter who will be reviewing your resume why you are the how do you write a paper form, ideal candidate for the job.

3.) Research the company. The more you know about the company — its business, its industry, its competitors, its culture, its leadership, values and mission, the essay, more you can connect your background to prove it is a good fit. This will be helpful throughout the process, from writing your resume all the way to your final job interview. 4.) Apply quickly. Don#8217;t wait until the deadline to how do you write a paper form get your resume in. The Design Argument? Recruiters tell us over and over that due to the amount of resumes they receive, often they will stop accepting resumes after they have received #8216;enough#8217;; and that means you have to get your resume in quickly to on the of taking responsibility for your actions make sure it is seen and considered by the HR recruiter. Essay? 5.) Have a friend review the job posting and term, your resume you are about to send in. Often a second pair of the design, eyes will catch typos as well as give a constructive review of whether you are representing yourself in the best way possible in how to a ghostwriter rap, relation to the job for which you#8217;re applying. The Design Essay? 6.) Follow up. If you have applied but not heard back after two weeks time, call the company and make sure your resume was received and ask about the hiring process. Companies are known for not responding, so take action and find out where you stand.

Continued good luck in help math word problems, your job search! Confidence. The one nonnegotiable quality of argument, successful job seekers. It happened again. I was talking to a job seeker last week and a paper, the conversation went something like this: #8220;So, can you tell me the types of the design argument essay, challenges you are having with your job search?#8221; #8220;Well, I#8217;m not sure if my resume is any good. Many of the you write a paper in essay, jobs I apply to, I feel over qualified, but sometimes I apply to jobs where I#8217;m under qualified. I used to feel as if I was confident in interviews, but now, I#8217;m really crappy at them. Sometimes with the jobs I apply for I think I#8217;m not old enough and other times I think I#8217;m not young enough. I#8217;ve changed my resume a lot so people can#8217;t tell how old I am when they read it. I#8217;ve been applying for jobs where I think have the right skill set, but sometimes it#8217;s a stretch. I#8217;m definitely not getting enough calls back for interviews.#8221; #8220;OK.

Can you tell me why someone should hire you? What skills do you have that would add value to a company?#8221; #8220;I#8217;m hard working. I can juggle a lot of things at once I consider myself a multi-tasker. I#8217;m easy to get along with.#8221; Now before we go any further, please recognize, I#8217;m not judging this person. Job seeking is the design essay hard. There are a lot of common job seeking traps that job seekers fall into. This particular job seeker, a mid-level financial management professional, had fallen into the #8216;stinking thinking#8217; job seeker trap.

The anxiety of the job search had completely disconnected them from all of the talent, accomplishments, skills, expertise and experience that makes them employable. Their head was filled with negative self talk (or stinking thinking) and they had completely veered away from the help solve math word problems, sweet spot of essay, self-confidence that could easily persuade an employer of the value they could add to their organization. Who had told them their resume stunk? That they were too old (or too young)? At what point had the and the complex essay, decided they were crappy at interviews? The fact is, no one had told them any of these things. The common types of the design essay, rejection an average job seeker gets in a job hunt had taken its toll and had created an imbalance between negative and positive. In other words, they could describe more reasons as to why they believe they weren#8217;t getting hired than reasons as to a ghostwriter why they believe they should be hired.

Confidence and belief in who you are and what you have to offer is the first and essay, most valuable element of finding a new job. It is the consistent thread that weaves together your resume, your cover letter and every discussion you have with a potential employer. It defines you. Confidence explains how you got to where you are in your career; it is the narrative that describes how your background is how do a paper in essay form connected to the design argument essay your passion for what you do and how your passion has resulted in meaningful accomplishments. Job seekers without absolute, red-hot confidence flounder.

They tend to shotgun dozens of resumes to dozens of job postings and cross their fingers that someone will call them back. They lack focus about how do you write a paper in essay form, how their skills, experience and accomplishments are connected to relevant jobs that match their backgrounds. They have a difficult time answering even the argument, most soft ball of questions that would allow them to tie their previous work experience to the jobs they are applying. Confidence is not bragging. It is on the for your actions not boastful or arrogant.

Confidence is being able to clearly demonstrate on your resume and in your cover letters how your background fits the requirements of a job and the design, how specific experiences and become a ghostwriter, accomplishments add value to argument essay the position your are applying for. Want to capture your mojo? Become the essay on a hero, king of confidence? Here are a few tips. The Design Essay? Write down your skills on how do, a piece of paper. Be very specific: the skills that were required to do your previous jobs.

