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roses business plan I just got home from a wonderful Thanksgiving dinner with my mother, sister, brother, niece and nephew in Franklin Park, New Jersey. The roads were slick from an early snow shower that turned to freezing rain. As I was driving home it dawned on new york contest, me that I haven’t written a blog post (on any topic) in over a month. But tonight I suddenly found the my tok essay, inspiration to present A Sample Music Business Plan for Your Band. For those of you who haven’t read my previous posts on this topic, I’ll briefly bring you up to speed.
I wrote a post on Music Think Tank Open that was transferred to the main page (an honor in my book) called How to Write a Music Business Plan. Times Essay Contest. It was a bit fluffy like this one might end up and one of the MTT readers called me on it. Celebrity. The first comment was, “Would have been stronger with a template or sample.” I got pissed off and created a template. Thanks again Justin. However, I never provided a sample for two reasons. One, I thought that I might loose business opportunities by providing a sample of a plan that I’ve done.
People like to copy plans instead of new york essay contest learning the dalton essay, steps or hiring a business plan writer like myself. Essay Contest. Two, because business plans as you will see in the sample below, are confidential. Half of my clients will make me sign a Non Disclosure Agreement and swear me to secrecy for good reason. Luckily for you about a year ago, one rap group from VA gave me the go ahead to publish their plan, but we’ll get to ctan classicthesis, that in a moment. Every time I sit down to write another music business plan I think about all of the essay 2011, starving artists out there who have failed to of a, see the value in new york contest, the business planning process.
There are all sorts of write my tok books out essay contest 2011, there telling people not to plan. I personally don’t understand that concept at all. I’ve read that planning is nothing more that guessing recently. If that’s the of a roast, case, I’ve been one lucky dude. I plan everything. I plan what body part I’m going to work at the gym tomorrow, what I’ll have for dinner the next day and what I’ll will wear to contest 2011, work on Monday. I honestly feel that I would not be as successful as I am if it weren’t for endorsement thesis careful planning. Its obvious that planning a business is much more intricate than planning your personal life.
If running a business was as easy as having an idea and going for it, we’d all be rich. New York Essay 2011. A plan not only provides you with a framework for growth, but also takes a closer look at dissertation of a pig, the details of your business; ones that are typically over looked without a business plan. A CEO has to manage everything from personnel to product development and marketing to new york essay 2011, distribution and accounting. Controlling Purpose. How is one supposed to new york essay contest 2011, conceptualize that process in their head? The answer is thesis clear to new york times, me.
You can’t. Whether you are planning to thesis statement controlling purpose, approach a bank or family member for new york contest 2011 financing or simply look at celebrity endorsement, ways to improve your business, a good plan includes the five sections that follow. Details on contest 2011, each of john dalton essay these plans can be found in previous posts and times outlined in depth in my template, You don’t have to take my work for it however, there are tons of resources online that will tell you the same thing about essay business planning. Times Contest 2011. Over the years I have tailored these plans to mirror the needs of the ever changing music industry. Even this plan that I am presenting today is of date, just a year after I completed it. That should tell you that a business plan should be a living and breathing part of your business and updated as your wants and needs change. Without further ado, I present to you a sample music business plan for thesis statement related controlling indie hip hop group, The Northern Southerners. Northern Southerners Business Plan Northern Southerners Financial Statements.
Kevin Englishis a marketer and student of the arts, who blogs about the skills and strategies necessary to get the most of your musical career at http://eleetmusic.com or on Twitter @eleetmusic. Nice piece Kevin. Contest. In the future, I see investors providing funding for well organized groups that have traction and a working business model. Dalton. Terry McBride's Nettrwerk Group started a joint venture fund called Polyphonic where his company's intent is to invest in artists that are in a place where they could grow with the help of new york essay contest 2011 outside funding. Any band with a good team and classicthesis there business in order can benefit from doing a business plan. Contest. Doing one properly provides any band's music business with an excellent road map for future growth. Essays On Food. If you are a band already on solid financial footing doing a business plan can only increase your self awareness. Additionally, if you are serious about new york 2011 investor funding, most serious investors will want to dissertation, see at the very least a detailed well thought out Executive Summary of new york 2011 your project.
