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How to Write an Exceptional New-Grad Nursing Resume. Writing a new-grad nursing resume is a daunting task for restate a thesis statement, most new-grads. The fear of having no experience and Social Media and Creativity being unqualified leaves many wondering what details to include. Moreover, many new-grads wonder how to structure their nursing resume in a way that best conveys their current skill-set and value to prospective employers. Restate A Thesis! As former recruiters, we reviewed thousands of new-grad resumes. Essay Tuition! In this blog post, we’ll draw on that experience to provide a comprehensive guide to creating an amazing nursing resume for new-grads. How to restate a thesis statement Structure Your New-Grad Nursing Resume. How you structure your resume has an impact on its effectiveness.
Let’s first consider which headings to include on your resume. Purchase Essay! There are certain headings that every new-grad should include and other headings that will depend on whether or not you have any applicable details to include under those headings. Headings that every new-grad nursing resume should include (Required) Every new-grad resume should include the following headings (we’ll discuss why we recommend these headings and provide tips for a thesis, each below): Summary Licenses and college Certifications Education Clinical Rotations. Optional headings for your new-grad nursing resume. Each of the following headings should be considered and restate included based on whether or not you have relevant details to include: Work History Affiliations Volunteer Activities Honors and Awards Skills Summary Languages. Now let’s take a look at college the ordering of the a thesis, headings.
Of course, your contact information should be at the top of your resume. As usual, you should place the Summary as first heading on your resume. Next, include your Licenses and 5 paragraph essay formula Certifications if you have already obtained them. However, if you have not already obtained them, then you may want to push this heading farther down the list under your Clinical Rotations. Next, include your Education followed by your Clinical Rotations. Restate A Thesis! You will undoubtedly find many who recommend that you place your Work History first. Moreover, placing Work History before Education is the conventional standard.
As a result, it’s difficult for some to trust advice that recommends placing Education first. So, here’s our supporting argument… As a new-grad, you may not even have work experience. If you do, it’s most likely that you don’t have applicable work experience and even if you do have applicable experience, it’s most certainly not Registered Nursing work experience. You can’t obtain RN work experience without an Media and Creativity, RN license and you can’t get an RN license without first graduating from an restate a thesis statement, accredited nursing program and passing the NCLEX. Moreover, your new-grad nursing resume should quickly convey that you are a new-grad. There is no point in trying to essay tuition hide this fact.
If employers are considering new-grads for an open position, then recruiters and hiring managers are going to statement be receptive to 5 paragraph your situation. If they’re not considering new-grads for the opening and are instead requiring experience for restate a thesis statement, the position, then they’re not going to eyes be receptive to your situation. You’re not going to trick them by putting your CNA or EMT work experience ahead of your education. In fact, doing this could make your resume even less effective as reviewers receptive to new-grads may never even get to your new-grad status before passing on the resume. Perhaps more importantly, our recommendation is a thesis statement based on what was desired by the hiring managers we worked with.
You will find corroboration for essays in spanish, this recommendation from reputable sources all over restate a thesis statement the internet. For example, the sample new-grad resumes from California State University Chico and University of Texas San Antonio both have the headings listed in the order we recommend. Additionally, UC Davis Medical Center requires Education, Senior Preceptorship and student essay Clinical Rotations on the resumes of a thesis all applicants to their nursing residency program. For further proof, let’s take a look at what a hiring manager had to say about new-grad resumes. As the Director of in spanish Workforce Development for Orange County Memorial Care University and a Board Member of the Association of statement California Nurse Leaders, Maria-Jean Caterinicchio, RN, MS said, “It (your resume) should state where you have done your clinicals and between any certifications such as EKG and ACLS. A Thesis Statement! You can also include any conferences you have attended beyond the classroom.” Your Clinical Rotations and Education are key components of Social Media and Creativity your new-grad resume! That takes care of the 4 required headings. The 6 optional headings can be ranked as you see fit. Remember, you should only include these headings if you have substantial details to convey. And you may want to rank them in order of statement strength as they relate to louisiana essay the job in question. For example, if you have experience working as a CNA in a hospital setting, then your Work History should be given a higher ranking because it highly relates to the job you’re applying for.
Specific Details to restate a thesis Include on Your New-grad Nursing Resume. You’ll undoubtedly come across many people who recommend that new-grads use an Objective instead of a Summary on their resumes. The argument is that you really have nothing to summarize as a new-grad. However, we think that Objectives are an outdated resume heading that do nothing to 5 paragraph essay advance your main objective of conveying why you’re the right person for the job. Moreover, you can include an objective within a summary if you’re intent on having one. Here are three articles from major publications that support summaries over objectives: Now, you may have heard that recruiters spend 6 seconds reviewing your resume. Statement! While we doubt that they really spend that little time reviewing each resume, we certainly believe that the time they spend is very limited. Therefore, your goal is to make sure your resume can be easily scanned, starting with your Summary. Essay Tuition! You do not want recruiters getting stuck on your Summary by writing a big paragraph.
Instead, use bullet points and try to restate a thesis statement keep each point at 1 to 2 lines . As for what to include in Social and Creativity your Summary…It’s a good idea to a thesis statement state that you’re a new-grad. You might summarize your clinical rotations. Essay Tuition! You may point out restate a thesis statement any special skills that you have, like second languages or computer skills. And, as mentioned previously, you may include an objective. We recommend listing each license and certification with the essay tuition, following information: Full name of the license or certification. Full name of the issuing body of the license or certification. Expiration date of the license or certification if applicable. License or certification number if applicable.
If your license is part of the a thesis statement, Nursing Licensure Compact, then it should be indicated. Many nurses express privacy concerns over including their license numbers. Ana Thesis Writing! Your nursing license number is made public through the restate a thesis statement, state licensing board. It can easily be obtained using the basic information you provide on your resume. Adding it simply assists those recruiters and hiring managers who need to look it up for verification as a result of ana thesis hospital/employer policy. Education for Your New-Grad Nursing Resume. You should display all of restate your relevant college education. So if you attended 2 colleges to writing attain your degree, then you should include them both. Please do not include your high school education. Restate Statement! We recommend including the following information for Social Media, each pertinent education institution you attended:
Full official name of the education institution. City and State Dates attended. Degree achieved. Restate A Thesis Statement! GPA if it was good. There are several other details in addition to these that you may want to 5 paragraph essay include regarding your education. We’ve had many new-grads inform us that in restate a thesis statement their area, employers were interested in knowing their HESI or ATI scores. We recommend checking with your Nurse Educators or your school’s Career Guide to louisiana purchase student essay see what they recommend. You may also wish to include relevant coursework and corresponding grades if you got an restate, A. However, keep this brief and relevant to the job you’re applying for. Finally, you may wish to include any honors and awards you achieved if you would rather not place these items under their own heading.
Clinical Rotations on Your New-Grad Nursing Resume. Clinical Rotations are an extremely important part of your new-grad nursing resume. Social! As illustrated above, hiring managers indicate that they want to see these details. Major teaching universities require that they be included on resumes submitted for their residency programs. We consider them the crux of your new-grad resume. At a minimum, you should include the following: Details to include about your clinical rotations. Type of experience (Clinical Rotation, Senior Preceptorship, other).
Start and end dates. Total number of restate a thesis statement hours worked. Name of the hospital or institution. City and State. Name of the eyes photography, unit/department (examples: Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Medical Surgical Unit (MS), Labor and Delivery Unit (LD)). One common mistake to avoid when listing the restate a thesis statement, name of the writing, unit is listing the hospital specific unit name. Statement! For example, the hospital specific unit name might be 3-West, but nobody outside the hospital knows what that means. Instead, list the type of unit it was as designated by the type of patients the unit took.
In addition to the details above, we also recommend including the following information: Optional details to include about your clinical rotations. Facility type: Every facility has a technical designation. For example, most hospitals are “Acute Care Hospitals”. Other designations include Long Term Care Facility, Long Term Acute Care Facility, Children’s Hospital, etc. Listing the facility type lets the formula, reader know without a doubt what the setting was. Number of beds in the facility.
List the facility’s trauma designation if applicable. If the statement, facility was a teaching hospital, then include that information. Number of beds on the unit you were assigned to. Trauma designation of the unit you were assigned to if applicable. Age range of the between essay photography politics, patients the unit cared for if applicable. Restate A Thesis! Nurse to louisiana student patient ratio on the unit. Type of charting system used at the facility and name of any EMR/EHR you gained experience with.
The grade you received if it was an restate statement, A. As you may have noticed, many of the details we recommend are technical details pertaining to the facility and student essay unit. These details convey so much about the setting you were in and the experiences you were exposed to with very few words. So including them provides the reader with a ton of useful information. Additionally, it demonstrates that you understand how import these details are to any healthcare organization, otherwise, you wouldn’t have listed them. Additional options for highlighting your clinical rotations. Finally, you may also wish to include specific details about the experience you gained while engaged with your clinical rotations.
For example, did you have any experiences that might make you a more attractive candidate to the prospective employer? Did you learn anything specific about compassion for patients, team work, the importance of restate a thesis learning and growth as a new-grad RN? If you did, then try to offer the specifics to illustrate exactly what happened. You may also be able to relate your clinical rotation experience to specific goals or problems of the employer you’re applying to. For example, maybe your research on the prospective employer turns up the fact that they’re seeking Magnet Status. If one of the facilities that you worked at during your rotations was seeking to achieve the same goal, then you may be able to 5 paragraph essay formula find some way to a thesis statement relate your experience to louisiana purchase student it. Statement! Or, perhaps the Social Media and Creativity, prospective employer is trying to improve their HCAHPS score and one of the facilities you worked at just achieved success with a similar endeavor.
There are limitless possibilities with this option. The main idea is to restate a thesis statement try and louisiana purchase relate your experience during clinical rotations to a real problem or goal faced by the prospective employer. At this point, we’ve covered each of our recommended required headings. As you may have noticed, we’ve offered tons of options. Restate! So many that if you were to incorporate them all, then your resume would either be too crowded or too many pages. However, many of the details we offer are simply for writing, your consideration.
It’s not required to include them all. So pick and choose the ones that work best for you by researching the job in restate a thesis question and louisiana student determining which details will be of most value to the prospective employer. Optional Details for restate, Your New-grad Nursing Resume. As indicated above, each of the ana thesis, following headings are optional for your new-grad resume. You should decide whether or not to use them based on whether or not you have applicable details to provide for them. Let’s take a brief look at each of restate a thesis statement them. If you have work history, which most college students these days do, then you should probably include some reference to it on your resume. Try your best to convey how the eyes politics, experience relates to statement nursing. This will be a lot easier to do if the Social Media, experience was healthcare related. If all else fails, offer concrete examples of how you excelled at a thesis time management, team work, compassion, service, collaboration, or communication. One important issue to consider regarding work history is stability.
Many college students work several jobs during their college career for any number of reasons. Too many short term stints may exhibit instability to prospective employers who are about to Social Media devote a large amount of resources to restate a thesis you. So you may want to explain short-term work stints or leave them off of 5 paragraph formula your resume. You should definitely use the Affiliations heading if you are already a member of a professional organization related to nursing. For example, if you’re a member of the American Association of Critical Care Nurses, then prospective employers will want to know. You may also include relevant college organizations such as Sigma Theta Tau, or the a thesis statement, Student Nurses Association. Of course, if the only organizations you belong to essay tuition are scholastic, then you may choose to include them under your Education heading to statement save space.
When listing your affiliations, consider including the following details: Full name of the ana thesis, organization. Date joined. Your designation within the restate, organization. Any special duties. And Creativity! Organization conferences attended. Including Volunteer Activities is a great way to restate a thesis demonstrate compassion. You may have volunteered for charity or at a healthcare facility.
Consider including the following details: Full name of the organization. Dates of engagement. Quantify the between politics, number of hours volunteered. Description of duties and results you achieved if applicable. Any awards or recognition you received. If you have received many honors and awards, then giving them a special place on restate your resume may be warranted.
The other option is to writing mix them in a thesis statement throughout your resume where applicable. Consider including the following details: Name or title of the award. Date received. Organization received from. Writing! Significance of the award, or reason it was received. For most new-grads, a Skills Summary heading may not be warranted.
Skills summaries are intended to restate a thesis statement convey proficiency with specific skills. As a new-grad, you most likely haven’t achieved proficiency with any aspect of nursing. However, if you have experience in a healthcare setting, then you may indeed be proficient with relevant skills. For example, you may be certified in phlebotomy or Crisis Prevention. In any case, if you haven’t achieved proficiency, then you may be better served by listing skills as details under the heading that pertains to where the Media and Creativity, skills were practiced. Additionally, you might consider utilizing a Skills Checklist during your job search.
In case you’re not familiar, Skills Checklists are documents that allow healthcare professionals to self-assess their skills pertaining to a specific profession or specialty within a profession. They are commonly used by restate a thesis statement, healthcare employers of all types to gauge their employees’ skill sets. BluePipes has over 100 comprehensive skills checklists that you can complete, save and download at your convenience. Student! You can print them out and take them to job interviews in order to easily convey your level of expertise with hundreds of skills. Again, as a new-grad, it’s not advised to utilize a checklist for restate, a nursing specialty like Intensive Care Unit because you most likely won’t have the required expertise.
However, if you have experience as a CNA, Phlebotomist, or LPN, then you could use one of eyes photography those checklists as a way to stand out from the crowd. These checklists are free to use on BluePipes. So, join today to take advantage! A recent study by Wanted Analytics found that “bilingual” was the second most common skill listed on nursing job postings in the United States. Restate A Thesis Statement! If you speak multiple languages, then it’s definitely recommended that you include them under their own special heading! What Hiring Managers and Job Postings are Looking for in New-Grad RNs. It’s important to essay tuition remember that experience, temperament, talents, and convictions vary from person to statement person. While all new-grads may share certain commonalities, they are all unique in their own ways.
Similarly, it’s fine for between, new-grad resumes to share certain commonalities, but each should be unique in restate a thesis it’s own way. As you’ve seen, we have strong opinions on the structure of your resume and we provide many recommendations on various details to include. Ana Thesis Writing! However, we’re not writing the resume for restate a thesis, you. In fact, we strongly recommend against the boiler-plate phrases that have become so common as a result of louisiana purchase essay online resume builders. So, when it comes to the meat of your resume, let the words of hiring managers and job postings guide your efforts. In other words, find ways to relate your unique experiences to what hiring managers and job postings are looking for. And always strive to provide concrete examples as opposed to generalizations. Assuming that you’re applying for a job through a job posting (as opposed to networking for restate a thesis statement, a job), you should do your best to optimize your resume for the Applicant Tracking System (ATS).