For example: If you were a supervisor, what skills were involved in that? If you were a marketing manager, what skills helped you to be successful? Get used to essay talking about your skills and start telling stories that describe your skills in action. If you don’t consider yourself a good storyteller consider this question: What are some of your proudest accomplishments at how do a paper in essay your previous jobs? Why were you proud? What skills were required to the design essay be successful? What did you accomplish? How did your accomplishments inspire others?

What were the results of how to become, your accomplishments? Recognize false skill phrases. Resist the the design argument, temptation to says the words, “I’m a hard worker,” or “I’m easy to get along with,” or “I’m a multi-tasker.” These are not skills, they are expectations of everyone who is you write a paper in essay form applying for the same job! If you feel the need to argument essay say these things, back them up with specific stories that are tied to the job you are applying. For example, “I’m a hard worker, let me explain how….” or, “One of the things my previous boss liked about me was my ability to essay on a hero juggle a lot of different things at the same time, for example….” You have to describe what these often over-used descriptors mean and the design argument, how they are tied to the argument you are making about why you are the best candidate. Take a stab at writing your own ideal job description. What type of job is it?

What would it look like? What job requirements would fit you best? What are the qualifications required that are a match for help word problems, you? How would your ideal job description match your own passions, values and skills? The bottom line is that we all have unique, valuable and employable skills that define who we are.

The most successful strategy to a getting job offer starts with you defining and believing with all of your might, the elements that make you a unique and argument, valuable asset to an employer.

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Teleological Argument for the Existence of God essays

english term papers Writing a Paper in English Corpus Linguistics 1. By Stig Johansson and Hilde Hasselgrd. A term paper (' semesteroppgave ') is an exercise in linguistic method. The object is to show that you can: define a research question account for your choice of argument, theory and method select and analyse a limited material conduct a theoretical discussion of linguistic problems in English use secondary sources in a critical way. If you choose your topic wisely, you may also make a contribution to English linguistics.

Your teacher may suggest possible topics that relate to the course you are taking. You can also propose a topic yourself or expand on one of the tasks you’ve been given during the course. Another possibility is to carry out a study similar to one that you have read about in form, the course syllabus. It is important to the design argument, be realistic and limit the topic, so that you can finish your paper within a reasonable period of how do you write form, time and write it up within the stated 10 standard pages. Argument? Contact your teacher at an early stage to draw up a plan for your paper.

The topic will often have to be restricted and modified as you go along. In choosing your topic and defining your research question, it may be useful to ask yourself the following questions: Will it be possible to essay importance responsibility for your actions, find corpus material (or texts) that can help you answer the argument research question? Will it be possible to work through the project in the limited time that you have available? Do you know what else has been written on help solve the topic?

Your paper should discuss some primary material and should not just be a review based on secondary sources. Essay? Primary material is the help solve math problems actual linguistic data you write about, such as written texts, transcriptions of spoken material, tape recordings, or elicited responses from argument, native speakers. Solve Math Problems? For a Corpus Linguistics course, you will be expected to get your primary material from a corpus. Secondary material is what has been written previously on the design the topic. 3.1 Secondary material.

Start by making a general survey of a paper form, secondary material. Essay? This will show you what has been done before (which means that you do not have to do it) and will probably give you ideas on how you should (or should not) deal with your primary material, on you write problems that you had not thought of, etc. You can find secondary material in a number of places, such as: the reading list for the course you are taking general reference works such as grammars, handbooks, and the design argument, dictionaries. Health Reform? reference lists in relevant articles databases from the University Library search engines such as Google Scholar In connection with a term paper there is of course a limit to the amount of secondary sources you can be expected to go through. Consult your teacher, who may advise you on this point. In going through the secondary material, you should make notes and collect excerpts as you go along. It is important to organize your notes in such a way that you can survey (and rearrange) them while you are working on your paper. Make sure you organize your paragraphs with headlines or keywords that will help you see immediately what the the design argument paragraph is about. If you write on hamlet and the complex paper, write on argument one side of the paper, to make it possible to reorder the you write a paper in essay form notes or add to them. Make sure that you copy the excerpts correctly and write the name of the the design source and the page number immediately. This will save you a lot of extra work and trouble later on.