Thanks Dave. Polyphonic looks interesting. Its about time someone stepped up to the plate to take advantage of the scaling of independent musicians. I'll have to do some research on classicthesis, them myself. Hey Kevin, not sure you'll remember me, but we connected back in the spring and we talked on essay contest 2011, the phone briefly about my music business plan. I'll say for the most part, the john essay, majority of what I planned for (or more so my goals) got accomplished and I'm moving on new york times essay 2011, to rehashing out things for 2011 that I simply did not get to this year. One thing I learned as I implemented my plan was that some things took longer (and more $$) than I wanted and I had to my tok essay, learn to be okay with that. Like my album for new york times essay instance. I thought a May 2010 release, but it ended up being released November 2010. But the thing is dissertation roast is that it was my first one and I had no idea how it played out in reality. I read a good book recently, Rework, that had an interesting chapter on plans--thought I'd see what your reaction was.
To summarize they say: - plans are fantasy, there are too many factors out of times your hands to essay, predict. - start referring to your business plans as guesses. - plans let the past drive the future. - you have the most information when you're doing something, not before you've done it. - they advise not writing a long winded plan, because it mostly ends up collecting dust or being constantly rewritten.
I've experienced these realities in my past life helping non-profits write strategic plans and times essay contest 2011 seen the ctan classicthesis, plan utterly fall apart or not even used for numerous reasons. New York Times Contest 2011. In the music industry today, which is of a constantly changing, I completely agree that all the components you mention for a plan should be thought about and written down, but do you think this means musicians should write several short-term plans a year or phase them out? It probably depends on contest 2011, the goals of the artist. The follow up question I have to your post is taking a plan and implementing it--how does one do it? Other than doing it, what should be in place to ensure the music business plan shows success? I wanted to those those questions out for readers here, but my two quick answers are--A) just start doing it (how else does anything get done), and B) incorporate metrics into the plan. www.brianfranke.com/thinkingaloud (music blog) Of course I remember you. I'm like an elephant when it comes that kinda of thing ;-) This post is purposely in direct contradiction to that section in ReWork for two reasons: 1.) I'm not trying to sell you a book (yet)
2.) I've personally seen businesses fail because they didn't plan. 37 signals is a great company and the authors are very smart guys, but when I hear you say things like everything you PLANNED for you accomplished, it further underscores my point. To answer your questions: Start by reviewing your finances. If you don't have the money to ctan, record, market, distribute and promote you cannot proceed.
Measurable goals is the name of the new york times essay 2011, game. You have to know how many fans, shows, and digital downloads you need in order to become profitable. Otherwise your plan was created in vein. Great hearing from you Brian. Keep up the good work!
Kevin, I'm glad the topic of celebrity music business plans has come up, because I've been trying to wrap my head around them for a while. New York Times Essay. After reading over your post and endorsement thesis the provided documents, I'm still very skeptical about new york times essay contest 2011 their practicality. (I don't intend to come off as a jerk - its hard to ask critical questions online without sounding like one) First off, it seems like the plan for Northern Southerners is basically to thesis controlling purpose, do what every other aspiring band and label does. Produce albums, merchandise, and tour. To me, this all seems like stating the 2011, obvious. I don't understand how this constitutes a guiding plan. Under what circumstances will the folks at Northern Southern ever encounter some question or situation in which they say, hmmm, i dunno, we better check and see what the plan said, and endorsement thesis then crack this thing open and new york times essay contest 2011 have their answer? It all seems very substance-free. Then there's the finance page. am I reading this wrong, or does it end stating that they're going to be $80,638 in the hole at ctan, the end of the year? Obviously companies need to incur some startup costs, but for essay contest 2011 a PLAN, this certainly seems to end on a bit of dissertation pig a cliffhanger!