We’ve covered how to do this in a previous blog post, so we won’t rehash it here. Essay! The bottom line is that you want to naturally include the key buzzwords and restate statement phrases used in the job posting in your resume. This way, you’re ranked higher by the ATS. Of course, you’re probably wondering what hiring managers are looking for! We’ve provided some examples above, but below are some direct quotes we found from interviews posted online. These quotes validate what our own experience as recruiters taught us. “Knowing that new nurses are very green in writing regards to their technical skills, we look to whether a nurse is restate a thesis really ready to step into the profession. We are looking for those who are really interested in making life better for in spanish, people who are suffering.” Kimberly Horton, MSN, RN, FNP, DHA, Vice President and Chief Nursing Officer at Mercy Hospital and Mercy Southwest Hospital in Bakersfield, California. “We expect our new nurse graduates to have the basic fundamental nursing knowledge and a thesis statement we are also looking for compassion, a sense of teamwork, accountability and communication.
We look for an attitude of collaboration and communication.” Maria-Jean Caterinicchio, RN, MS, Director of Workforce Development for Orange County Memorial Care University and Board Member of the Association of Social and Creativity California Nurse Leaders (ACNL) Always side on patient safety first. Be open to feedback. Restate! Use your resources, such as more experienced nurses, physicians and other members of eyes photography politics your team. This will also help you build a support system. Always ask questions when you are unsure or don’t know something. Discuss your feelings and/or concerns with your unit leadership. From the first day on the job, be a team player. Greg Kingsley, RN, New Grad Nurse Recruiter, Emory Healthcare.
With all of this in mind, it’s important to remember that there is restate statement no one correct way to between essay photography politics create your resume. We certainly hope this guide provides an idea of best practices as well as an restate a thesis statement, idea of what you shouldn’t do. Perhaps most importantly, it’s important to ana thesis remember that your resume is just one facet of your job search. And while your resume is important, the single most important thing you can do to land that first job, or any job for that matter, is restate statement NETWORK! Estimates indicate 70% to 5 paragraph 80% of all jobs are filled through networking. A Thesis! And it’s always best to operate with the “80-20 rule” in mind. In other words, make sure that you’re focusing on networking as your main job-search activity because it’s most often the determining factor in between essay politics success. A Thesis Statement! That’s why we created BluePipes in writing the first place…to give healthcare professionals a professional networking platform capable of providing unique career management tools designed to restate a thesis statement help them solve their unique career challenges. Join today, it’s free and easy!
5 Things that New Grad RNs and Experienced RNs Should Know About the Job Market A New Grad RN recently shared their frustration with us. How to Write an Effective Nursing Resume Summary Writing an effective nursing resume summary is easier said than. 8 Things Every Nurse Ought to Know About Online Nursing Job Applications Applying online is the norm for writing, nursing jobs. We provide. So my situation is a little different. I’ve been a Dental Assistant most of my life and decided to change careers. I have now achieved my RN. Restate! But it took me a lot longer than a traditional ADN program is supposed to take. I had an “issue” at the first school I started the nursing program at and ended up needing to find another school to complete the program. Is this something I should include in between essay politics my resume (as I see it as a negative thing) or how do I incorporate it to statement benefit my appearance?
I don’t want to leave out info that can hurt me but I’m wondering if the info can hurt me if included. I agree with Kyle. List out essay tuition your clinicals. Add a targeted bullet point under each one that relates to restate a thesis statement the job you are applying for. Learn about ATS.
Read the job posting. What words are on there most? What qualifications MUST you have? What qualifications do they PREFER? All the ones you have – write them down. Yes, use their words. Also read their mission and values. Media! Look through their website. Encorporate their values with yours. A great place to do this is in restate statement your cover letter.
What do you recommend to someone like me whose 19 years old. Has no work experience, this is my first career.. my resume would be completely blank pretty much. I know you said don’t include high school education.. buts that’s pretty much the only thing I’ve “accomplished” so far, I was an honor student, GPA 3.9, Received an award for academic excellence all 4 years, advanced diploma. And currently my GPA is 3.5, I haven’t graduated yet but will in OCT, 2016 with my associates degree in nursing. I’m applying to a new graduate residency program now, that will start in February.
Please HELP! #128577; how can I make my resume better? Thanks for politics, the inquiry Glenda. Most of the statement, applicants to new graduate residency programs have similar circumstances. To make your resume stand out, be sure to include the details described above regarding your various experiences including clinical rotations and education. You’re welcome to include your high school education. Student! However, chances are it will not be considered. Just remember that most candidates are going to be in the same boat, so making sure you provide all the details hospitals like to see (as described above) will help you stand out. Statement! I hope this helps! Great article!
Finally people are talking about New Graduate Registered Nurses and purchase the job search!! The Struggle is a thesis statement VERY real for new, old, reentry, and RN’s seeking a new specialty! Especially in oversaturated markets like California. I invite anybody who is seeking a job to join our Facebook Group RNInterview Tools. https://www.facebook.com/groups/PlayingTheGame/ All are invited to college share what worked for them, post questions, and restate a thesis statement seek support from others who understand.
Members are landing job offers all over purchase student essay and we could not be more thrilled. I definitely shared this article and restate a thesis statement have shared others from Blue Pipes in the past. Thank you for assisting all of us Nurses in our quest. Glad to hear the article is useful and thanks for sharing, Melissa! Help! I just graduated in May 2016 and got hired as an RN in ana thesis writing a hospital. Unfortunately, I resigned after a month as I felt so overwhelmed in the unit I was assigned to. Should I include that one month experience in my resume? Thanks for sharing, Aleli and sorry to hear about the difficulties. This is a tough situation. Restate! I believe most career consultants would recommend leaving the job off of your resume.
This is because you’ll most certainly be required to explain the Social and Creativity, short duration in any interview. Moreover, the duration was so short that many employers wouldn’t even require an explanation for the gap in employment. That said, you may want to consider the instructions on job applications. Restate Statement! Some hospitals have very stringent rules for entering work history on their applications. For example, they might require every employer for the past 7 years to be entered on the application regardless of Social duration and restate a thesis statement also require applicants to provide an explanation of any gaps in Social Media and Creativity employment of greater than 1 month. There will be a signing statement in statement the application indicating you attest the information is college accurate and a thesis complete. If they find out you left the job off the application, it could result in a rescinded job offer.
Although the essay tuition, chances of this happening are slim. I hope this information helps! Nursing is my second career. I taught elementary school before this. Should I include my education for restate a thesis, that? Also, should I include teaching school in my work history? I taught for eight years in the same school, so it’s a good example that I can hold a job long term. Thanks! Congratulations on your new career, Priscilla. Student Essay! Previous work history and education are both optional for a thesis statement, your new-grad nursing resume.
In your case, I highly recommend including them both as they are both excellent experiences to display. However, be sure to keep them brief in order to highlight your nursing skills. I hope this helps! Hello, I was wondering how do I include my phlebotomy certification on my resume if it doesn’t have an expiration date? If you are formatting your own resume, you can simply add the license without expiration dates. However, I’m wondering if you’re using BluePipes to format your resume? Please let me know if so. Thanks! Hi i’m just wondering do you have an example resume with all the information you have listed here for preview? thank you! My apologies, but we don’t have a sample.
We’ll work on creating though. Thanks! How about information on building a new-grad RN Cover letter? When listing previous certifications and licenses, should you list the initial date of obtainment or expiration/ renewal date? Also, regarding Applicant Tracking System, what is the rule regarding parenthesis ()? I ask because in my certifications I have ACLS, PALS, and essay tuition a bunch of other alphabet soup acronyms. Should I use (ACLS) after Advanced Cardiac Life Support? Good questions! There are no steadfast rules, but we recommend listing the expiration dates. A Thesis! On our resume builder, licenses are listed with both the acronym and name.
For example: ACLS – Advanced Cardiac Life Support. That said, most resume parsers are quite advanced these days, so they should be able to contextualize what is meant by “(ACLS)”. However, as illustrated above, it’s not necessary to use the parentheses if you don’t want to. Essays In Spanish! I hope this helps! Help! I work in a long term care nursing facility as an a thesis statement, RN for about a year and essay eyes politics half now. This is my first nursing job and nursing is my second career. What can you suggest in writing my resume?
Are my clinical rotations still relevant? Thanks. There isn’t a steadfast rule that applies to your question. Restate Statement! I think it’s fair to say that most recruiters and and Creativity nursing career advisers would say that your clinical rotations shouldn’t be added to a thesis statement your resume after a year and a half of working in an LYC facility. Media! That said, you might still list it in restate a thesis an effort to Social and Creativity land a job in a new-grad training program.
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All Souls, Oxford should continue to put genius to the test. 2:52PM BST 19 May 2010. Swots across the a thesis statement, country are weeping over 5 paragraph, their trigonometry textbooks this week, because the hardest exam in the world has just got easier. Dumbing down has seeped upwards into restate a thesis statement, Britain's seat of highest learning. All Souls College, Oxford #x2013; the graduates-only college, where the brainiest of brainiacs breathe a rarefied intellectual air in essay, three Gothic quads strung along the High Street #x2013; has just dropped the most difficult part of its entrance exam. And I should know quite how difficult it is #x2013; I failed it in 1994. At least I am in eminent company: the historian Lord Dacre, the literary critic Lord David Cecil, and the writers John Buchan and Hilaire Belloc all failed. Sir Isaiah Berlin, John Redwood, William Waldegrave and the journalist Matthew d'Ancona passed.
As did Sir Jeremy Morse, the banker and former chancellor of statement, Bristol University, who gave his name to Colin Dexter's Oxford detective. Since 1878, anyone with a First in between eyes photography, their Oxford undergraduate Finals has been invited to sit the All Souls Prize Fellowship Examination at the end of September #x2013; a gruelling, three-day ritual, with six three-hour exams, one each morning and afternoon. Only those who have sat their Finals within the past three years are eligible; so the examinees tend to be in their early twenties. Women have been admitted since 1979. Of the 500 undergraduates who take a First each year, only 30 or so accept the invitation to go for one of the two annual Prize Fellowships. Restate Statement! It says something for David Cameron's modesty that, despite getting a First in PPE in 1988, he refused to sit the exam. I was more arrogant. I sat two specialist papers on college essays history, my undergraduate subject, two general ones and a language paper. And then came the hardest, most brain-straining paper of restate statement, all #x2013; the 5 paragraph, one simply called Essay; the one the All Souls softies have now decided to drop altogether. The horrifying thing about Essay is not how difficult it is, but how simple. You turn over a thesis statement, the plain blank sheet of A4 paper, and there is a single word on it; you have nothing else to write about for the next three hours.
My word was Miracles. Other words have included Bias, Style, Chaos, Mercy, Innocence, Novelty, Morality and Water. A L Rowse (1903-97), the waspish Shakespearean scholar, won his Prize Fellowship by essay tuition writing on Possessions. The Essay is an restate statement, exceptional test of intelligence. Social Media And Creativity! Ask someone when the Battle of Hastings took place, and statement they'll either get it right or wrong. Ask them, How did Athens run the Laurium silver mines? #x2013; as I was asked in my ancient history Finals #x2013; and the answer is still pretty specific.
But ask someone #x2013; or don't even ask them, just state to someone #x2013; a single word, and there's infinite room for 5 paragraph essay formula genius, or stupidity, to expand within the word's parameters. It's not the restate a thesis statement, sort of exam you can blag, says a friend of mine, who sat the exam in 1993, when the Essay was Error. Between Photography! It was the first exam that I'd ever come across where I couldn't fall back on restate a thesis statement native wit and blagging, as I had done with my Finals. So, I'm afraid I must disagree with the between photography, Warden of All Souls, Sir John Vickers, a former member of the Bank of England's monetary policy committee, who has just said that the Essay is no longer useful for testing the qualities for admission #x2013; exceptional analytical ability, breadth and depth of knowledge, independent-mindedness and clarity of thought and expression. Restate Statement! All of student essay, those qualities are brilliantly tested by restate statement Essay, which also has a magical romance to it that you don't normally associate with exams. And All Souls is poorer by its passing. Taking away Essay removes a chunk of mystique from this most mysterious of Oxbridge colleges.
Founded in 1438 for poor scholars by Archbishop Chichele, All Souls was intended as a place of learning and prayer for non-monastic clergy, and as a chantry for all souls of the faithful departed; hence the name. It was particularly associated with the and Creativity, late king, Henry V, and soldiers who had died in the Hundred Years' War with France. Its religious role has gone but it retains its 15th-century chapel, with its hammerbeam roof and bewitching reredos. Statement! For all the ancient other-worldliness of All Souls, the beauty of the and Creativity, Fellowship Examination is restate a thesis statement that it allows some fellows to ana thesis writing, leave the cloistered world of academe. Both annual fellowships last seven years (and both come with a yearly ?14,783 scholarship), but only one of them is purely academic. The other fellow #x2013; known as a Londoner by the academics #x2013; is encouraged to make his way in the outside world, typically in journalism, law or politics. Londoners can still do some scholarly work on the side: John Redwood went to work for Robert Fleming, the merchant bank, while spending his weekends at All Souls writing his thesis: The Fear of Atheism in England from the Restoration to Berkeley's Alciphron. Londoners are expected, too, to dine regularly in the hall at All Souls, a 1729 masterpiece by Nicholas Hawksmoor. A Thesis! It was into that hall that we candidates were led on our first morning by the Manciple #x2013; the college steward. However glittering the All Souls alumni are, I could see why John Strachey, the Labour MP and Spectator writer, said of the All Souls buildings and their inhabitants, the birds are not worthy of the 5 paragraph essay, cage. Hawksmoor's hall is Gothic outside and classical inside #x2013; an Ionic screen and shell-headed niches are topped by a ceiling lined with ornate baroque pouches.
Ranged around the room are portraits of distinguished Fellows. Outside in the quad sits a handsome sundial designed in 1658 by the All Souls bursar #x2013; who happened to be Sir Christopher Wren. The whole set-up was all rather intoxicating and restate I could see why lots of Fellows walk through the louisiana purchase essay, medieval oak door on the High Street in their early twenties and don't leave until they are carried out, feet first, 60 years later. My stay was a little shorter. I did my best on restate a thesis statement the two history papers, with questions such as: Consider the formula, problems raised by one or more of the restate a thesis statement, following for Social Media and Creativity those with property in Britain in any period of your choosing: dowagers; daughters; younger sons; bastards.
I tried my hardest on the two general papers #x2013; sample question: e_SDLq'If a man could say nothing against a thesis statement, a character but what he could prove, history could not be written' (Samuel Johnson). Discuss. And I struggled through the translations paper, which consists of between essay, several passages in different languages: ancient and modern Greek; ancient and medieval Latin; French; German; Italian; Spanish; Russian; ancient Hebrew. I thought it was enough to do two languages, until I heard my neighbour say to a friend as we walked in: Isaiah Berlin did five. I'm going to try four.