Getting the facts right is fundamental in scholarly procedure. 3.2 Primary material. Though it is important to study the solve word problems secondary material carefully, your main task is to collect and analyse some primary material. You may draw your primary material from the design essay, corpora such as the LOB Corpus, the British National Corpus (BNC), the how to Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA), the English-Norwegian Parallel Corpus (ENPC), the Oslo Multilingual Corpus (OMC), the International Corpus of English (ICE), or the International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE, including the Norwegian subcorpus NICLE). The corpus you choose depends on your research question. If you are interested in grammar, a one-million-word Corpus such as LOB or the the design argument essay ICE-GB will often be sufficient.

For lexical phenomena beyond the core vocabulary you will need a much larger corpus, such as the BNC. If you want to essay, study translation or compare languages, you will find a good source in the ENPC or the Oslo Multilingual Corpus (OMC). Aspects of learner English can be studied on the basis of the International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE) or VESPA. To use a corpus, you need a search programme. Many corpora can be searched by means of a general concordancer such as AntConc or WordSmith Tools (see Scott 2001), but for the design essay, example, the BNC, ICE-GB (the British part of ICE), and the ENPC have their own search engines. It is of taking for your actions, often useful to make a pilot study first, i.e. to collect a small amount of material and analyse it along the lines intended. This will show you if your material is giving you enough data, and the right kind of argument essay, data, or whether you may have to use different kinds of material. Be careful in how do a paper in essay form, registering your material. Argument Essay? Normally an Excel file or even a Word file should be sufficient for the limited amount of material that can reasonably be dealt with in a term paper. A database program such as FileMaker Pro can be useful for storing, surveying, analysing and retrieving your material efficiently.

Whichever system you use, make sure to copy each example correctly, to copy enough context, and to note the essay on the source correctly at once, to essay, save time and trouble later on. This is essay on the of taking responsibility, because you may want to look up the example in the corpus again (for example, if you need to look at the wider context) and because you should specify the source when you give quotations from the design essay, your material. 4 The investigation process. We can broadly distinguish between the following stages: 4.1 The research question. Suppose you are interested in studying the math word problems position of the direct object with phrasal verbs; i.e. do you say she switched the light on or she switched on the light ? The secondary sources will tell you that a pronoun as direct object is placed between the verb and essay, the particle (e.g. she switched it on ), while a noun or noun-headed phrase may appear either before or after the particle. You decide to focus on the word order problem in the latter case. Essay On A Hero? The working title of your term paper could be What factors determine the placement of nouns and noun phrases as direct objects of phrasal verbs? . 4.2 Data collection. To start your investigation you first need to collect relevant examples from argument essay, a corpus.

The examples may be extracted in the form of concordance lines, sentences, or other units, depending on your research question. Hamlet Oedipus Essay? Remember that each example should have a reference tag showing which corpus – and which part of the corpus – it has been taken from. In collecting the the design argument essay material you immediately meet a number of problems. Hamlet And The Oedipus Complex? It is not always easy to distinguish phrasal verbs (e.g. she put on her coat ) from other superficially similar constructions, e.g. constructions with prepositional verbs (e.g. she called on Mr. X to speak ) or with prepositional phrases as adverbials (e.g. she called on Monday ). And what about examples like these (from the the design essay LOB Corpus): Dr Horn swayed two or three inches back , Ugo had his glasses off now , I own some land up in the foothills ? The first example looks superficially like a construction with a direct object, but should no doubt be analysed as containing an become rap, adverbial.

In the last example up clearly goes with the following prepositional phrase rather than with own . The second example is a real problem. Do we recognize have off as a phrasal verb? Collecting the primary material is the design argument, not easy. It is necessary to be alert, so as not to miss out relevant examples or include irrelevant ones. If you have studied the secondary material carefully, you will have a good idea about what to look for essay on a hero, and how to distinguish relevant from irrelevant examples. Nevertheless, there will always be doubtful examples. Make sure to include these, with a note on the type of problem. The Design? Such material is usually important to discuss in your paper. As you go on hamlet you may discover that it is necessary to limit the material a great deal. For example, in a study of phrasal verbs, it may be necessary to limit the search to the design argument essay, certain verbs with different particles, or to certain particles with different verbs. A dictionary of phrasal verbs will guide you in the process.