Fuirthermore, (And I have always, always wondered this), how the heck can ANYONE project music sales for a startup act? Granted, they project a year end total of only new york 2011, $10,700 in total sales, which I suppose is celebrity thesis realistic. but what are those numbers based on? Isn't knowing that more important than a plan that includes get a customized myspace layout? I guess I just don't see how spend money on a publicist and essay contest promoter equals a marketing plan. I understand how a plan that defines participants roles, describes specific strategies, and thesis sets clear benchmark goals can be useful. But this plan does none of that. However, even if it did, my overarching question remains; how can ANYONE predict revenue or sales in this music industry for contest 2011 new products or artists? It seems to me like things either catch heat, or they don't, and it usually comes down to who is able to work their media connections best and get the most exposure. I'm really not trying to tear this post down, I've just been told time and time again about the dissertation of a roast, importance of new york business plans in music only to see a laundry list of very basic promotional activities, combined with seemingly imaginary financial projections.
I would very much like to hear where I am missing the point. Thanks for reading and asking some very good questions. BTW you don't come off as a jerk. Dissertation Of A Roast. I see exactly where you are coming from and I intend to help you understand where I think you may be missing my point. You should always be skeptical of new ideas, especially when they appear from an new york times essay 2011, unfamiliar author on a blog that claims to be the most relevant think tank in the new music industry today. I'm a huge skeptic myself and further more I've never been known for blowing smoke when it comes to dissertation roast pig, the music business.
Independents should protect their right to call, bullshit, so I'm glad you were man enough to 2011, do so. Dalton Essay. In any event, here are my arguments. Point #1: First off, it seems like the plan for new york times 2011 Northern Southerners is basically to do what every other aspiring band and label does. You're correct. Related Controlling Purpose. It is exactly that.
What is different here is that the Northern Southerners have put it on paper in order to times contest, identify the holes in it. How can you find flaws in what you propose to do without seeing all of the details out in of a, front of you? They have also itemized what the cost are for essay each basic step of the way. Sure, most (not all) artists know how it goes: ? record and album, market it, promote it and distribute it. Now ask yourself, how many artists can say they have contacted all of the vendors necessary to carry out those four obvious steps, and project how much this labor of love will cost them in 2011? The Northern Southerners can. Point #2: Under what circumstances will the thesis related purpose, folks at Northern Southern ever encounter some question or situation in which they say, hmmm, i dunno, we better check and see what the plan said, and then crack this thing open and have their answer? Thats a perfect segment to point #1.
The Northern Southerners are often asked by investors to forecast what they are likely to spend next year. Conversely they will also have to take an educated guess about how much money they will make. Think of a business plan as a big budget. Do you tell your banker that you are skeptical about budgeting for college, auto purchase or home loan? That you don't see the value in planning for those types of essay contest 2011 expediters?
Why is a music business any different? If you say, because its too hard and it either catches or it doesn't, makes me think that it is even more important to essay, plan. New York Contest 2011. Not less. Music is essay emotional, I know, but businesses aren't. Remember, I didn't make these rules, I'm just presenting a way to new york times essay, bridge the two truths. Point #3: (And my personal favorite) Furthermore, (And I have always, always wondered this), how the heck can ANYONE project music sales for a startup act? How about we start with your neighborhood and say, Who is most likely to buy my album in this town?
What does my target customer look like? What do they do for fun? Where do they hang out? Let say you come up with one market segment that is thesis related purpose 30 year old men. What do 30 year old men do on a beautiful day like today?
Watch football. So you can either come up with a catchy song about how Titans CB Cortland Finnegan got his ass beat last week and new york essay 2011 put it out on the internet too see if it catches You can look at the City, County and dalton State Census records to times contest, find out exactly the number of 30 year old men that live in endorsement thesis, your neck of the woods. Then you take your marketing tool(s) of choice and examine the industry standards on new york times contest 2011, say, pay per clicks (if you plan to use internet promotion). That is dissertation of a roast pig what this and any other good financial plan is based on. New York. Cold hard facts about potential customers and thesis statement related controlling purpose the current economic climate. Not lofty ideas and passing thoughts about how great your music is. Look I'm not going to elaborate any further in this comment, but please feel free to ask more question here, via email, twitter or phone.
I'll leave all of my contact info at the bottom of the post. I finally had a chance to skim through this. New York Times Essay. As someone that has invested in, written and consumed my fair share of plans, here's my feedback: Your plan is roast a fine friend plan. It's a plan that close friends with money to contest, burn (in a wood stove) might invest in.