But it was the Essay on Miracles that left me floundering. Restate A Thesis! I did a bit on weeping Madonnas and liquefying saints' blood, and struggled to the end with some stuff on miracles being battles between cynicism and faith. It wasn't enough. After a month spent marking the essay formula, papers, the Fellows send invitations to shortlisted candidates for dinner #x2013; the knife and restate a thesis fork test. I never got the invitation for writing dinner, and so never got to a thesis, sit the last bit of the exam. The Fellows of All Souls may have foolishly got rid of Essay, but they still retain one last romantic, mystical trial: cherry pie is served for pudding, to see what the Social Media and Creativity, candidates do with the stones. AL Rowse swallowed his.
He still wasn't sure, 70 years later, whether he'd done the a thesis, right thing. In University education. Top 10 universities for quality of life. Toughening up of entry requirements for Oxbridge. Top 10 UK universities in ana thesis writing, the world. Top 100 world universities 2014/15 - THE rankings. Student life: top degrees by starting salary. Quiz: guess the A-level results of these celebrities.
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Essay: Oral administration of a thesis statement, drugs. Today various routs available for the administration of drugs but the oral route is the simplest and most preferable route for the administration of dosage forms. Different dosage forms are available for ana thesis writing, the administration orally. 3. Restate A Thesis Statement! Emulsion suspensions. 4. Solutions etc. But the between essay photography politics problems is restate a thesis statement there in the recently invented drugs having problem with there bioavability approx. Student Essay! 50% of statement, newly marketed drugs can not be given orally due to poor solubility.
The poor solubility of drugs can reduce the bioavability of dosage forms. Recent approaches have included the administration of drug components with lipid vehicles such as oils, liposomes and louisiana purchase, self-emulsifying formulations [1, 2]. This system was not use commonly but know the days importance of lipid based drug delivery system is very height due to poor water solubility of restate, drugs. For the Social improving bioavability we formulate a new drug delivery system called self emulsifying drug delivery system By example, the bioavailability of Tipranavir (TPV), a nonpeptidic protease inhibitor anti-HIV drug, was doubled when dosed to restate statement rats in a SEDDS formulation versus delivered as solid powder in louisiana purchase student, a hard filled capsule . developed a self-emulsifying drug delivery system for Coenzyme Q10 using polyglycolyzed glycerides as emulsifiers with a resultant 150% increase in bioavailability.4 Numerous other examples exist in the literature demonstrating enhanced bioavalibility with self emulsifying drug delivery systems 5-6 but most focus on a single formulation or small. set of restate, formulations with little explanation of how this formulation was developed. Current SEDDS formulation development, consequently, in general occurs through resource-intensive trial and error. Some mechanistic studies have been conducted exploring a range of SEDDS formulations and college essays in spanish, a specific aspect of their function, most commonly ability to emulsify [7, 8]. . Restate A Thesis! Improved quantitative understanding of how properties of a specific self emulsifying formulation interact with the biological environment to enable oral absorption could help optimize SEDDS formulations for enhancing bioavailability. Between Eyes! Although a significant amount of literature exists from other fields concerning the function of emulsions [9-10], pharmaceutical formulations have not been broadly studied with respect to restate fundamental aspects of essay tuition, emulsion function, with few studies statistically developing predictive models that relate emulsion properties with formulation parameters . In particular, analysis and optimization of restate a thesis statement, emulsion function across a broad range of formulation parameters via experimental design has not been widely explored. One poorly understood aspect about SEDDS is the influence of different formulation components on the overall performance of these drug delivery systems in 5 paragraph, vivo.
Different types of oils with different characteristics and different surfactants combined at different ratios may influence the a thesis performance in vivo drastically. There is no guidance currently available for formulating a drug with specific properties with self. emulsifying drug delivery formulations.12 It is therefore necessary to investigate the influence of formulation components with a quantitative and statistically designed and essay eyes politics, analyzed manner. 3 Another knowledge in which there is a lack of understanding is the restate statement mechanism of how self emulsifying drug delivery systems work to enhance the essay overall bioavailability of a hydrophobic drug orally. Suggested mechanisms responsible of functioning of SEDDS in restate a thesis statement, the GI tract environment includes the increased drug solubilization in the aqueous lumen phase due to alterations in the composition and character of colloidal environment in the GI tract fluid and increased drug absorption due to enhanced permeability permeability (e.g. widening of tight junctions, changes to cellular processing) and lymphatic transport [13-14-15]. Important mechanisms that would influence drug solubilization in the lumen is the rate and extent of digestion of essay formula, lipidic formulation components. Another one is the a thesis rate at which the drug is released from oil droplets especially during the essay eyes politics process of ‘degradation’ of the emulsified drug carriers by restate a thesis, the digestive enzymes in vivo. It is essential to investigate the rate of between photography, digestion of restate a thesis statement, self emulsifying formulation lipids, rate of drug release, as well as the rate and extent of Social Media, drug transport across intestinal monolayer incorporated with SEDDS in order to understand and predict formulation functioning in GI tract. Restate A Thesis! Knowledge gained from these mechanistic understandings can be used as quantitative expressions which then can be incorporated into a pharmacokinetic model that will predict oral bioavailability of a drug administered with self emulsifying drug delivery systems. To define and understand challenges involved with oral delivery of ana thesis writing, hydrophobic drug compounds it is necessary to statement present a overview of current technologies.
16. Oral intake has been the most sought-after route of drug delivery by essay tuition, the patients as well as the statement manufacturers for the treatment of most pathological states. Despite tremendous strides made in essay formula, novel non-oral drug delivery systems (DDS) till date, majority of the drug formulations available in restate a thesis, the commercial world today are the oral ones.17 Nevertheless, oral delivery of over one-half of the drug compounds through gastrointestinal (GI) tract gets diminished owing to their high lipophilicity and essays in spanish, consequently poor aqueous solubility. Oral bioavailability of such drugs, being primarily a function of their solubility and restate a thesis, dissolution,[18-19] tends to exhibit inadequate magnitude with high intra- and inter-subject variability. Besides, oral bioavailability also depends upon a multitude of other drug factors such as stability in GI fluidsintestinal permeability, resistance to metabolism by cytochrome P450 family of enzymes present in 5 paragraph, gut enterocytes and liver hepatocytes, and interaction with efflux transporter systems like P-glycoprotein (P-gp).[20,21] explicitly illustrates the mechanisms of the physiological pathways through which the bioavailability of a drug from the a thesis statement conventional formulations tends to between politics get impeded. Several formulation approaches have been employed to restate a thesis improve the student essay oral bioavailability of restate statement, diverse drugs.
Amongst these, oral lipid-based DDS have proved their immense potential in improving the poor and inconsistent drug absorption of many poorly water-soluble drugs, especially following their administration after meals.22 These include various types of lipid suspensions, solutions and emulsions.23 With applications in specific domains, the 5 paragraph formula lipidic formulations, thus, have carved a singnificant niche in oral drug delivery. Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) are relatively newer lipid-based technological innovations with immense promise in oral bioavailability enhancement of drugs. These formulations have shown to reduce the slow and incomplete dissolution of a drug, facilitate the formation of its solubilized phase, increase the extent of its transportation via intestinal lymphatic system, and bypass the P-gp efflux, thereby augmenting drug absorption from the GI tract.24. Self emulsion having grate capacity yo increase the bioavability of a thesis statement, poorly water soluble drugs. It’s a isotropic mixture of oil ,surfactant, co-surfactant.in this system oil globules bind with drugs and increase the solubility of drugs. SEDDS is also known as microemulsion system. It will increase bioavability of drugs 50-100% .25-26. 1. Solid self emulsifying drug delivery system (SSEDDS) 2. College In Spanish! Liquid self emulsifying drug delivery system (LSEDDS)
Recently day by day a new drug molequle was found but the only problems is that the bioavability of the drugs. Because oral route is the most preferable route for the administration of drugs but poorly water soluble drugs having problems to formulates solid dosage form because it will reduce the bioavability of restate statement, drugs.26. In the solid dosage forms numbers of purchase essay, excipients are use for the increasing drug solubility. Statement! They can be help in enhancing the solubility of drugs. In the SEDDS we number of essay tuition, excipients are use. 3. Co- surfactants. 4. Solidifying agent. They all the excipients help in the inhancing the bioavability of a thesis, drugs.26. SEDDS is the isotropic mixture of oil, surfactant and essay tuition, co-surfactant. Thy having the capacity to rapidely dissolve in stomach and instinal fluid and cover large surface area. due to this nature of SEDDS it will also use in restate a thesis, the sustain relese drug delivery system for the instant delivery of drugs. This system can be use to increase the solubility of drugs by 5 paragraph formula, the help of excipient’s in restate statement, the oral dosage forms we can use PH modifier, water soluble organic solvents, surfactant, co-surfactants.
And oils are use long chain triglicryde and medium chain tryglyceried we also use PEG 400, propylene glycol, glycerin, non-ionic surfactants as water soluble organic solvents.36,37. 1.1 Composition of SEDDSs:- ‘ The nature of the oil’surfactant pair. ‘ The surfactant concentration. ‘ The temperature at which self-emulsification occurs. 1.1.1 Oils:- Oils can solubilize the lipophilic drug in a specific amount. It is the most important excipient because it can facilitate self-emulsification and increase the fraction of lipophilic drug transported via the intestinal lymphatic system, thereby increasing absorption from the GI tract . Long-chain triglyceride and medium-chain triglyceride oils with different degrees of saturation have been used in the design of ana thesis writing, SEDDSs. Modified or hydrolyzed vegetable oils have contributed widely to the success of SEDDSs owing to their formulation and a thesis, physiological advantages. College In Spanish! Novel semisynthetic medium-chain triglyceride oils have surfactant properties and are widely replacing the regular medium- chain triglyceride. 1.1.2 Surfactant:- Nonionic surfactants with high hydrophilic’lipophilic balance (HLB) values are used in formulation of a thesis, SEDDSs (e.g., Tween, Labrasol, Labrafac CM 10, Cremophore, etc.). The usual surfactant strength ranges between 30’60% w/w of the formulation in order to form a stable SEDDS.
Surfactants have a high HLB and hydrophilicity, which assists the immediate formation of o/w droplets and/or rapid spreading of the formulation in the aqueous media. Surfactants are amphiphilic in nature and they can dissolve or solubilize relatively high amounts of hydrophobic drug compounds. This can prevent precipitation of the drug within the GI lumen and for prolonged existence of drug molecules. 1.1.3 Cosolvents:- Cosolvents like diehylene glycol monoethyle ether (transcutol), propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, polyoxyethylene, propylene carbonate, tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol polyethylene glycol ether (Glycofurol), etc., may help to dissolve large amounts of hydrophilic surfactants or the hydrophobic drug in the lipid base. These solvents sometimes play the role of the cosurfactant in the microemulsion systems.27.
1.2 Microemulsions or Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SEDDS) Emulsions in general are thermodynamically unstable systems. The droplets of the Social and Creativity dispersed phase are large. Microemulsions on the other hand are emulsion systems that have a droplet size of a few to hundreds of nanometers and are typical complex fluids that consist of three essential components: two immiscible fluids and restate statement, a surfactant. Typically these are water-in-oil or oil-in-water microemulsions where the rheological properties of these two liquids and microstructure of the Social Media surfactant strongly affect the resulting microemulsion . Microemulsions and micellar solutions are distinguished from emulsions by a thesis statement, the fact that the louisiana purchase student essay average drop size does not grow with time, which is a manifestation of thermodynamic unstability. Micellar solutions and microemulsions on the other hand are assumed to be thermodynamically stable. Reasons why there is tremendous attention on SEDDS include industrial trend towards the restate a thesis discovery and development on hydrophobic drugs and the resolution of technology transfer, stability and regulatory issues by SEDDS and the fact that they have proven pharmaceutical benefit with commercially available compounds of up to 5 fold increase in bioavailability (cyclosporine, lipid soluble vitamins, HIV protease inhibitors etc.) Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems by definition are mixtures of an oil, one or more surfactants and essay, optionally a co-solvent or co-surfactant which when introduced into an aqueous media, under gentle agitation, forms fine oil-in-water emulsions. These systems when incorporated with a drug compound, drug is a thesis statement distributed in the aqueous solution entrapped inside oil droplets. SEDDS enable distribution of hydrophobic drug component in the aqueous media and creates a drug solubilization in the gastrointestinal environment. Distribution of drug inside oil droplets prevents drug from being an undisolved substance, precipitating and being excreted from body.
However their mechanisms of action in essays, the body are not limited to solubilization enhancement and statement, also include other processes such as intestinal permeability and lymphatic transport enhancement. SEDDS by nature are thermodynamically stable emulsions compared to essays in spanish unstable regular emulsions. Their stability is thought to be dependent on their relatively small dispersed oil droplet size and narrow range of droplet distribution. Statement! SEDDS are typically composed of emulsion droplets having a diameter of ana thesis, 50 nanometers to 500 nm whereas systems having droplet size less than 50 nm are called self nano emulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS). For a given drug only very specific formulations will give efficient emulsification and a self-emulsifying system that will work to enhance bioavailability. Restate A Thesis! Efficiency of SEDDS therefore, as explained in ana thesis writing, detail by Gursoy et al., is governed by surfactant concentration, oil/surfactant ratio, polarity of the emulsion, droplet size and charge of the droplets. However, the mechanism that governs self-emulsification has not yet fully understood. It is suggested that water penetrates through the gel and restate a thesis statement, LC phases that occur at between photography politics the surface of the droplets. This is restate statement followed by the solubilization of the water in essay tuition, oil phase until the solubilization limit is reached. After the limit is reached, formation of dispersion of LC phase is formed and this depends on the surfactant concentration. Wit this formation, SEDDS become resistant to coalescence.
Emulsion stability is governed by a variety of factors such as physical nature of the interfacial film, presence of electrostatic or steric barriers on the droplet, viscosity of the continuous phase, droplet size distribution, oil to water ratio, temperature and the amount of surfactant that is absorbed on the surface of the oil droplet. The more surfactant is absorbed on the surface, the more decreased the interfacial tension between oil and water which consequently yields delayed coalescence of droplets by electrostatic and steric repulsio. Although with the addition of high amounts of drug, which is common case for potential oral dosage forms, it is harder to have stabilized emulsions. In this case, the need of using more surfactant arises that have negative aspects such as increased toxic effect of the formulation. 1.3 ADVANTAGES OF SEDDS :- ‘ More consistent drug absorption, ‘ Control of delivery profile. ‘ Reduced variability including food effects.
‘ Enhanced oral bioavailability enabling reduction in dose. ‘ High drug loading efficiency. ‘ For both liquid and solid dosage forms. ‘ These dosage forms reduce the gastric irritation produced by drugs.25-26. 1.4 APLLICATION OF SEDDS : Main application of this SEDDS to increase the bioavability by increasing the restate a thesis solubility of drugs. In this system we use oils for the increasing the louisiana essay solubility of drugs . the a thesis oils can form a layer of globules on the drug so it will easily dissolve in the water.27.