In a study of phrasal verbs (1986) Stig Johansson decided to focus on all examples in the LOB Corpus of six lexical verbs co-occurring with a noun or noun-headed phrase as direct object and ten particles; see Table 1 . To find these, it was necessary to search for all forms of the help solve word relevant verbs followed within a certain span by one of the ten particles. Such searches can be easily done using a program like WordSmith Tools. After irrelevant instances had been discarded, the material was as presented in Table 1. The table gives some useful information; it shows that there is one clearly dominant order ( V part O , i.e. verb + particle + direct object). But this is argument essay, only the essay on the of taking for your actions starting-point of the analysis. 4.3 Classification of the the design argument material. The next logical step in the investigation process is the classification of the material. It is natural to start thinking about the classification while the material is being collected. Complex? To take our example with the order of direct objects with phrasal verbs, we classify each example according to the parameters which we suspect may affect the word order (based on the secondary reading or our own preliminary hypotheses); see Figure 1 . Here FileMaker (or a similar database program) is an invaluable tool. Needless to say, it may be necessary to revise the classification in the course of the argument investigation and/or add new parameters. 4.4 The analysis. Having classified the examples, we can now rearrange and analyse the material in various ways.

In a quantitative study it is usually best to draw up tables first, and you write a paper, then go on to describing and commenting on the data. Note that you should not just present the tables; you must comment on them and give examples from your material. Make sure that each table is numbered and has a legend that says what the the design argument essay table is supposed to show and explains any abbreviations or codes. Hamlet And The Oedipus Complex? Be careful in using numbers. Do not give percentages without presenting the raw frequencies. If you give averages, also provide some measure of dispersion. In addition to tables, you may wish to the design essay, present figures or diagrams. These too should have a legend and adequate explanation. 4.5 Discussing the findings. To continue with our example case, see Tables 2-5 . These show that the less common order ( V O part , with the direct object between the verb and the particle) is more frequent with a short direct object, a definite form as direct object, and on the importance responsibility for your, with a literal meaning of the verb plus particle combination.

We can now deal with each parameter in turn, illustrating the main tendencies and the design argument, commenting on any deviations from the how do main tendencies. Argument? We find, for example, that the four examples in Table 2 of V O part with a direct object consisting of three or more words are all definite and and the oedipus complex essay, that the the design particle in three of the examples is followed by a prepositional phrase indicating direction, as in: (1) . bring these opulent days back to life . LOB F35:68. With respect to the seven examples in on the of taking responsibility for your, Table 3 of V O part with indefinite noun phrases, we find that the direct object is short (one to two words) and in several cases followed by argument, a prepositional phrase indicating direction, as in: (2) The barman put two glasses down on the counter. And The Oedipus Complex Essay? LOB L11:73. With both literal and the design essay, figurative meaning ( Table 4 ) there is a clear preference for V part O , but the preference is much stronger in the latter case. Help Problems? The examples which deviate from the main pattern generally contain a particle followed by the design, adverbial specification in the form of a prepositional phrase, as in: (3) A final dividend of a ghostwriter, 10 p.c. brings the total distribution up to 17.5 p.c. . LOB A16:178. Such adverbial specification is also common in the design argument essay, the V O part pattern with combinations used in a literal sense. Analysing the material means asking interesting questions about it . In our case we found three parameters which turned out to be important: the length of the hamlet complex essay direct object, the argument definiteness of the direct object, and literal vs. figurative meaning of the verb + particle combination.

The minority pattern V O part is used particularly with short and how do form, definite noun phrases as direct object and essay, when the verb + particle combination has a literal meaning. You Write In Essay? In the process of the the design argument essay analysis we discovered another important factor: the how to become a ghostwriter occurrence of adverbial specification after the particle in the form of a prepositional phrase. This strengthens the minority pattern V O part . The results may not always be clear-cut; see Table 5 . There seems to be a slight tendency for the minority pattern V O part to be more frequent in fiction. The Design Essay? In such cases we need to bring in statistical tests. We must also consider whether the difference might be due to some other parameter.

Could it, for example, be a reflection of the length of the direct objects? We could expect noun phrases as direct objects, like noun phrases in general, to term health care reform, be less complex in fiction than in informative prose. If there really is a difference between fiction and argument, informative prose which is not due to some other parameter, what might it be due to? These are the sorts of questions that must be asked. If our results are to solve math problems, be of the design argument essay, real value, we should try to generalize beyond our data and find deeper explanations for the regularities observed. Do we have reason to essay on the importance responsibility for your, believe that the regularities we have noted extend to phrasal verbs in general (and do not just apply to the six verbs and the ten particles we selected for our material)? Can we find a deeper explanation for the regularities observed? In our case we can relate two of our parameters to two general word order principles: end weight (cf. Table 2 ) and end focus (cf. Table 3 ; indefinite noun phrases are more likely to argument essay, introduce new information and appear in final focus position). It seems reasonable to suppose that a figurative combination (cf.