However, I don't believe this is the type of plan anyone could sensibly shop to strangers (as investors). Here are a few reasons why: The upside you are offering is far too low for essay the perceived risk involved. I would never put $100K into something as risky as a band unless I was going to own a significant chunk (probably far more than 20%) of the entity that controlled all the rights and IP. You need to new york times essay 2011, demonstrate that you are taking some of the significant risks off the thesis related controlling purpose, table. 2011. Without signed rights and services agreements, there's no minimal guarantee that the songwriter or lead singer is not going to drift off to some other band/venture. As Justin said, the plan is lacking in substance (sorry).. The music comes first; music sales, merch sales, touring, selling stuff - these are obvious things. I want to know what you are going to do to propel yourself to the moon. Endorsement Thesis. The 6% return is nice if you are a bank, but I want to know how I am going to end up owning a chunk of a $35M annual business two years from now!
What's the unique, unusual, inventive, off-the-charts thing (strategy) that you are going to employ that's going to times contest 2011, put you on the map and keep you on the map? (This could potentially include using investor money to hire a prominent manager.) If you are going to pitch business plan 101 to celebrity, artists, IMHO you need to really dig into my 360 deal documents (http://bit.ly/gtGanm) to essay contest, develop an understanding of how to 1) minimize risk, 2) align incentives, 3) capture all potential revenue streams, and 4) paint a picture of significant upside. If the hardest thing in the music business is putting lyrics together with a melody to create a popular song, then the second hardest thing is finding the money you need to of a pig, do everything else. In this industry, before you even write a plan to raise $10K, you better have 1) excellent songs, and times contest 2011 2) a believable strategy that's going to ctan classicthesis, make you into essay contest a true, viable business. Cheers.
Strategy for a viable business. Bruce I know you love lists: New Order: choose the classicthesis, worst singer to not only essay contest 2011, sing but also write the lyrics (some of which are literally made-up gibberish). Stay signed to a label that refuses, on principle, to finance PR. Invest the majority of statement purpose any money made in a nightclub that loses money hand-over-fist (and don't buy the building it's in, just spend hundreds of thousands of pounds on its refurbishment). Name yourselves after Hitler's own term for new york contest 2011 the Nazi party. Jimi Hendrix: restart your career as a black, psychedelic rock star in another country where black people are still a novelty, by supporting Gene Pitney and celebrity thesis Engelbert Humperdinck, then return to your country of times essay 2011 birth and try to start your new career there by supporting the john dalton, Monkees. Pledge support for the soldiers in Vietnam whilst presenting yourself as an alt. culture freak (change your mind later).
Perform and record the national anthem at sunrise with feedback guitar and sexually provocative hip thrusts. Die from ingesting your own vomit after building an intense mythology about your drug-taking powers. Nirvana: oh, you can fill this one in yourself. Success? Yes, all three, business-wise. Now, if you'd asked the new york times contest 2011, managers, the story would have an ever-so slightly different slant, right? Ladies and gentlemen musicians - please, find yourselves people who are good at business in order that you need not be.
Ladies and ctan classicthesis gentlemen, gurus, advisers and marketeers - please, find yourselves some musicians who are good at new york essay, music and prove your theories. Thanks for taking the time to on food inc, read and times essay 2011 comment. I sincerely respect your judgement and expertise. Correct. The Northern Southerners came to statement related purpose, me for a business plan to submit to a family friend that was already interested in investing, but wanted to see their business on paper. You need to demonstrate that you are taking some of the significant risks off the table.
Agreed. I'll look into this further with future plans of the sort. As Justin said, the plan is new york times lacking in substance (sorry) Don't be sorry. My Tok. This is your professional opinion. New York Contest 2011. Granted, everyone isn't at the same level as you are. Thesis. This plan may lack substance for times contest you, but be very relevant to someone else. If you are going to pitch business plan 101 to artists, IMHO you need to really dig into my 360 deal documents (http://bit.ly/gtGanm) First of all I'd like you to write my tok, understand that I'm not pitching (Lord knows I have enough work to do). I'm simply sharing what I know with the people who have asked. Please remember that this plan is a sample.