1.5 Solubility and Process of Solubilization. In bioavailability of drug, solubility plays a key role because it is vital determinant of drug release and absorption. Any drug showed pharmacological response when it achieves desired concentration in systemic circulation and it is depending upon solubility. Formula! Solubility is the maximum amount of solute dissolved in a certain amount of solvent at a specified temperature. (Shinde A. J., 2007) 1.5.1 Process of restate a thesis statement, solubilization. Factors affecting solubility.
1. Particle size. 4. Purchase Student! Other: Nature of the solute solvent, Molecular size, Polarity, Polymorphs. 18.104.22.168 Absolute bioavailability and Relative bioavailability. Absolute bioavailability Intravenous dose is restate a thesis selected as a standard because the drug is student essay administered directly into the systemic circulation (100% bioavailability) and avoids absorption step. Intramuscular dose can also be taken as a standard if the a thesis statement drug is poorly water soluble. Ana Thesis Writing! An oral solution as reference standard has also been used in certain cases, but there are several drawbacks of using oral solution as a standard instead of an i.v. dose. Relative or comparative bioavailability. It is restate a thesis also termed as comparative bioavailability. It is denoted by Fr.
In contrast to Media and Creativity absolute bioavailability; it is used to restate a thesis statement characterize absorption of formula, a drug. 22.214.171.124 Methods for enhancement of bioavailability. As per a thesis, definition of 5 paragraph, bioavailability, poor permeability through the biomembrane owing to inadequate partition coefficient or lipophilicity or large molecular size such as that of protein or peptide drugs are poor bioavailable drugs. Both poor solubility and permeability of drug is depends upon its physicochemical property. Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) Based on intestinal permeability and solubility of drugs, Amidon et al., developed Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) which classify drugs into restate a thesis statement one of the four groups. Class I: These are well absorbed orally since they have neither solubility nor permeability limitation. Class II: Shows variable absorption owing to solubility limitation. Class III: also shows variable absorption owing to permeability limitation. Class IV: are poorly absorbed orally owing to both solubility and permeability limitation. There are three approaches in overcoming bioavailability problems are: It includes alteration of formulation, manufacturing process or physicochemical properties of drug devoid of purchase, changing chemical structure.
It includes modification of pharmacokinetic of drug by restate statement, changing its chemical structure by developing new chemical entity with desirable feature or prodrug design. 126.96.36.199 By enhancing drug solubility or dissolution rate: 3. Supercritical fluid recrystallization. 4. Spray freezing into liquid. 5. Evaporative precipitation into aqueous solution. 6. Use of surfactants. 7. Use of salt forms. 8. Use of 5 paragraph essay, precipitation inhibitors. 9. Alteration of pH of drug microenvironment.
10. Use of amorphous, anhydrates, solvates and a thesis, metastable polymorphs. 11. Essay! Solvent deposition. 13. Statement! Selective adsorption on insoluble carriers. 14. Solid solution. 15. Eutectic mixture. 16.
Solid dispersion. 17. Molecular encapsulation with cyclodextrin. 188.8.131.52 By enhancing drug permeability across biomembrane. 1. Essay Tuition! Lipid technology. 3. Penetration enhancers.
184.108.40.206 By enhancing drug stability. 1. Restate Statement! Enteric coating. 3. Use of between, metabolism inhibitors. 1.5.3 Problems and Breakthroughs of Bioavailability Enhancement Techniques. When poor wetting properties and difficulties in processing of powders are problems reduction in restate a thesis statement, particle size can not applicable in such conditions. So as to avoid such problems many other techniques have been used such as solid dispersions, permeation enhancers, cyclodextrins and nanoparticles. In fact, in some special cases, such approaches have been doing well.In the technique of reducing the ana thesis size of particles, there is affinity for agglomeration of particles due to high surface charges on small discrete particles. 1.5.4 Lipid based drug delivery. Ideal properties of Lipid based formulations. 1. It should solubilize therapeutic amounts of the drug in the dosage form. 2. A Thesis Statement! It should maintain adequate drug solubility over the entire shelf-life of the drug product (generally 2 years) under all anticipated storage conditions.
3. It should provide adequate chemical and physical stability for the drug and in spanish, formulation components. 4. It must be composed of approved excipients in safe amounts. 5. It should adapt to the digestive processes of the statement GI tract such that digestion either enhances or maintains drug solubilization. 6. It should present the louisiana drug to the intestinal mucosal cells such that absorption into the cells and into the systemic circulation is optimized. 2.0 NEED FOR STUDY OBJECTIVE. Oral route is the most convenient and a thesis, preferable route for the administration of drugs but the problems is occurs due to the low solubility of drugs. About 50% of recently find drug molecules can not be formulate in the solid dosage form because of there low solubility. The need of louisiana purchase student, this study was to restate a thesis statement increase the solubility of poorly soluble compound. In this formulation we can formulate a self emulsifying drug delivery system with the ana thesis writing active ingredient telmisartain. Telmisartain practically water insoluble drugs. Restate Statement! And having poor bioavability by the help of LSEDDS we can increase solubility of telmisartain.
3. Media! LITRATURE SURVEY. 1. . Saritha,D. et al. (2014) Prapration a stable formulation for self emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) in order to enhance the solubility, release rate, and oral absorption of the restate poorly soluble drug, indomethacin. Writing! Based on the solubility of indomethacin in oil, surfactant and cosurfactant, pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were developed in 1:1, 1:2, 2:1, 1:3, 3:1, 4:1 ratio for SEDDS composed of labrafil, cremophor EL and restate a thesis statement, transcutol P. Formulations were evaluated for drug content, phase separation, turbidimetry, zeta potential, globule size, refractive index and in vitro release. The study illustrated the potential of indomethacin SEDDS for oral administration and its biopharmaceutic performance.33. 2. Damineni,S et al (2014) developed self emulsifying drug delivery system of Social, ibuprofen to enhance solubility, dissolution rate which may improve therapeutic performance and drug loading capacity so as to develop alternative to traditional oral formulations to improve bioavailability. In this study Labrafac, Tween 80 and PEG 200 were selected as oil, surfactant and co-surfactant respectively.
Formulation development and screening was done based on results obtained from phase diagrams and characteristics of restate statement, resultant microemulsions. The developed SEDDS were evaluated for ana thesis writing, droplet size analysis, zeta potential, polydispersibility index, viscosity, refractive index, % transmittance, drug content and in vitro diffusion profiles.34. 3. Kumar,S. et al (2014) in a thesis, this article we have study upper surface of SEDDS. The main advanced topic in essay formula, this article is solidification process of LSEDDS and a thesis statement, the development of solid SE dosage forms.at the Social last find he prolems of the system and solve it.35. 4. Reddy,M. et al (2014) In this article we have conclude, today huge numbers of formulation avalables for the increasing poor water solubility of drugs , dissolution rate and restate a thesis statement, bioavailability of insoluble drugs. One of the promising techniques is Self’Micro Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SMEDDS).
Liquid SEDDS were prepared using LLWL 1349, Labrafac PG as oils and cremophor EL, cremophor RH40 as surfactants and labrasol, transcutol HP as co-surfactants. Prepared liquid SEDDS were evaluated for stability, particle size, zeta potential and percent transmittance. Selected liquid formulations were converted to solid SEDDS by adsorbing onto a solid carrier Neusilin. Between Essay Eyes! Prepared solid SEDDS were evaluated for flow properties and a thesis, in-vitro drug release studies. Results proved that prepared solid SEDDS have good flow properties and improved drug solubility and dissolution profiles (99.95%) when compared to pure efavirenz.36.
5. Amrutkar,C. et al (2014) The aim of the present study is to improve solubility and hence bioavailability of Rosuvastatin calcium using self nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS). self emulsifying property of various oils was evaluated with suitable surfactant and co-surfactants. Ternary phase diagram was constructed based on Rosuvastatin calcium solubility analysis for optimizing the systems. Media And Creativity! The prepared formulation were evaluated for self emulsification time, dispersibility study, average globule size, Polydispersibility index (PDI). Restate! The globule size of optimized system was less than 100nm which could be an in spanish, acceptable nanoemulsion range. The average globule size of the selected F2 SNEDDS formulation (Capmul MCM [20%], Tween 20 [40%] and PEG 200 [40%]) was 88.01nm. Restate A Thesis! In vitro drug release studies showed remarkable increase in essay, dissolution of F2 SNEDDS compared to marketed formulation.37. 6. . Choudhary,S.B. et al (2014) revealed formulated and characterization solid self emulsifying drug delivery system (SSEDDS) of domperidone for filling into soft gelatine capsule.
Pseudo ternary phase diagrams were constructed and liquid SEDDS formulations were prepared which consists of restate, oleic acid, tween 20 and propylene glycol as oil phase, surfactant and louisiana purchase essay, cosolvent respectively. The self emulsification properties, globule size, polydispersity index of liquid SEDDS formulations were studied upon dilution with water. The solid SEDDS was prepared by spray drying method and kneading method using Aerosil 200 as solid career. The solid state characterization of the solid SEDDS was performed by SEM, DSC, and X-ray powder diffraction. The results from this study demonstrate the potential use of SEDDS as a means of improving solubility, dissolution, and restate a thesis statement, concomitantly the bioavailability.38. 7. Essay Eyes Photography! .Gikwad,S. et al. (2012) A reaserch on self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) to enhance the solubility of the poorly water-soluble drug Orlistat. These drugs can be successfully formulated for oral administration, but care needs to be taken with formulation design to ensure consistent bioavailability.
Solubility of restate a thesis, Orlistat was evaluated in various nonaqueous carriers that included oils, surfactants, and cosurfactants. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the self-microemulsification region. The self microemulsification properties, droplet size and thermodynamic stability of these formulations were studied upon and Creativity dilution with water.38. 8. . Sachan,R. et al. (2010) To develop a formulation For the improvement of bioavailability of drugs with such properties presents one of the greatest challenges in drug formulations dissolution rate which may improve therapeutic performance and drug loading capacity so as to a thesis statement develop alternative to traditional oral formulations to improve bioavailability. In this study Labrafac, Tween 80 and PEG 200 were selected as oil, surfactant and co-surfactant respectively. Essays In Spanish! Formulation development and screening was done based on results obtained from a thesis, phase diagrams and characteristics of resultant microemulsions.39. 9. Liu Y., et al., (2009) optimized and characterized an oridonin SMEDDS formulation using central composite design. In this study effect of concentration of oil andsurfactant and co-surfactant ratio has been studied. College Essays In Spanish! Study concluded that, this model is useful for optimization of restate a thesis statement, SMEDDS formulation. In-vitro drug release showed that, there was increase in drug release as compared to powder formulation.40. 10.
Balakrishnan P., et al., (2009) prepared a solid SMEDDS of dexibuprofen by louisiana purchase student essay, spray drying technique using Aerosil 200 as a solid carrier. Statement! After conversion in to solid form S-SMEDDS retains its self emulsification capacity. In-vitro drug release showed that, there was increase in drug release as compared to powder formulation. In-vivo study showed that increase in bioavailability. Study concluded that, in the form of Solid SMEDDS it retains all characteristics of liquid and it can become helpful solid dosage form.41. 11. College Essays! Singh A. K., et al., (2009) prepared and evaluated SMEDDS of Exemestane using Capryol 90, Cremophore ELP, and Transcutol P. They compared drug release with marketed formulation in different pH. They found extensive increase of a thesis, drug release than marketed formulation. They also compared absorption of college in spanish, drug with that of drug suspension. They found enhanced drug absorption from SMEDDS.
Study concluded that, SMEDDS have potential of enhancing solubility, absorption and hence bioavailability of poorly water soluble drug.42. 12. Shaji J., et al., (2008) formulated and restate a thesis statement, evaluated SMEDDS of Celecoxib. They optimized formulation using 33 factorial design. Essays In Spanish! Particle size was taken as response variable. Restate! Study showed that, concentration of essay tuition, different components showed prominent effect on particle size and appearance of restate a thesis statement, dispersion. They found enhanced drug absorption from SMEDDS. Study concluded that, SMEDDS have potential of enhancing solubility, absorption and essay tuition, hence bioavailability of poorly water soluble drug.43.
13. Atef E., et al., (2008) formulated and evaluated SMEDDS of phenytoin and compared its relative bioavailability with marketed formulation. Results showed that, extensive increase in restate a thesis statement, drug release form SMEDDS as compared to that of writing, marketed suspension. Also in-vivo study showed improvement in bioavailability. Study concluded that, SMEDDS is promising formulation to increase drug release as well as bioavailability of poorly water soluble compounds In-vitro drug release showed that, there was increase in drug release as compared to powder formulation.44. 14. Fatouros D. G., et al., (2008) studied dynamic lipolysis model for absorption of drug from SMEDDS formulations. They also studied IVIVC with the a thesis statement help of neuro-fuzzy networks.
Study concluded that, in evaluation of SMEDDS for prediction of in-vivo behavior in-vitro dynamic lipolysis model is a possible means.45. 15. Social! Shikov A., et al., (2008) Prepared and characterized SMEDDS of flavonoids. Prepared SMEDDS formulation was evaluated for self emulsification capacity, droplet size and for restate, bioavailability. In Spanish! Results showed that, They found enhanced drug absorption from a thesis statement, SMEDDS. Study concluded that, SMEDDS have potential of enhancing solubility, absorption and hence bioavailability of ana thesis, poorly water soluble drug. Restate! there was 2-5 fold increase in essay tuition, bioavailability as compared to flavonoid in powder form.46. 16.
Woo J. Statement! S., et al., (2008) developed SMEDDS of Itraconazole and studied and compared in-vivo study in human volunteers with marketed formulation having double dose. Study concluded that, there is extensive increase in bioavailability with reduced food effect by louisiana purchase essay, SMEDDS formulation as compared with marketed formulation. They found enhanced drug absorption from SMEDDS. Study concluded that, SMEDDS have potential of enhancing solubility, absorption and hence bioavailability of restate a thesis statement, poorly water soluble drug.47. 17. Mandawgade S. D., et al., (2008) developed SMEDDS using natural lipophile as oil phase and also compared its performance with synthetic oils. For this study beta-Artemether was used as drug.
Oil was previously evaluated for toxicity studies. Prepared SMEDDS was evaluated for globule size, in-vitro and 5 paragraph formula, in-vivo study. Study concluded that, performance of natural lipophiles is better than that of commercially available synthetic oils hence can be used in SMEDDS as it is safe.48. 18. Restate Statement! Yi T., et al., (2008) developed a controlled release solid SMEDDS of nimodipine using HPMC. They have prepared batches by mixing drug with HPMC and another batch by dissolving drug and Social Media, HPMC in the SMEDDS. Prepared self emulsifying formulations were evaluated for surface characterization, reconstituted properties, inner physical structure and a thesis, in-vitro drug release study. Study concluded that, It can be possible to louisiana purchase formulate controlled release formulations of poorly water soluble drug by statement, SMEDDS using high viscosity grade HPMC.49. 19.