Table 4 ) is less likely to be broken than a literal one; we know that idiomatic combinations are characteristically more frozen. The parameter of adverbial specification can again be given a reasonable explanation. Note that there is solve math word, a tendency for adverbial particles to be attracted to related prepositional phrases; the result may even be a compound preposition: into , up to , out of , etc. An indirect result of essay, this attraction is that we get the minority pattern V O part , with the and the oedipus particle plus prepositional phrase in final focus position. In other words, we have answered the the design question posed at the start of the study and have been able to relate our findings to other phenomena in the language. We have reached the final stage of the investigation process and can finish the writing of the paper. The writing of the you write a paper form paper should not be deferred to the design essay, the last day before the deadline.

It is natural to write notes while working on the material, such as comments on how do a paper examples or notes or ideas that you think may become useful later. You might even have a brainstorming session at an early stage when you write down in telegraphic form whatever you think is relevant to the topic. At a fairly early stage it is useful to the design essay, write a brief outline of how to a ghostwriter rap, your paper, organized according to argument essay, some major headings (very often the on the for your actions ones taken up below will be useful) and with some notes under each heading. The challenge in writing the paper is to present it in such a way that it is suitable for your reader. What do you need to explain? What can be taken for granted? It is often natural to skip the essay introduction and write the main body of the paper first.

The first draft is . a draft. Make sure that there is a logical progression in your paper, without gaps in the argument. Ask your teacher or a fellow student to importance responsibility for your actions, read your draft. Argument Essay? And be prepared to re-write! There are at least two ways of help solve, presenting your investigation (and they can be combined): inductive : let the reader take part in the process of the design argument essay, discovery; proceed gradually; do not start with revealing your results. deductive : you start with (a taste of) the conclusion, and show how you have reached it. 6 Some characteristics of linguistic discourse. To a linguist (as opposed to a literary scholar), describing the essay importance of taking responsibility actions language of a geographical area, a period, a genre, or a writer, is something that may be worth doing as such. This is exactly what descriptive linguistics is about: describing the language as it is argument, actually used, not as certain people think that it should be used. Describing somebody's language therefore should not normally contain prescriptive comments. (An exception to this may be if you use learner data and want to identify errors in the learners' English.) By comparison, if you write about help solve math problems a novel or a poem, you will often have to make subjective interpretations which are not simply tied to words or combinations of essay, words but to associations and experiences of your own which may go far beyond the text itself.

Nevertheless, a linguistic description is not simply a presentation or summary of some material. Judgements have to be made at all different stages of the investigation, and these should be reflected in the written paper. What sort of a problem are you dealing with? What material might be appropriate to hamlet oedipus essay, use as a basis of the investigation? How should it be delimited?

What method of the design, analysis is appropriate? Example material may require interpretation. What patterns can you see? What do they mean? What is the effect of this or that construction?

The results of the analysis must also be interpreted. How do they fit in with previous knowledge about the language? To what extent have you been able to answer your research question? In order to describe and analyse the become rap linguistic properties of discourse you need precise categories. You must also use the terminology correctly and the design argument essay, consistently.

Your secondary reading will provide guidance on terminology. Note also that there are dictionaries of linguistic terms (such as Crystal 2008, Matthews 2007). There are situations where there is disagreement about terminology. Then it is an how to a ghostwriter rap, advantage if you know the criteria by which a category is the design argument, pinned down. There are also occasions when you cannot rely on ready-made categories; sometimes you may have to define your own, in case the categories found in your reading are inadequate, or if the topic is essay on a hero, very specific. In this area, too, you will discover that language description is a complex matter.

There are many instances of fuzzy categories. For example, where do you draw the line between adjective and verb with forms ending in - ed and - ing ? How do you delimit phrasal verbs from related constructions? There are scales or gradients which show that differences can be graded, and that it is not always true that the distinctions are clear-cut. In sum, describing the language involves a good element of interpretation. 7 Supporting your statements. In your discussion, make reference to your own data and the secondary sources. The Design Argument Essay? When you quote, include as much as is necessary, but no more. If you need to abbreviate an example or a quotation from a secondary source, insert three dots (indicating ellipsis). Editorial comments can be added within square brackets. When you quote or make a summary in your own words, always give a reference to your source.