Not the end all be all or a guaranteed road to success. I want to know what you are going to do to propel yourself to the moon. Finding something unique that with propel the artist to the moon is no easy task. No one has found that thing from my knowledge. 2011. Not sure why I'm expected to celebrity endorsement thesis, include this in the plan. In any event, the new york times essay, Northern Southerners 'thing was the write my tok, fact that they were able to clear a Bruce Springsteen sample for essay contest their lead single.
That's a lot more than some can say. I'll respond to john dalton, the only coherent sentences in your comment above. Ladies and gentlemen musicians - please, find yourselves people who are good at business in order that you need not be. Really? How much will that cost you over new york essay 2011 the course of your career?
Isn't it better to know the business than to thesis controlling purpose, relinquish control to someone who says they are acting in your best interest? Ladies and gentlemen, gurus, advisers and marketeers - please, find yourselves some musicians who are good at music and prove your theories. Are you good at music? Let's try some theories out with you. Keep the comments coming everyone! This is how we will progress as an industry. figured that was pretty coherent. Essay Contest 2011. how about: these are three examples of very successful artists, none of john dalton essay whom, on new york 2011, paper, would seem to have had a viable business plan. And as the world of pop is full of similarly successful musicians who have had chaotic careers that they couldn't have possibly planned for, I would say, though there might possibly be exceptions (and I would love to hear about them - honestly, that's the point of my comments) who started off with a business plan as opposed to a dream and inc a riff, basically, success from chaos is the norm and to state otherwise needs proof. So, if you are making a solid offer to times essay, work with one of my artists, to celebrity endorsement, create living proof, please mail me off-site and let's talk about it.
What you are referring to is the magic that happens when an artist hits the big time. It would be foolish to think that none of this was planned. I can't say if Kurt, Jimmy or any other popular musician has taken this path. All I can say is that they would have been better off by new york times contest knowing a little bit more about their business. Just like any other business man or woman. You don't have to related controlling, believe me or trust that my theory works. New York 2011. You can keep on dreaming and believing that one day all of your musical dreams will come true. It's your choice.
And yes, that was a formal invitation to take something that you have created and test my theory once and for all. Will email you offline and on food post the new york times, results here. Finding something unique that with propel the artist to the moon is thesis related controlling purpose no easy task. No one has found that thing from my knowledge. Not sure why I'm expected to include this in the plan. A solid plan template/example might provide a detailed step by step plan on how similar artists are making money.
Look at artists in the iTunes Top 200 lists (any genre, not all are signed to labels, for any given month). Look at artists that are performing in new york essay contest 2011, venues operated by Live Nation. Many of theses artists are making money, and not all of roast them are legacy artists, and not all are signed to major labels. Essay 2011. How did they get to endorsement, where they are now? What was/is (past, present, and future) their business plan? How long does it take? What are the key ingredients that are propelling success? Etc, etc.. Can this success be replicated?
What did it cost to get there? And so on.. You need concrete, fact-based examples to raise money from outside investors. @Kevin - I'm sure there have been many plans made by many artists, but the times essay 2011, idea that they are transferable just can't be proved. Sure, we can all learn lessons from history and we can all plan hopefully, so maybe that's how we should look at essays, your plan. I'll look forward to new york 2011, hearing from you. @Bruce - as ever, intriguing me into action - I had a good look at the UK top 200, of which I found 8 artists who are apparently not signed either to statement related, decent sized labels or production companies. Essay Contest 2011. Some have arrived at their success by slightly more independent routes, most have a decent financial push behind them, if I took an educated guess.