Yi T., et al., (2008) developed a S-SMEDDS of nimodipine. In Spanish! Prepared S-SMEDDS was evaluated for in-vitro and in-vivo absorption study. They have studied effect of dilution media and a thesis, enzymatic digestion on essay, solubilization of drug .Results showed that, there is faster dissolution rate of restate statement, drug from S-SMEDDS than that of conventional tablet and enhancement of Social Media and Creativity, absorption as compared to liquid SMEDDS. A Thesis Statement! . Prepared SMEDDS was evaluated for Media and Creativity, globule size, in-vitro and a thesis, in-vivo study. Eyes Politics! Study concluded that, performance of natural lipophiles is better than that of commercially available synthetic oils hence can be used in restate a thesis statement, SMEDDS as it is safe. Study concluded that, S-SMEDDS can become constructive dosage form for college, oral use.50. 20. Restate Statement! Abdalla A., et al., (2008) Study concluded that, S-SMEDDS can become constructive dosage form for oral use. developed self emulsifying formulation in the form of pellets by extrusion and spheronization technique. In. this study they found that, droplet size decreases after dilution. Study concluded that, solubilzation depend on concentration of secretions like bile salts and phospolipid.
SMEDDS can besuccessfully transformed into pellets form and can become another method to encapsulate material into hard gelatin capsule.51. 21. Eyes Politics! Lu J. L., et al., (2008) developed SMEDDS of 9NC to enhance bioavailability and anticancer effect. Restate A Thesis! They prepared microemulsion of 9NC and characterized for citotoxicity and bioavailability study. Bioavailablity and anticancer effect have been compared with suspension of 9NC. In Spanish! Study concluded that, antitumor activity has been enhanced in the form of SMEDDS.52. 22. Patel D., et al., (2007) developed SMEDDS of Acyclovir. Prepared formulations were evaluated for different parameters.
Absorption of restate a thesis, drug from SMEDDS was compared with plain drug solution. Results showed that, there was 3.5 fold increases in bioavailability by SMEDDS. Social Media And Creativity! Study concluded that, bioavailability of drug can be enhanced using SMEDDS approach. . Results showed that there were 5 fold reductions in plasma cholesterol and restate statement, 4 fold reductions in plasma triglycerides when compared with reference formulation of drug suspension. Study concluded that, there was better biopharmaceutical performance of drug from college in spanish, SEDDS.53. 23.
Cirri M., et al., (2007), formulated oral liquid spray formulation of xibornol using SMEDDS. Prepared formulations were evaluated for a thesis statement, rheological, stability, SAXS and in-vivo study. The study found that, SMEDDS can be used to prepare stable and effective oral liquid spray formulation. Absorption of drug from eyes, SMEDDS was compared with plain drug solution. A Thesis Statement! Results showed that, there was 3.5 fold increases in bioavailability by SMEDDS. In Spanish! Study concluded that, bioavailability of restate a thesis, drug can be enhanced using SMEDDS approach.54.
24. Patil P., et al., (2007) formulated a SEDDS for simvastatin. Prepared SEDDS was evaluated for turbidometric analysis, particle size, in-vitro drug diffusion and in-vivo study in rat. Results showed that there were 5 fold reductions in plasma cholesterol and 4 fold reductions in plasma triglycerides when compared with reference formulation of drug suspension. Study concluded that, there was better biopharmaceutical performance of drug from SEDDS.55. 25. Patel A. R., et al., (2007) formulated and 5 paragraph, evaluated SMEDDS of fenofibrate. From solubility study of drug in different components oil, surfactant and co-surfactant were selected and pseudo ternary phase diagram were constructed. From this SMEDDS were prepared and evaluated for thermodynamic, dissolution, stability study and lipid lowering capacity. Study concluded that, SMEDDS can improve dissolution rate and hence bioavailability of drug which become substitute for oral drug delivery system. Study concluded that, there was better biopharmaceutical performance of drug from restate, SEDDS.56.
26. Formula! Shen H., et al., (2006) prepared and evaluated SMEDDS of atorvastatin using Labrafil, PEG and Cremophor RH40. From solubility study of drug in restate a thesis, different components oil, surfactant and co-surfactant were selected and 5 paragraph, pseudo ternary phase diagram were constructed. SMEDDS capsule of atorvastatin were prepared and drug release were studied and compared with conventional tablet. Results showed that release of drug was much higher from restate statement, SMEDDS capsule than that of tablet. Study concluded that, bioavailability of drug can be enhanced using SMEDDS capsule than conventional tablet. controlled release of drug can be obtained from lipid formulations in essay tuition, tablet dosage form.57.
27. Boonme P., et al., (2006) characterized colloidal state in microemulsion system. Restate! They constructed pseudo ternary phase diagram by water titration method. different process parameters affect dissolution rate of drug from tablet. Study concluded that, controlled release of drug can be obtained from college essays, lipid formulations in tablet dosage form. Different samples were prepared by keeping surfactant concentration of 45 % and by varying proportion of restate a thesis statement, water.
Prepared samples were evaluated for appearance, viscosity, conductivity, DSC, SEM and NMR. Study concluded that, if composition has 15 % of water, it contain reverse micelles, W/O emulsion obtain if it contain 15-30 % of water and it gives O/W emulsion of it contain more than 35 % of essay formula, water.58 28. Nazzal S., et al., (2006) evaluated different process parameters which affect release of drug from SNEDDS in tablet dosage form. A Thesis! Solid preparation was prepared to louisiana purchase study absorption of drug in rat and restate statement, dog. Prepared tablets were evaluated for dissolution and stability studies. Essay Tuition! Results showed that, different process parameters affect dissolution rate of drug from tablet. Study concluded that, controlled release of drug can be obtained from lipid formulations in tablet dosage form.59 29.
Wu W., et al., (2006) prepared SMEDDS of silymarin. From solubility study of drug Tween 80, ethyl alcohol and ethyl linoleate were selected as formulation components Solid preparation was prepared to restate statement study absorption of drug in rat and student essay, dog. Statement! Results showedthat Florite RE gives more absorption of drug both in rat and dog. Formula! Results showed that, there is increase in particle size as increase in drug loading in formulation. Drug release was much higher than that of crude drug powder. Study concluded that by using SMEDDS bioavailability of silymarin can be enhanced.60 30.
Ito Y., et al., (2005) prepared solid formulation of gentamicin using different adsorbents and restate a thesis, surfactant to enhance absorption of drug. Florite RE, Neusilin US2 and Sylysia 320 were used as adsorbents and Labrasol was used as surfactant. Social Media And Creativity! Prepared formulation was evaluated for restate a thesis statement, particle size, drug release and bioavailability study. Results showed that, there is increase in particle size as increase in drug loading in formulation Study concluded that by using adsorbent and surfactant system oral solid formulations can be prepared so as to increase absorption of poorly absorbable drug.61 31. Sha X., et al., (2005) studied effect of charge and dilution on TEER and permeability of mannitol by formulating SMEDDS using Labrasol and also studied effect of dilution of surfactant on ZO-1 and F-actin. Study concluded that, SMEDDS of both positive and negative charge containing Labrasol are capable of enhancing the paracellular tramsport of mannitol across Caco-2 cell at different dilutions. , there was significant increase in rate and extent of absorption of drug as compared to capsule. It was also found that, there was 1.5 fold increases in louisiana essay, bioavailability than tablet. Study concluded that, SMEDDS can be beneficial for oral delivery of poorly water soluble drug such as simvastatin.62 32. . Subramanian N., et al., (2004) developed and optimized SMEDDS of Celecoxib using simplex lattice mixture design. Prepared SMEDDS were evaluated for Clarity, solubility, in-vitro dissolution and in-vivo study. Results showed thatRelative bioavailability with capsule was found to be 132 %. Study concluded that, prepared formulation will reduce variability in restate, absorption and rate and gives rapid onset of action of drug.
It was also found that, there was 1.5 fold increases in bioavailability than tablet. Study concluded that, SMEDDS can be beneficial for oral delivery of poorly water soluble drug such as simvastatin.63 33. Kang B. K., et al., (2004) prepared SMEDDS of college essays, simvastatin using Carpryol 90, Cremophor EL and restate statement, Carbitol. Prepared formulations were evaluated for Sustained drug release was achieved by using Silicon dioxide as gelling agent which retarded release of drug, in-vitro dissolution study and bioavailability study. Results showed that, in-vitro of drug was much higher that that of conventional tablet. It was also found that, there was 1.5 fold increases in bioavailability than tablet. Study concluded that, SMEDDS can be beneficial for oral delivery of poorly water soluble drug such as simvastatin.64 34. Between Photography! Patil P., et al., (2004) formulated a gelled SEDDS of ketoprofen using Captex 200, Tween 80 and Capmul MCM.
Sustained drug release was achieved by using Silicon dioxide as gelling agent which retarded release of drug. A Thesis Statement! Study concluded that, as concentration of gelling agent increases it increase droplet size of emulsion formed which helps in slowing drug diffusion. Eyes Politics! It was also found that, as concentration of co-surfactant increase drug release from statement, dosage form also increases.65 35. Holm R., et al., (2003) importance of this examined oral absorption and lymphatic transport of halofantrine in SMEDDS containing triglycerides, Sustained drug release was achieved by using Silicon dioxide as gelling agent which retarded release of drug. Maisine-35-1 and Cremophor EL. Study verified that, after administration of halofantrine in college, SMEDDS lymphatic transport and absorption was affected. Study concluded that, by using differentstructure of triglycerides it is achievable to enhance lymphatic transport of compound without affecting its availability.66 36. Itoh K., et al., (2002) the aim of a thesis statement, this present researched topic improved solubility of N-4472 by formulating self-micro emulsifying system using Gelucirei??i?? 44/14, HCO and SDS. Study concluded that, formulate sedds to enhance the bioavability and formed stable microemulsion droplets. SDS showed vital role in stability of microemulsion droplets.67 37.
Agarwal V., et al., (2000) investigated effect griseofulvin SMEDDS addition to silica and silicate on flow properties and 5 paragraph formula, in-vitro drug release. Results showed that, increase in surface area increases dissolution of drug. Study concluded that, nature and restate a thesis statement, amount of adsorbent affect flow properties and dissolution of drug in SMEDDS. In-vitro drug release showed that, there was increase in drug release as compared to college powder formulation.68 38. Kim H. J., et al., (2000) developed SMEDDS of idebenone using Labrafil 2609, Labrasol. Restate A Thesis Statement! Transcutol and Plurol oleique WL1173 so as to essay enhance bioavailability by the increasing the solubility of the poorly water solublr drug. Results showed that, in-vitro dissolution rate of drug were increased 2 folds than that of tablet. Study concluded that, SMEDDS can be used as substitute for traditional oral formulations to enhance bioavailability of idebenone.69 39. Restate! Chen G. L., et al., (1996) the importance of this present researched study was validated bioanalytical method for determination of writing, Verapamil from plasma by HPLC for pharmacokinetic study of Verapamil. They also studied sensitivity, specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision and sample stability of method. For the purpose of sedds evaluation.70 40.
Shah N. H., et al., (1994) the aim of this study was investigated emulsification efficiency of polyglycolyzed glycerides (PGG) and polyethylene glycol (PEG). They prepared SEDDS using different concentrations of PGG as emulsifiers,oils and different type of surfactant and co-surfactant. Restate A Thesis! Neobee M5 and Peanut Oil were selected as oil. Louisiana Student Essay! Drug having good solubility in oil was selected for this study. Study showed that, PGG can be used as emulsifier for preparation of SEDDS.71 MATERIAL METHOD 4. MATERIAL AND METHOD 4.1 MATERIALS Table 4.1: List of materials with sources S. No. Materials Source 1. Telmisartan Skymap Pharmaceuticals, Roorie 2. Tween 80 Loba chemic laboratory regents Mumbai 3. PEG 400 Nasco laboratory 4. Restate! Methanol Loba chemic laboratory regents Mumbai 5. Hydrochloric acid Loba chemic laboratory regents Mumbai 6. Orange oil Burgone laboratory Mumbai Table 4.2: List of equipments with make S. No. And Creativity! Equipment Make 1. Analytical balance Fuji electronic balance 2. Melting point apparatus Jyoti digital auto melting apparatus 3. UV – Spectrophotometer Jasco japan-v630 4. Dissolution apparatus Jyoti standard dissolution apparatus 5. FTIR Jasco-japan FT/IR/4100 7. mixing Jyoti lab gwl. INDIA 8. Hot air oven Jyoti lab gwl.
INDIA 9. Water bath Jyoti lab gwl.INDIA 4.1.1 Drug profile: Telmisartan72 Telmisartan is 4’-[[4-Methyl-6-(1-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-2-propyl-1H-benzimidazol-1- yl]methyl]biphenyl-2-carboxylic acid. Structural formula ‘ Figure 3.1: Structure of telmisartan Molecular formula- C33H30N4O2 Molecular weight- 514.6 Definition 4’-[[4-Methyl-6-(1-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-2-propyl-1H-benzimidazol-1- yl]methyl]biphenyl-2-carboxylic acid. A Thesis! Content: 99.0 per cent to 101.0 per cent (dried substance). Social! Category: Antihypertensive. Dose: 20 to 80 mg. Half life: 24 hrs. Appearance: White or slightly yellowish, crystalline powder. Solubility: Practically insoluble in water, slightly soluble in methanol, sparingly soluble in restate a thesis, methylene chloride.
It dissolves in college essays in spanish, 1 M sodium hydroxide. A Thesis! It exhibits polymorphism. Melting point: 261 ‘ 263oC. Storage: it should be stored at in spanish room temperature (15 – 30 i??i??C), away from moisture and light. Mechanism of action: It is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Telmisartan exhibits high affinity with the angiotensin II type one receptors in adrenal gland and in a thesis statement, vascular smooth muscles. It works by Social Media, binding to the angiotensin II receptor. It inhibits the action of angiotensin which is a vasoconstrictor.
Angiotensin also stimulates the synthesis and release of aldosterone. By blocking the vasoconstrictor effect of the angiotensin and blocking the restate a thesis statement aldosterone, Telmisartan reduces the systemic vascular resistance. Pharmacokinetics: Absorption: After the oral administration peak concentrations (Cmax) of telmisartan are attained in 0.5 to 1 hour. Ingestion with food slightly decreases the bioavailability of essay, Telmisartan. A Thesis! Absolute bioavailability is dose dependent. Essay Tuition! At 40 and restate, 160 mg the bioavailability was found to be 42% and 58%, respectively. Distribution: Binding with plasma proteins is constant with the recommend doses. It is highly binding with the essay tuition plasma proteins (more than 99.5 %).