In giving examples from your primary material, you may find it useful to use numbered examples (as above). This makes it easier to refer to them in your discussion. Each example should have an identification of the source. Essay On A Hero? Look at the articles on your syllabus to the design, see how this is done. Distinguish between safe conclusions clearly validated by the data, and uncertain ones, for which you have inconclusive or incomplete evidence. Do not conceal data which may be difficult to account for. Math Word Problems? On the contrary, such material may require special comment.

Organize your paper into sections, with headings. This makes it easier to follow the steps in your investigation. It is often useful to number the sections (as in this paper). 8.1 Before the main text. On the title page, write the title of the paper, your name, the essay name of the department, the date (term), and the course your term paper relates to. Make sure the how to become title of the the design paper reflects its aim and scope. If your paper is long, add a separate contents page. If you use a lot of abbreviations (apart from conventional ones), you should have a list of abbreviations.

If your paper includes many tables and figures, include a list of these. There should also be a signed declaration confirming that the paper is your own work. The declaration is and the oedipus complex, normally available in the submission folder in Fronter. 8.2 The main text. The main text can often be organized as follows (needless to say, the organization may vary depending upon the type of topic): Introduction . State your aim briefly and give the reasons why the subject of your paper is worth writing about. Give a brief, critical survey of earlier work dealing with your subject.

Aim and scope . State your purpose in argument essay, greater detail and tell the term health reader what aspect you intend to investigate as well as what will be left out. Material . State the nature and limitations of your primary material: whether you use a corpus, elicited material, etc. The Design Argument Essay? Describe your method of collecting data as well as the advantages and/or limitations of your material. Consider whether your choice of data is likely to affect the results in an important way. Method . (a) State along what lines your investigation will be conducted, and, if possible, give the help math word most important sources of inspiration. (b) Define your terms and principles of classification. Explain your use of abbreviations and symbols (if these are numerous, give a list of abbreviations/symbols at the beginning of your paper).

State any technical conventions you intend to follow. The Design Argument Essay? (c) If your investigation is long and complex, give a step-by-step description of what you intend to do. Analysis and discussion . First you present the results of health care, your study of the primary material, and then you analyse them. You will probably want to present your results in argument, the form of on the of taking for your actions, tables or lists of examples, or both. Focus on one aspect at a time. To return to our example study above, there were separate sub-sections on: overall distribution (cf. Table 1), length (cf. Table 2), definiteness (cf.

Table 3), literal vs. figurative meaning (cf. Argument Essay? Table 4), adverbial specification, and text category (cf. A Ghostwriter? Table 5). Support your arguments with reference to the design, the data and to your secondary material. Long and in essay form, complicated sections should have a short summary at the end. Conclusion . To what extent have you been able to answer the question raised at the beginning of the paper? Give a general summary of your results and state the conclusions you can draw on the basis of them. To what extent do your conclusions agree with what was known before?

If some of your results are inconclusive, e.g. because you have not had enough material, say so. Also indicate what aspects or areas require further study . 8.3 After the main text. Footnotes/endnotes . Short references consisting only of a page reference to a certain work are given in the text within brackets, e.g. (Quirk et al . 1985: 243f.). Longer references and comments are given in argument essay, footnotes (placed at the bottom of the relevat page) or endnotes. Endnotes should be placed just before the essay importance actions list of the design, references.

References . Under this heading you list your sources in how to a ghostwriter, alphabetical order according to the author's surname. The references may be divided into two sections, one for primary sources, and one for secondary sources. If you have used abbreviations for argument essay, dictionaries or your primary sources, these should be clearly indicated in the list of word problems, references. Click here to see how you go about making references and essay, reference lists. There is also a useful site here: Appendices . It is often useful to relegate some material to appendices, e.g. long lists of examples or detailed tables. But examples and tables which you comment fully on should be given in the body of the paper. 9 Some writing/formatting conventions. Writing about linguistic items: Use italic type to mark out a word or phrase that you are discussing and which is not an integrated part of the running text. Examples: (1) The most common word in the English language is the . (2) The word foot enters into a lot of more or less fixed phrases such as foot the bill , foot-and-mouth disease , put one’s foot in it and set foot in … . Quoting examples: Use normal type for hamlet oedipus complex, the example. However, you may want to add emphasis (for instance by using italics) for the part of the essay example that is and the oedipus, most relevant to the discussion.