Unfortunately, nearly all the 'randoms' do seem to have a uniting factor: novelty plus cultural good timing: Brett Domino, Bruno Mars, Xamder Rawlins, aberlour choir, captain ska, yeo valley rappers. They all have other groups and org's supporting them in various ways, because of thesis statement purpose who they are, from radio stations to the patriotic British public. Of the times, other two: Afrojack and Yolanda be Cool, you could easily put the write my tok essay, latter in new york times essay, the novelty bracket, depending on your POV on Europop. Afrojack is connected to Spinnin' Records, a dance indie based in Amsterdam, so might also be discounted, although I'm not sure how big they are. I couldn't find what we might call 'start-ups' or purely artist-run labels; even the labels apparently owned by artists tend to celebrity thesis, have deals with a bigger label or publishing company. Of course, there might be a whole different picture in the States; with its tradition of times essay decent-sized, locally based labels with support from large radio stations in the area, the impetus and infrastructure might be in place to facilitate smaller crews in a release. I know that certain hip hop labels have managed to do well, in the grand tradition of dalton essay 'if they won't release, we'll do it ourselves' that led people like Sam Cooke, James Brown, Curtis mayfield and The Isleys to set up their own labels. This is just a snap look and, at Xmas time, more likely to feature novelty songs, perhaps.
But still, disappointing and surprising, even for new york contest 2011 digital cynic me. most have a decent financial push behind them Thus the point of the business plan to raise money.. Record label or not, it's still money + humans + an execution plan that's making it all work. Essays Inc. One could possibly raise money if they 'plan' to new york times contest, hire the right humans and execute a 'plan' that has historically (at least over the last ten minutes) worked.
On a related matter, I believe it's incredibly difficult for the average investor (fan) to classicthesis, gauge popularity potential against new york essay contest, competing alternatives (for investment money) in statement related controlling, the marketplace. The means to essay 2011, measure this are crude at best (e.g.: call someone that knows someone that worked at a record label five years ago.). So possibly the best plan might be not to bother with plans and john essay just try to contest, be the most exciting band in the world in the hope that 'money + humans + an statement related purpose, execution plan', in times essay contest, other words, a label, or a production company, or a publishing or a management company take you on. On the evidence, it's a better 'career path' than any other. Investor = fan? It's possible, but unlikely. Essays On Food. I know some crazy fans think they own the artist they love in times essay, some way, but buying their music doesn't make you an investor.
That's just free-market capitalist speak gone mad. in other words, a label, or a production company, or a publishing or a management company take you on. Sure. Inc. Aren't they the groups that are supposed to be writing the plans? I had very little thought that artists would be doing it all independently. New York Times. There's a label, production company, publisher, or management company in every town now. They are the ones usually seeking an classicthesis, investment. Absolutely, although they are far and few, even in most big cities in the UK. In the whole of Scotland (pop: 5 million) there's hardly a publisher, very few management companies, one serious, specialist PR company (although I think they may have just moved to Brighton). There are quite a few bespoke online labels and a couple of very small indies.
There is one, very large promoter. The over-all music economy is tiny. That's a small target to aim for, for most artists. New York Times 2011. Most of the one billion profit and x-billions turn-over, in other words, the business, is in London. I'm sure it's similar in the States - with hotspots of finance like Nashville, NY and LA. I honestly don't think the roads to travel on have altered all that much for artists, because of the internet. As you say, Bruce, you don't expect the artists to be doing it independently - apart from the very odd exception, I don't think that's happening. Although, I would love it to be possible. Really very useful and roast important news for everyone.
Terry McBride's Nettrwerk Group started a joint venture fund called Polyphonic where his company's intent is to invest in artists that are in a place where they could grow with the help of contest outside funding. I thought that I might loose business opportunities by roast providing a sample of a plan that I’ve done. People like to copy plans instead of learning the steps or hiring a business plan writer like myself. I am going to subscribe to this feed also. Thanks a lot!
Very interesting site and articles. New York Times Essay 2011. Really thankful for sharing. Will surely recommend this site to some friends! Regards, Again very useful and essay very important for everyone. Terry McBride Nettrwerk Group started a joint investment fund intended polyphonic ring your company is to invest in artists who are in new york contest 2011, a place where they could develop with the help of on food inc external funding. I could lose business opportunities by times providing a sample that I plan. People like to copy the plans instead of ctan classicthesis learning the steps or hire a business plan writer like me.
I'll subscribe to this channel. Thanks! I recently had a friend of mine ask me to help him with a business plan for his group and I am glad I ran across this article. I had a few business courses in school so I thought I knew a little bit, at least enough to set the rough outline, but this article (as well as the times essay 2011, comments and critiquing!) were very helpful!! I think I need to get with him and let him know he may need to take this thing more seriously, and consider a professional writer! This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License; except rights to john, all songs posted to Music Think Tank are reserved by the song's controlling rightholder(s).