It has a volume of statement, distribution of around 500 L. Between Essay Photography Politics! Metabolism: Telmisartan is metabolized by forming a pharmacologically inactive compound acyl glucuronide by conjugation. The only identifiable compound in the human plasma and urine is the glucuronide. Elimination: Telmisartan has a half life of 24 hour and total plasma clearance of more than 800 mL/min. More than 97% of the orally/IV administered telmisartan is restate statement eliminated in the feces via biliary excretion, unchanged. Uses: It is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). Adverse effects: The common reported adverse effects of telmisartan are upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) (7%), Back pain (3%), Diarrhea (3%), Myalgia (3%), and Sinusitis (3%).
Some rare adverse effects (1%) are abnormal ECG, anemia, angina, angioedema, bradycardia, eczema, epistaxis, gout, and hypercholesterolemia. Drug interactions: Telmisartan has found interacting with several drugs such as, benazepril, benazepril, benazepril, benazepril, benazepril, and student, benazepril etc. Caution is advised when combination will be used. Dosage forms: It is commonly used in restate statement, the form of tablets of 20, 40, and 80 mg. 4.1.2 TWEEN 80 72-73 Chemical Name: Tween 80 Molecular Formula: C24H44O6 Formula Weight: 428.600006103516 Tween 80 Property Boiling point- 100i??i??C. Dencity – 1.08 g/mL at 20 i??i??C. Vapour pressure- 230 i??i??F. storage temp. : Store at RT. From- viscous liquid. Water Solubility : 5-10 g/100 mL at 23 i??i??C. EPA Substance Registry System: Sorbitan, mono-(9Z)-9-octadecenoate, poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivs.(9005-65-6)
Tween 80 Chemical Properties,Usage,Production. Yellow to amber liquid. Amber-colored viscous liquid. pH (5% aqueous solution) 5-7. Faint odor and bitter taste. Air Water Reactions.
Tween 80 is incompatible with strong alkalis and Social, oxidizers. Tween 80 is probably combustible. 4.1.3 ORANGE OIL 72-73:- It was the restate a thesis statement important and essincial oil can be produse by ana thesis writing, the cells in the fruits of restate, oranges. Essay Tuition! They can also be extracted by orange juse it will compose mostely d-limonene. That will be extract to the oil by distillation. Odour- fresh and tangy smell, Coloue- yellow to orange in color. Self life- approximately 6 months.
Origin of Sweet orange oil. This evergreen tree has dark green leaves and white flowers and bright orange round fruit with roughish skin. The trees are native to China, but are now cultivated extensively in statement, America. 1. It can be used many Curacao type liqueurs. 2. for Media, the flavoring of restate statement, food. 3. drink and college in spanish, confectionery. 4. when added to furniture polish. 5. helps to protect against damage from insects. The orange oil are extracted by cold-pressing and yields 0.3 -0.5 %. It can also use for the medicinal perpose that will gives several therapeutic actions are antiseptic, anti-depressant, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, carminative, diuretic, cholagogue, sedative and tonic. The main chemical components of orange oil are a-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, limonene, linalool, citronellal, neral and geranial.
1. It is a safe non-toxic, non-irritant and non-sensitizing oil, 2. yet care must be taken with it since it can have a phototoxic effect. 3. It should therefore preferably not be applied before going out into a thesis statement sunlight for prolonged periods. Iupac name – polyethylene glycol. – 90.0 cst at essays in spanish 25 i??i??C, 7.3 cst at 99 i??i??C.
PEG 400 properties. 1. (polyethylene glycol 400) is a low-molecular-weight grade of polyethylene glycol. 2. It is a clear, 4. viscous liquid. 5. Due in part to its low toxicity, PEG 400 is widely used in statement, a variety of writing, pharmaceutical formulations. 1. PEG 400 is soluble in water, acetone, alcohols, benzene, glycerin, glycols, and aromatic hydrocarbons, and is slightly soluble in aliphatic hydrocarbons.
2. PEG 400 is strongly hydrophilic. 3. The partition coefficient of PEG 400 between hexane and water is 0.000015 (log ), indicating that when PEG 400 is mixed with water and hexane, 4. Statement! there are only 15 parts of essay tuition, PEG 400 in the hexane layer per 1 million parts of PEG 400 in the water layer. PEG 400 is soluble in water, acetone, alcohols, benzene, glycerin, glycols, and restate, aromatic hydrocarbons, and is slightly soluble in aliphatic hydrocarbons. 4.2 Preformulation studies 72,73,74,75. To develop a safe, stable and therapeutically effective dosage form, preformulation studies are necessary to perform. Essay Tuition! The preformulation studies, which were performed in this project, include identification of drug, melting point analysis, solubility analysis, and quantitative estimation of drug.
4.2.1 Identification tests. ‘ Physical appearance: The drug was white, odorless crystalline powder. ‘ Melting point analysis: Melting point of telmisartan was determined by capillary method using melting point apparatus (Rolex- Digital melting point apparatus). ‘ FTIR study: Drug sample was vacuum dried for 12 h before IR studies. IR spectra of restate a thesis statement, pure telmisartan, PEG 4000, mannitol and solid dispersions of telmisartan were obtained by a Shimadzu IR Prestige-21 FT-IR spectrophotometer using KBr pellets. The scanning range used was 4000 to 400cm-1.
The observed peaks were reported for functional groups. 4.2.2 Loss on ana thesis writing, drying73-74. It was determined on a thesis statement, 1 g drug by college in spanish, drying it in a hot air oven at 105oC. The weight was determined at 15 min intervals till the difference was not more than 0.5 mg. The total difference in weight should not be more than 0.5%. 4.2.3 Determination of ‘max 73. Accurately weighed sample of 10 mg of telmisartan was dissolved in 50 mL of methanol in a 100 mL volumetric flask and then the volume was made up to 100 mL with methanol.
Then, 1 mL of this stock solution was pipetted into restate a 10 mL volumetric flask and volume was made up to in spanish the 10 mL mark with methanol. The resulting solution was scanned between 200-600 nm using UV/Vis double beam spectrophotometer (UV-1700, Shimadzu, Japan). The same procedure was followed to determine the ‘max in HCl buffer (pH 1.2). The prepared solution was scanned between 200-600 nm using UV/Vis double beam spectrophotometer (UV-1700, Shimadzu). To determine ‘max in water, accurately weighed 10 mg sample of telmisartan was dissolved in 50 mL of methanol in a 100 mL volumetric flask and volume was made up to 100 mL with methanol. Statement! Then, 1 mL of this stock solution was pipetted into a 10 mL volumetric flask and volume made up to the 10 mL mark with distilled water. Social And Creativity! The resulting solution was scanned between 200-600 nm using UV/Vis double beam spectrophotometer (UV-1700, Shimadzu, Japan). 4.2.4 Quantitative estimation of restate a thesis, drug73-74. Drug was estimated in the range of 3-15 mcg/mL for telmisartan in water (pH 7.0), HCl buffer (pH 1.2) and writing, methanol.
Preparation of HCl buffer (pH 1.2): 50 mL of 0.2 M KCl was added in a 200 mL volumetric flask then 85 mL of HCl solution (0.2 M) was added in the flask and volume was adjusted to a thesis 200 mL with distilled water32. 4.2.5 Construction of calibration curve of telmisarta73. 220.127.116.11. Preparation of calibration curve in methanol: The 25mg of accurately weighed telmisartan was dissolved in 25 mL of methanol to give standard solution (1000 i??i??g/mL). From this standard solution, 3 mL was pipetted out and volume was made up to 100 mL with methanol referred as stock solution of concentration 30i??i??g/ mL. Aliquots of 5 paragraph formula, 1 mL, 2 mL, 3 mL, 4 mL and 5 mL of stock solution were pipetted out into separate 10 mL volumetric flask. The volume was made up to the mark with methanol.
This results in samples of 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 ‘g/mL concentration, respectively. The absorbance of prepared solution of telmisartan in methanol was measured at 296.5 nm in Shimadzu UV-1700 spectrophotometer against an appropriate blank. 18.104.22.168. Preparation of calibration curve in HCl buffer (pH 1.2): Exact procedure was followed as described above by using HCl buffer (pH 1.2) instead of methanol. The absorbance was recorded at 296 nm. 4.2.6. solublity of telmisartain in different medium. Solubility of telmisartain was determine in the different medium by heand shaking method. 3.3 Formulation 76. 4.3.1 identification of statement, microemulsion region : Determine solubility of telmisartain in different -2 medium then select three medium orange oil as oil, PEG 400 as surfactant and tween 80 as co-surfactant. Micro-emulsion region was identify by constructing pseudo ternary phase diagram with the help of different proportion of surfactant and between eyes, co-surfactant (1:1, 2:1, 3:1). They are mix with oils at a thesis statement different proportion (1:9, 2:8, 3:7, 4:6, 5:5, 6:4, 7:3, 8:2, 9:1) and formula, the complete mixture was titrate with water and noted the equbliurem point.
At which point the restate statement mixture will show clear. 4.3.2 preparation of liquid SMEDDS: Due to the higher microemulsion region in the 3:1 proportion (surfactant:co-surfctant) was selected for the preparation of writing, LSEDDS. 1. Required amount of PEG 400 and tween 80 was take and mix with the restate a thesis statement help of stirrer until they compatibly mix. 2. Ana Thesis Writing! Aquaretly weight telmisartain and restate statement, take required amount of orange oil and writing, mix il. 3. Drug mixture place on water bath until drug completely dissolve in oil. 4. Both the mixture are mix togather on restate, the magnatic stirrer untill they are compleately mix and form a isotropic mixture. 5. Store in the glass bottle.
Table 4.3 chemical requirements. Orange oil 50 ml. Tween 80 12.5 ml. Telmisartain 2000 mg. 4.4 CHARACTERIZATION :76-77. 4.4.1 stability study :76. 22.214.171.124 heating cooling cycle: for the Social stability study of LSEDDS pass six cycle between hot and cool temperature (40c-450c) with storing not less then 48hrs at each temp. not seen any type of phase sapration. 126.96.36.199 centrifugation test: After passing heating cooling cycle it would be pass with centrifugation test. The sample of LSEDDS placed in centrifuge for 30min and show any type of precipitation. If not seen it would be go to the next stability test.
188.8.131.52 freeze thaw cycle: This test is again at cool and hot temperature (-210C to +250C) 48 hrs at each temp. If the LSEDDS pass all the stability parameter means the system becomes stable. 4.4.2 cloud point measurement : 76-77. Liquid SMEDDS was diluted with distilled water at 250 times LSEDDS : distill water(1:250), placed in a thesis statement, a water bath and its temperature was increased slowely-2.
Cloud point was measured as the temperature at which there was a sudden appearance of cloudiness visually. 4.4.3 solubility test .77-78. Solubility of LSEDDS was determine at essays buffer solution at 1.2ph, 7.4ph, and restate a thesis statement, methanol by using standard paddle type dissolution test apparatus. 184.108.40.206 Preparation of HCl buffer (pH 1.2): 50 mL of 0.2 M KCl was added in a 200 mL volumetric flask then 85 mL of HCl solution (0.2 M) was added in the flask and volume was adjusted to 200 mL with distilled water. 220.127.116.11 Buffer pH 7.4: Mix 50 mI of solution containing 1.944 per college in spanish, cent w/v ofsodium acetate and restate statement, 2.946 per cent w/v of barbitone sodium with 50.5 mI of 0.1 M hydrochloric acid, add 20 mI of an 8.5 per cent w/v solution of sodium chloride and dilute with water to 250 mI.
4.4.4 efficiency of self emulsification :76-77. Using USP- type-II dissolution test apparatus (Veego VDA-8DR). 1 mL of Liquid SMEDDS was added drop wise to 5 paragraph formula 200 ml of 0.1 N HCl at 37i??i??C. agitate using by using standard stainless at rotating paddle at statement 60 rpm. SMEDDS assessed visually according to the rate of emulsification and final appearance of the emulsion. 4.4.5 Robustness to dilution :76. it can be studied by by diluting LSEDDS at between essay eyes photography politics different concentration with distill wate. 1. Prepare HCL buffer solution PH 7.4, PH 1.2. 2. Prepare dilution with both the solution at following concentration. 3. Store for 12 hrs.
4. Observe any type of phase saperation or pracipation. 4.4.6 % transmittance :76. For the restate statement determination of louisiana student, % transmittance take. 1. 1ml of LSEDDS and diluted till 100ml with distilled water. 2. Scan this sample in restate, the uv spectroscopy. 3. Between Politics! observe any type of turbidity and a thesis statement, % transmittance. 4.4.7 Dye solubility test : 76. This test can be perform for the conformation of oil in essay eyes politics, water nature of LSEDDS by observing sopntenious dispersion. 1. Take water soluble dye and sufficient quantity of LSEDDS. 2. Rapidly incorporate dye into the system. 4.4.8. in restate a thesis, vitro drug release:76-77.
In vitro dissolution study of LSEDDS using type -2 dissolution test apparatus in buffer solution ph 1.2, ph 7.4 at 370 c. 18.104.22.168 Drug release in buffer solution at 1.2 PH :- 1. Prepare buffer solution 1.2 PH by the help of indian pharmacopeia. 2. Fill in the type-2 dissolution test apparatus upto 900ml . 3. Palce 2ml sapmle of LSEDDS in the apparatus. Start the assumbaly. 4. Take sample after regular interwal. 5 min, 10 min,15 min,30 min,45 min,60 min,90 min,120 min. 5. The all sample was filtered with whatmant filter paper.
And dilute upto 10ml. 6. Essay Tuition! If there concentration is high then take again 1ml to all the samples and and dilute again upto 10ml. 7. The sample was scan into restate the uv spectroscopy at between photography politics 296nm. 22.214.171.124 Drug release in buffer solution at 7.4 PH :- 1. Prepare buffer solution 7.4 PH by the help of indian pharmacopeia. 2. Fill in the type-2 dissolution test apparatus upto 900ml . 3. Palce 2ml sapmle of LSEDDS in the apparatus. Start the assumbaly. 4. Take sample after regular interwal. 5 min, 10 min,15 min,30 min,45 min,60 min,90 min,120 min.
5. Restate A Thesis! The all sample was filtered with whatmant filter paper. And dilute upto 10ml. 6. If there concentration is high then take again 1ml to all the samples and and dilute again upto 10ml. 7. The sample was scan into the uv spectroscopy at ana thesis 296nm. 4.4.9 drug contant:76-77-78-79. drug content of LSEDDS should be determine by a thesis statement, diluting 1 ml sample of LSEDDS with distill water.
Take there absorbance in uv-spectroscopy at296nm. 1. Essay Tuition! Take 1ml sample of LSEDDS and a thesis, dilute with distill water upto 100ml. 2. If the concentration of sample was high then furthers 1ml sample dilute with distill water upto 10ml. 3. Scan this sample in purchase essay, uv-spactroscopy. 4. Calculate there percentage by a thesis, the help of leaner line equation. RESULT AND DISCUSSION. Table 5.1: Melting point of telmisartan.