Examples should be numbered for ease of reference. They can be set with single spacing even if the rest of the text has double spacing. The Design? See further advice on how to quote examples. Chapter and section headings: You may use bold type or a different/enlarged font for chapter and section headings. Essay On A Hero? Normally chapter headings are more prominent than section headings. In a term paper it will often not be necessary to subdivide sections (e.g. 2.1, 2.2, 2.3), but in an MA thesis this is often done, just as in linguistics books. Don’t go over board with your decimals; as a general rule, try to avoid using more than two or three sublevels (so 2.1.1 and possibly are all right, but not Before you hand in your paper, make sure that it is argument, free of errors in language (grammar, vocabulary, spelling). Check that pronoun references are clear: do not overuse this and that in referring to the preceding text.

Make sure the verbs agree with their subjects. Avoid sentence fragments, without a subject and a verb. On the other hand, do not use long run-on sentences, with main clauses loosely strung together. If you can replace a comma by a full stop, do so. Be careful with paragraphing #150; this contributes greatly to the clarity and coherence of your paper. It is essay on a hero, natural to the design argument, adopt a fairly formal style. Essay On A Hero? Avoid contractions ( she's , aren't , etc.).

Reduce reference to yourself to a minimum. The Design Argument Essay? Note that there are many ways of expressing opinions: I think/doubt/disagree , etc. How Do You Write A Paper In Essay Form? may be regarded as too informal for argument essay, an academic paper. How Do A Paper In Essay Form? Alternatives include such expressions as it is clear/doubtful/possible , clearly/possibly/no doubt , correctly/brilliantly/wrongly/mistakenly etc. Qualify your statements as appropriate, but note that too much hedging becomes ludicrous: 'It might perhaps seem doubtful . '. Say what you think is true, but no more and no less. It may be a good idea to collect useful and/or elegant turns of phrase from books and articles about linguistics. Finally, to essay, avoid boring your reader you should try to vary your language (but not at the expense of clarity!). A synonym dictionary or a thesaurus may give you ideas for alternative ways of how to rap, expression. The English language, the subject of argument essay, your paper, is a rich and hamlet and the oedipus essay, flexible instrument, and it is good if this shows in your paper. This paper is based on the design argument essay Stig Johansson’s manuscript Writing a Term Paper in English Linguistics: Some Hints for on the responsibility for your, Mellomfag and Hovedfag Students (unpublished, University of Oslo , 1997). Sections 1, 3, and 7-8 of this paper are based on the design essay Altenberg et al . (1980). Section 6 draws on you write a paper form material provided by Kay Wikberg . Essay? For more detailed guidance on the writing of research papers in English linguistics, see Johannesson (1993).

Altenberg, Bengt , Jan Svartvik , and Gunnel Tottie . 1980. How to term papers care, write a term paper in essay, English linguistics. Department of English, Lund University . Problems? Unpublished. Crystal, David. 2008. The Design? A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics . 6th ed. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell. Johannesson , Nils- Lennart . Essay On A Hero? 1993. English Language Essays: Investigation Method and argument essay, Writing Strategies . Responsibility Actions? 4th ed. The Design Argument? English Department, Stockholm University . Johansson, Stig . 1986. Some observations on the order of adverbial particles and objects in of taking responsibility for your, the LOB Corpus.

In Sven Jacobson (ed.), Papers from the Third Scandinavian Symposium on the design Syntactic Variation, Stockholm , May 11-12, 1985 . Stockholm Studies in how to a ghostwriter, English 56. Stockholm : Almqvist Wiksell . The Design Argument? 51-62. Matthews, P.H. 2007. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics . A Ghostwriter? Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Available at essay the UiO here] Scott, Mike. 2001.

Comparing corpora and identifying key words, collocations, and frequency distributions through the WordSmith Tools suite of computer programs. Essay On The Importance Of Taking Responsibility? In Mohsen Ghadessy , Alex Henry, and Robert L. Roseberry (eds), Small Corpus Studies: Theory and Practice , 47-67. The Design? Amsterdam : Benjamins. © Stig Johansson/Hilde Hasselgrd and on the responsibility actions, the Department of Literature, Area Studies and European Languages, University of Oslo.