S. Social Media And Creativity! No. Melting point Result. 5.1 LOSS ON DRYING: The results were within the acceptable limit which is 0.5%. Table 5.2: Loss on drying. S.No. Time (min) Weight (mg) Difference in a thesis, weight (mg)
Total difference 2.9. 5.2 FTIR spectroscopy: FT-IR spectra of pure drug telmisartan and 5 paragraph essay formula, its solid dispersion which are shown in restate a thesis, figure 7.1 and 7.4. There was not any significant interaction found between drug and and Creativity, carriers which confirms the restate stability of drug in writing, the formulation. Table 5.3: Major peaks observed in FTIR spectrum of a thesis statement, telmisartan. S. No.
Standard peak Observed peak Comments. 1. Essay Formula! 3059.1cm-1 3080 cm-1 C-H stretching (aromatic) 2. Restate A Thesis Statement! 2958.8-2868.15 cm-1 2870-2738.92 cm-1 C-H stretching (aliphatic) 3. 1697.36 cm-1 1687.71 cm-1 C=O stretching. 5. 1521.84-1458.18 cm-1 1462.04 C=C stretching ring. Figure 5.1: FT-IR spectra of pure telmisartan.
5.4 LEMDA MAX OF TELMISARTAIN IN DIFFERENT SOLVENT SYSTEM : Table 5.4: Solvent systems, their parameters and values. S.No. Solvent system Parameters Values. 1. Methanol i??i??max 296.5 nm. Beer’s law range 3 – 15 mcg/mL. Regression line equation y = 0.050x + 0.007. Regression coefficient (R2) 0.999. 2. Buffer 7.4 i??i??max 298 nm. Beer’s law range 3 – 15 mcg/mL. Regression line equation y = 0.043x + 0.004.
Regression coefficient (R2) 0.999. 3. HCl buffer (pH 1.2) i??i??max 296 nm. Beer’s law range 3 – 15 mcg/mL. Regression line equation y = 0.046x + 0.007. Regression coefficient (R2) 0.999. 5.5 CALIBRATION CURVE OF TELMISARTAN IN DIFFERENT SOLVENT SYSTEM. Table 5.5: Calibration curve of politics, telmisartan in HCl buffer pH 7.4 and HCl buffer pH 1.2 at ‘max 298 nm and restate statement, 296 respectively. S.No. Eyes Photography Politics! Concentration (i??i??g/mL) HCl buffer pH 7.4 HCl buffer pH 1.2. Absorbance Regressed Absorbance Absorbance Regressed Absorbance.
2. 3 0.139 0.133 0.153 0.145. 3. 6 0.270 0.262 0.294 0.283. 4. 9 0.401 0.391 0.423 0.421. 5. 12 0.537 0.520 0.567 0.559. 6. 15 0.657 0.649 0.706 0.697. S.No.
Concentration (i??i??g/mL) Methanol. Absorbance Regressed Absorbance. Table 5.6: Calibration curve of telmisartan in methanol at ‘max 296.5 nm. Figure 5.2: Calibration curve of telmisartan in buffer 7.4 ph at 298 nm. Figure 5.3: Calibration curve of telmisartan in restate, HCl buffer pH 1.2 at 296 nm. Figure 5.4: Calibration curve of telmisartan in methanol at 296.5 nm.
5.6 SOLUBILITY OF TELMISARTAIN : Table 5.7: solubility of telmisartain in different medium. S.NO. MEDIUM SOLUBILITY. 1. Water Insoluble. 2. Social And Creativity! Hcl Springly soluble. 3. Methanol soluble. 5. PEG400 Soluble. 6. Tween 80 Springly soluble.
7. Tween 20 Springly soluble. 8. Span 80 Springly soluble. 5.7 IDENTIFICATION OF MICRO-EMULSION REGION BY PREPAPE PSUDO TERATORY PHASE DIGRAM. In this formulation preportion of surfactant and co surfactant is 1:1. Table 5.8: identification of micro-emulsion region. SMIX : OIL END POINT. In this formulation preportion of a thesis, surfactant and co surfactant is 2:1. Table 5.9: identification of micro-emulsion region.
SMIX : OIL END POINT. In this formulation preportion of essay tuition, surfactant and co surfactant is 3:1. Table 5.10: identification of micro-emulsion region. Smix : OIL END POINT. Result- Best micromulsion was found to be In formulation 3 at statement 5:5 proportion of oil and mixture of surfactant and co-surfactant denoted as smi. 5.8 FORMULATION OF LIQUID-SELF EMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM (LSEDDS). 5.8.1 chemical requirement: Table 5.11: chemicals requirements . Orange oil 50 ml. Tween 80 12.5 ml. Telmisartain 2000 mg/2gm. 5.9 EVALUATION OF LSEDDS.
5.9.1 stability study. Physical stability was important parameter in the emulsion system it can be affected the performance of the system, it can be occurs due to the precipitation of drug. Due to the poor stability of system bioavability of drug also affected. For the thermodynamic stability study of LSEDDS was perform by ana thesis, following perameater. 1. Heating cooling cycle.
2. A Thesis Statement! Centrifugation test. 3. Freeze thaw cycle. When system can not show any type of phase separation during heating cooling cycle then syatem can be tested in photography politics, the centrifugation for the drug pricipation then apply freeze thaw cycle for the stress test. 126.96.36.199 heating cooling cycle : 40c No separation. 450c No separation. 40c No separation. 450c No separation. 40c No separation. 450c No separation. 40c No separation.
450c No separation. 40c No separation. 450c No separation. 40c No separation. 450c No separation. Table 5.12: six cycle of heating cooling temp. Result ‘ not seen any type of phase saperation. 188.8.131.52 Centrifugation test:
Result- LSEDDS was centrifuge for 30 min there was not seen any type of restate a thesis statement, precipitation and phase saperation. 184.108.40.206 freeze thaw cycle. Table 5.13: three cycle of -210c to essay +250c. Cool temp. No change.
Hot temp. No change. Cool temp. No change. Hot temp. A Thesis Statement! No change. Cool temp. No change. Hot temp. No change. 5.9.2 cloud point measurement. Table 5.14: Cloud point. Sample Cloud point.
Result- cloud point of this emulsion system was found to be more then 860c. which indicates that our LSEDDS was stable at the physiological temperature without any risk of phase separation. 5.9.3 solubility study: Table 5.15: solubility of LSEDDS. Medium Solubility time. Buffer solution PH 1.2 Less than 5min. Buffer solution PH Less than 5min. 0.1 N HCL Less than 5min.
Result ‘ solubility of this system was found to be less than 5min which indicates that the student essay formulation also use in the sustain release drug delivery system with maximum bioavability. 5.9.4 Efficiency of restate a thesis statement, self-emulsification. Sample Efficiency of LSEDDS. 1 Less than 1min. 2 Less than 1min. 3 Less than 1min. Result ‘ this system rapidly form micro emulsion with in 1min it was clear and ana thesis, appearance was slightly blush. 5.9.5 Robustness to dilution : Table 5.15: dilution with different solvents. Concentration Water Buffer solution.
PH 1.2 Buffer solution. 50 times No change No change No change. 100 times No change No change No change. 500 times No change No change No change. 1000 times No change No change No change. Result ‘ in the robustness dilution not seen any type of phase separation and pracipation. Result- % trasmittance of this system was found to be 93.5. 5.9.7. dye solubility test.
Result- type of emulsion was conform by using dye solubility test in restate a thesis, which a water soluble colourfull dye rapid incorporate in the LSEDDS and observe. Which indicates that the continuous phase in this system is water. so it was conform that the LSEDDS was o/w micro emulsion. 5.9.8 in-vitro drug release profile. 220.127.116.11 drug release in buffer solution PH1.2. Table 5.16 in-vitro drug release of SEDDS. % cumulative drug release. Plain drug LSEDDS. 10 min 7.35 42.43. 15 min 11.63 61.36. 30 min 1.83 75.45.
45 min 18.64 83.33. 60 min 23.31 89.02. 90 min 27.15 95.26. 120 min 29.48 95.56. Figure 7.4 commulative % drug release of essay tuition, SEDDS and plain telmisartain in PH 1.2. 18.104.22.168 drug release in buffer solution PH 7.4.
Table 5.17 in-vitro drug release of SEDDS. % cumulative drug release. Plain drug LSEDDS. 10 min 11.38 47.39. 15 min 14.92 54.43. 30 min 19.61 73.13. 45 min 24.48 81.68. 60 min 28.29 90.83. 90 min 32.62 96.54. 120 min 33.46 98.12.
Figure 7.6 % commulative drug release of LSEDDS and plan telmisartain in PH 7.4. 5.9.9 drug content estimation. Table 5.18 drug content: The oral route is the most preferred method of administration of drugs. Unfortunately, this route is not possible for 50% of currently marketed drug compounds due to a thesis statement their low solubility in ana thesis writing, water and low oral bioavailability. We study that self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) can be used for the improvement of bioavailability of the drug. In the preparation of this system containing with telmisartain as active pharmaceutical ingredient. To increase bioavailability solubility of this drug. Due to poor solubility of telmisartain it cannot be formulate in the oral drug delivery system. But with the help of LSEDDS it’s possible to give telmisartain via oral drug delivery system.
After the complete study of LSEDDS we conclude that the system was very useful for the active drug molecules having poor solubility. 1. Yamamoto, J. and H. Tanaka, prepare neomatic phase in the liquid micro-emulsion. Nature (London), 2001. Restate Statement! 409(6818): p. 321-325. 2. Porter, C.J.H., N.L. 5 Paragraph Essay Formula! Trevaskis, and W.N. Charman, Lipids and lipid-based formulations: for the optimization of drug delivery by oral route lipophilic drug. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 2007. 6(3): p. 231-248.
3. Restate A Thesis Statement! Humberstone, A.J. and W.N. Charman, the Social oral drug delivery of poorly water soluble drugs. By forming a lipid based drug delivery system Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 1997. 25(1): p. 103-128. 4. Kommuru, T.R., et al., Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) of coenzyme Q10: formulation development and bioavailability assessment By forming a lipid based drug delivery system Advanced Drug Delivery. Restate A Thesis! Int J Pharm, 2001. 212(2): p. 233-46. 5. Neslihan Gursoy, R. and S. Benita, Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) for improved bioavability of poorly water soluble drug. Biomedicine Pharmacotherapy, 2004. Eyes Photography! 58(3): p. 173-182.
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50. Essay Tuition! . Yi T., Wan J., Xu H. Yang X. (2008), A new solid self-microemulsifying formulation prepared by spray-drying to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs, European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 70: 439-444. 51. Abdalla A., Klein S., Mi??i??der K. (2008), A new self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) for a thesis, poorly soluble drugs: Characterization, dissolution, in vitro digestion and and Creativity, incorporation into solid pellets, European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 35: 457-464. 52. Restate! Lu J. L., Wang J. C., Zhao S. Ana Thesis Writing! X., Liu X. Y., Zhao H., Zhang X., Zhou S. F., Zhang Q. (2008), Self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) improves anticancer effect of restate, oral 9-nitrocamptothecin on human cancer xenografts in nude mice, European Journal of between essay photography politics, Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 69: 899-907.
53. Thakkar H., Nangesh J., Parmar M., Patel D. (2011), Formulation and characterization of lipid based drug delivery system of raloxifene microemulsion and self microemulsifying drug delivery system, Journal of Pharmacy and a thesis statement, Bioallied Sciences, 3(3): 442-448. 54. Cirri M., Muraa P., Mora P. C. (2007), Liquid spray formulations of 5 paragraph, xibornol by restate a thesis, using self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems, International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 340: 84-91. 55. Patil P., Joshi P., Paradkar A. (2004), Effect of Formulation Variables on ana thesis writing, Preparation and Evaluation of Gelled Self-emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS) of Ketoprofen, AAPS PharmSciTech, 5(3) Article 42: 1-8. 56. Patel A. R., Vavia P. Restate A Thesis Statement! R. (2007), Preparation and In Vivo Evaluation of SMEDDS (Self-Microemulsifying Drug Delivery System) Containing Fenofibrate, The AAPS Journal, 9(3), Article 41: E344-E352. 57. Shen H., Zhong M. (2006), Preparation and evaluation of self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) containing atorvastatin, J Pharm Pharmacol., 58(9): 1183-1191. 58.
Boonme P., Krauel K., Graf A., Rades T., Junyaprasert V. B. (2006), Characterization of Microemulsion Structures in the Pseudoternary Phase Diagram of essay, Isopropyl Palmitate/Water/Brij 97:1-Butanol, AAPS PharmSciTech, 7(2) Article 45: E1-E6. 59. Agarwal V., Siddiqui A., Ali H., Nazzal S. (2006), Dissolution and powder flow characterization of solid self-emulsified drug delivery system (SEDDS), International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 366: 44-52. 60. Wu W., Wang Y., Que L. (2006), Enhanced bioavailability of silymarin by self-microemulsifying drug delivery system, European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 63: 288-294.
61. Itoa Y., Kusawake T., Ishida M., Tawa R., Shibata N., Takada K. Restate Statement! (2005), Oral solid gentamicin preparation using emulsifier and adsorbent, Journal of Controlled Release, 105: 23-31. 62. Sha X., Yan G., Wu Y., Li J., Fang X. (2005), Effect of self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems containing Labrasol on tight junctions in Caco-2 cells, European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 24: 477-486. 63.
Subramanian N., Ray S., Ghosal S. K., Bhadra R., Moulik S. P. (2004), Formulation Design of Self-Microemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems for photography politics, Improved Oral Bioavailability of Celecoxib, Biol. Pharm. Bull., 27(12): 1993-1999. 64. Restate Statement! Kang B. K., Lee J. S., Chon S. K., Jeong S. Y., Yuk S. H., Khang G, Lee H. B., Cho S. H. (2004), Development of self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) for oral bioavailability enhancement of simvastatin in beagle dogs, International Journal of between photography, Pharmaceutics, 274: 65-73. 65. Patil P., Joshi P., Paradkar A. (2004), Effect of Formulation Variables on Preparation and Evaluation of Gelled Self-emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS) of Ketoprofen, AAPS PharmSciTech, 5(3) Article 42: 1-8. 66. Holm R., Christopher J. H. P., Glenn A. E., Anette M., Henning G. K. Restate Statement! , Charman W. N. (2003), Examination of oral absorption and college in spanish, lymphatic transport of restate a thesis, halofantrine in a triple-cannulated canine model after administration in self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) containing structured triglycerides, European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 20: 91-97. 67. Ana Thesis Writing! Itoh K., Tozuka Y., Oguchi T., Yamamoto K. (2002), Improvement of physicochemical properties of a thesis statement, N-4472 part I formulation design by between politics, using self-microemulsifying system, International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 238: 153-160.
68. Agarwal V., Siddiqui A., Ali H., Nazzal S. (2000), Dissolution and restate, powder flow characterization of solid self-emulsified drug delivery system (SEDDS), International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 366: 44-52. 69. Essay Tuition! Kim H. Statement! J., Yoon K. Media And Creativity! A., Hahn M., Park E. S., Chi S. C., (2000), Preparation and in vitro evaluation of self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems containing idebenone, Drug Dev Ind Pharm., 26(5): 523-529. 70. Restate A Thesis Statement! Chen G. L., Lee F. Y. (1996), Validation of botanical method for Verapamil by high performance liquid chromatography, J Med Sci, 17(1): 16-23. 71.
Shah N.H., Carvajal M.T., Patel C.I., Infeld M.H., Malick A.W. Ana Thesis Writing! (1994), Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) with polyglycolyzed glycerides for improving in vitro dissolution and a thesis, oral absorption of lipophilic drugs, International Journal of louisiana student essay, Pharmaceutics, 106: 15-23. 74. Indian pharmacopeia. 75. British pharmacopeia. 76. Bhagwat durgachara, D. Restate A Thesis! souza I. development of self micro emulsifying drug delivery system.to inhance dissolution rate of telmisartain, IJDDR 2012,02(04);398-407. 77. Gaikwad G, Godbole M, potnos V, Daud A. Formulation and evaluation of self emulcifying drug delivery system of orlistat, Americal Journal Of Pharmtech Research 2012; 2 (6): 297-31. Search our thousands of essays:
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Custom Arrow of a thesis, God Folklore Analysis Essay. Folklore has always played an increasingly important role in the historical development of the nations. Having analyzed the and Creativity pieces of both artifacts and restate oral expressions of the traditional folklore of different nations, it becomes visible that folklore should be regarded as an encapsulation of the most important historical events. For instance, military marches of the American Indians reflect their everlasting struggle against the white invaders, the hostile tribes and eyes politics hunting scenes. Indisputably, folklore has a complex composite structure. In particular, it consists of restate statement, legends, fairy tales, cultural beliefs, jokes, stories and narrations, fables and other pieces of the oral art. Usually folklore is regarded as a separate section of literature, but very often the authors composing their works of the essays art consider them to belong to restate statement a literature section. The incorporation of the folklore elements into the pieces of literature pursues numerous goals.
First and foremost, folklore elements are often included to highlight the authenticity of the study and to stress that it is integrally connected with specific nation or other cultural compound. Another goal which is sometimes pursued by the author includes the essay tuition intent of the author to support his or her personal opinion or to justify specific actions committed by the main characters of the story. The study is focused on the folklore elements incorporated into one of the most outstanding stories ever written about colonialism and relationships between the colonial power and the indigenous population of the island. The aim of restate a thesis, folklore accentuation in louisiana purchase student essay, the book is restate a thesis, caused by the willingness of the author to highlight the ana thesis writing ardor of the African national movement against the white British invaders and the way they exploit the black population of the island. The Historical Background of the Story. First and foremost, it is necessary to highlight the fact that even the restate a thesis title of the story derives from the traditional African faiths and beliefs. This phrase signifies the “godsend” or the “gift of the God”. That is a traditional folklore element and has nothing to do with the contemporary English literature. The main event of the story is Social Media and Creativity, developing around the restate a thesis Igbo people, which were part of the British Nigeria in 1920. Essay Tuition! The main protagonist of the story is Ezeulu, who is a chief priest of the ancient god Ulu. The skirmish with the adverse tribe is suddenly interrupted by the invasion of the Britain troops under the command of the statement Winterbottom.
The Christian mission arrives to the villages belonging to the indigenous Umuary people and makes them recant from their beliefs and faith. With the development of the storyline, it becomes evident that the colonial administration does everything that is within their competence to achieve their political goals. In particular, the chief protagonist of the story is even invited to work with the local administration, and after his refusal he is declared a criminal and sent to prison. Since he considers himself half a spirit and half a human being, he has nothing to fear of. Ultimately, when the harvest of the poor tribe rots, the god Ulu is thought to have abandoned the tribe. This popular opinion is intensified when the son of the chief priest dies at the important ritual ceremony. The culmination of the story is the writing total conversion of the Christianity by the population of the villages. The Associated Words and Other Pieces of Folklore and a thesis Their Significance. As it has already been stressed, the vocabulary of the book adaptation is one of the most impressive accomplishments of the entire contemporary writing industry.
The passages from the essay book were literally taken and restate a thesis paraphrased, but the lexical “reconstruction” was done in Social Media and Creativity, the way, that it became possible to retain the initial message of the restate a thesis author while making it possible for the modern target audience to comprehend the peculiarities of the book and get immersed in its atmosphere completely. It is evident that the following phrases are the essay tuition most illustrative in the book as they depict in detail the haughty and elevated atmosphere of the late 18 th century, the manners and restate a thesis rituals which governed and controlled the cultural life of the society of those days. However, the and Creativity words were selected in the way that it became possible for the target audience to comprehend their meanings and the gist of the sentences while sensing and feeling the restate atmosphere of the good old Victorian Africa. The following phrases pronounced by the main characters of the essay eyes politics book clearly reflect the astonishing achievement of the restate statement writer. Additionally, the phrase “lower rank” connected with the African people is to be highlighted. Nowadays this phrase sounds both discriminatory and uncivil. Media And Creativity! In those days, it sounded impolite and unacceptable that the phrase was utilized to inform the person to whom it was addressed about the position he or she occupies in a thesis statement, the social hierarchical structure of the community. Mr. Ezeulu managed to say that phrase even when he was declaring to be in love with the person he indeed loved. However, even declaring his feelings and “tying” his life eternally (under the college essays common law of those days, the divorces were not allowed in the British Africa), the protagonist of the restate a thesis statement story was still remembering his social aristocratic status and ana thesis involuntarily or even instinctively reminded the beloved one about her social “imperfection” and aristocratic “deficiency.” Nowadays it may sound acceptable, but the unanimous opinion of the historians and other scholars is that the proposition made in such an arrogant and uncivil manner would be undoubtedly rejected by the potential fiancée. However, Dr.
Winterbottom for some reason accepts the offer. In the same way, Austen and her book successor Deborah Moggach state the restate statement fact that for Ezeulu and for his cherished Dr. Winterbottom the feelings were paramount and even the values and the laws of the society could be sacrificed. This is the mechanism the author intended to accentuate - the importance of the marital status for the ladies of those days that even the youngest ladies became particularly obsessed and preoccupied with this sensitive issue. They did not know the essay tuition person at all, but they enjoyed hearing the information about them from their father and their friends. All that data together with the specific appearance of their new acquaintance was sufficient for restate statement, them to consider him as an eligible marriage candidate for between photography, them or one of their sisters. Once the main protagonist of the story, the young African aristocrat Ezeulu declares to be in love with his future fiancée, he pronounces the phrase “Perhaps these offences might have been overlooked had not your pride been hurt by my personal honesty.” Undoubtedly, the a thesis sophistication of the phrase clearly depicts that this man is in fact a genuine African gentleman who belongs to student essay the highest circles of the society, because such a phrase could be said by restate a thesis statement the man of a low origin and manners. “From the moment I met your arrogance and conceit” the phrase said by Dr. Between Essay Politics! Winterbottom Bennett and reflects indignation about the haughty and humiliating attitude of her future fiancé towards the rest of the main characters of the story. In the modern world, naturally the expression will be considerably sharper and mean. This technique is utilized by the authors to accentuate the sense of self-control and self-restraint of Dr. Winterbottom and highlight the moral values of the restate genuine African lady.
She never loses her temper, however can become irritated. The Folklore Background. Historically, the essay tuition story in question develops in the late 18 th century, when Africa was ruled by the king Eduard, the power was given to Queen Victoria and Africa entered the epoch of Victorianism. Specific rules, regulations, moral principles and postulated existed and governed the live of the inhabitants of Africa and the dominions of the British Empire. Primarily, the fact that must be stressed is the complexity and sophistication of the relations which existed among the members of the highest circles of the African society. To be more exact, the scholarly and historian opinion is that the interrelations among the members of the old African community were over-regulated and a thesis statement the principles of the society of essay tuition, those days impeded the communal value development. The feelings and restate a thesis statement aspirations of the youth and old people as well were artificially influenced by purchase the outer circumstances and nothing could be done to overcome the pressure of the a thesis statement outer environment on the social classes of those times. To be more exact, it was reasonable to 5 paragraph essay formula expect that the ladies and gentlemen of those times would rather “stifle” their feelings and restate statement emotions than contravene the principles and the values of the society, staking their prestige, personal and social well-being and destroying the prospective financial and social security of their existing or future families. The social hierarchy of those days was highly complicated. Each aspect of the human relations including the matrimonial connections between the two people who love each other were totally controlled by the society and even the legal framework of those times pressed them significantly.
People were forced to adhere as closely as possible to the set of the existing laws and existing regulations, which would ensure that their freedom and happiness is safeguarded. The deviation from those principles was not permitted even for the sake of law or for the sake of other sacred motives. Hereby, it can be concluded that the choice of the Social Media historical background is one of the strongest points of the story. A Thesis Statement! It helps the target reader to fully realize and completely comprehend the eyes photography meaning and the message of the story delivered by restate a thesis statement the book. Essay Tuition! In other words, when the protagonist of the story, the haughty and arrogant Mr. Ezeulu contravenes the values of the community and stakes his social reputation for the sake of love, he indeed deserves admiration and respect. The Adaptations of Folklore. The book was casted with the application of traditional techniques, and statement nothing sophisticated was utilized to create the book. However, the work of the video operators in the adaptation deserves a portion of admiration due to the marvelous sceneries of good old Victorian Africa and the scenes of main characters’ communication between each other are impressive. The film adaptation of the between book is of traditional Hollywood production, manufactured by the studio which is traditionally supplied with the best writing material. Restate! Overall, the conclusion that can be drawn from this section is that the sophisticated techniques were not applied by the team and the only factor which made the book so successful is the unique actor play of the essay tuition protagonists and the background actors.
Concerning ethical features, the restate statement book does seem to student essay be completely consistent with the existing and the emerging ethical standards of the community. It can be presumed that the image maker of the statement book was a true professional as he managed to produce a 100% masterpiece. Moreover, several aspects of his work must be additionally accentuated. First and foremost, the between essay eyes photography politics book is indeed thought-provoking for those, who are directly or indirectly ethically preoccupied. The image maker pushes the shy people or those who are not confident enough to commit heroic exploits and feel confined to the moral postulates of the community. The people are encouraged to violate the outdated and obsolete trends and regulations, whose relevance is more than disputed nowadays.
The image maker of the book fully complies with the a thesis statement rights of the prospective audience. Readers of the book will have the opportunity to view it and to comprehend the fact that when the book was composed the author completely, it adhered to the rights of the all social minority groups of the society. In fact, the book is aesthetically appealing to the society. The author of the book calls for student essay, the modernization of the existing ethical standards and restate statement describes the standards that existed in the community many years ago elevating their beautifulness and contrasting them to the contemporary ones. He treats the subject of his work with sympathy, care and attention. The unanimous opinion of almost all critics is that the author in a close collaboration with the image maker of the book managed to Social and Creativity produce a fantastic piece of the art elevating and highlighting the beautifulness of the old Anglia social life and statement the need for reformation of that society. One of the purchase major problems of the Native Africans’ issue is the fact that the overwhelming majority of the American nation comprehends the term “folklore” differently. For instance, according to the recently conducted survey, folklore for the Native Africans refers primarily to the artificially created reservations. However, while living in their natural environment, the American Natives have in their disposal everything considered to be necessary for their own and future generations (Boggs, 1929). Nowadays, the life in reservations is hardly comparable to the life of restate a thesis statement, developing countries.
The malnutrition, short life expectancy, poverty and drug abuse are the outcomes of forcible evictions to the reservations. To illustrate this, Shannon County located in Nigeria is widely known as one of the most impoverished regions in the country. Student! . Once the indigenous tribes have been forcibly removed to the reservation, the outcomes of this displacement were heinous. First and foremost, the number of indigenous Africans has declined dramatically. To illustrate the traditional fire and hunting rite, dances have been completely forgotten. Moreover, with the advent of restate a thesis statement, civilization and its benefits, the traditions of many tribes have been forgotten.
The statement I am advocating for is the fact that the cultural legacy of the Indian civilization together with housewares was destroyed by arbitrary acts of colonists and ill-conceived policy of coexistence (Mathuray, 2003). Thirdly, the folklore deprivation resulted into the change of moral orientations of Native Africans. The great aim of Indian life was thought to be the union with gods, while nowadays it is replaced by the necessity to survive. Finally, but not the least, the negative impact of folklore deprivation triggers the increase in criminal inclinations of Natives. Once Columbus reached the purchase student shores of statement, Florida, he reported that Indians were engaged into wars with each other, but there was no single occasion for formula, robbery, theft, or homicide in the Indian community. Nowadays, since the tribes have been confined to reservations, the Indians are more inclined to the drug and alcohol abuse, violence, or other types of a thesis statement, intentional crime. Concerning my personal opinion, I want to stress the fact that I am rather positive with my personal assessment of the book. I am firmly convinced that the images and other visual techniques which were utilized by the author fully reflect the needs of the contemporary community.
I have a firm opinion that virtually nothing can be done to improve the book and the visually everything was perfected by the team which prepared the book. It can be said that the work done by Chinua Achebe will serve as an example for the rest of the book makers who aspire to adapt the classical pieces of the art. Having read the story, it has become evident that the between eyes photography politics entire story outlined by the author is fully based on her personal speculations and scholarly discoveries (Achebe, 1989). The story in question is fully focused on the sophisticated transformations which were caused by the decision to restate a thesis statement convert the village into Christianity. And what is essays in spanish, more important in this study is the fact that it highlights the role which is played by folklore in the lives of the ordinary villagers.
The author accentuates that the desire to get converted into Christianity was not impeded by the traditionally strong folklore elements of the village and ultimately the conventional European scientific approach dominated over the deeply uprooted elements of the genuine folklore culture. In other words the main message of the author is restate, that however strong the feelings of the villagers may be, the desire to leave in safety can even urge them to betray their religion, faith and customs. Custom Arrow of God Folklore Analysis Essay. 95% of satisfied returning customers Customer support 24/7/365 The largest source database A wide range of services Privacy guaranteed Certified writers only Custom-written papers only Direct communication with a writer Free plagiarism report(on demand) Free revision upon request more details Your writers are masters at time management. Media And Creativity! I turned in an order for four very difficult papers, and they were all written perfectly, even with the short deadline notice. Thanks, EssaysWriters.com!
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