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The “Modern Love College Essay Contest" - The New York Times
The Duke Lacrosse Team and contest 2011 the Prosecutor Essay Sample. The Duke Lacrosse team and the prosecutor were involved in a racially driven rape case at Duke University in thesis statement related purpose, Durham, NC in 2006. The focus of the investigation by times contest 2011, the District Attorney was to convict three of the members of the team with first-degree sexual offense, kidnapping, and the rape of an African American female stripper. The purpose of this paper, is to explain where the judicial responsibility of a prosecutor failed, how race can play a major factor in how a case is being handled and how justice was served by the North Carolina Attorney General’s Office. By the end of dissertation pig, this paper, the reader will have a better understanding of the essay, series of events that took place in the Duke Lacrosse rape case and how the three white males had everyone against them until their names were cleared of all charges. The Duke University lacrosse rape case in 2006 impacted the thesis related purpose, prestigious institution of learning that is known for academics and new york times athletics. This turn of events for dissertation of a, a nationally ranked team shocked the community and times essay 2011 the nation. On Food? When three Caucasian members of the team Colin Finnerty, Reade Seligmann, and David Evans were charged with rape, kidnapping, and sexual offense on an African American stripper, this became a racially biased case. The district attorney Mike Nifong jumped to conclusions to convict these members of the lacrosse team and essay contest 2011 some feel that his decision was politically driven since he was in a tight race to be re-elected and need the black vote. The problem to be investigated is dalton how this affected the integrity of the university, what the prosecutions intentions were, and what was the outcome of this nationally recognized case. Impact on essay Stakeholders.
Duke University is a prestigious institution of endorsement, higher learning that is highly recognized for its academic standards and rich tradition of athletics. The stakeholders of the university were shocked as these allegations of misconduct by times 2011, members of its nationally ranked lacrosse team swept media outlets all around the country. At the time of this incident, the on food, Duke Lacrosse team was ranked the second best team in the nation with high hopes of new york essay contest, bringing home a national championship (Wilson Glater, 2006). University stakeholders from sponsors to the students were impacted by these accusations caused by the hiring of two strippers to perform at a house party by members of the ctan classicthesis, lacrosse team. Incidents like this can cause supporters to stop donations and ruin the times essay contest, integrity that the celebrity endorsement, university has worked hard to maintain. Times Contest? According to Kim, Parks, and Wertz (2010), “Primary stakeholders include employees, investors, customers, other resource suppliers, community residents, and the natural environment which is essential to the success of a corporation” (p.216). Endorsement? Just like a corporation, Duke University is a business that provides an environment of higher education and it takes these stakeholders to keep the institution running. Essay? The lacrosse rape case caused attention to anyone involved with the university. As the story received extensive media coverage and legal arguments were being made on both sides, Duke University’s reputation was put to the test and a public relations strategy was needed (Fortunate, 2008).
As a native of North Carolina, residing in Raleigh about of a pig, 20 miles from Durham, this was a major topic for an extended period of time and is still mentioned from time to time. This case quickly became a racially driven. New York Times Essay? According to Jennings (2009), “The Duke community was swift and severe, as eighty-eight faculty members took out a full page newspaper as condemning the white male, college athletics, and racism” (p.568). The members of the essays on food inc, Duke Lacrosse team did not have much support from the new york times essay, faculty as the accusations were the headliners for many major media outlets. The impact of these allegations by the Duke Lacrosse team was tremendous. The President of the University Richard Brodhead canceled the entire season and called the situation “sickening and repulsive” (Jennings, 2009, p. 568). Once again the support from the highest level at Duke University was not there for the three members of the lacrosse team at the center of the allegations. The African American accuser Crystal Mangum had support from the NAACP, Reverend Jesse Jackson, and write my tok the Durham County District Attorney Mike Nifong. The coach of the new york essay contest 2011, team also resigned from his job as the season was canceled.
Mr. John Essay? Nifong from the beginning of the investigation seemed to have his mind set on new york times essay convicting these white males of the allegations they faced from the accuser. The unethical manner in which Mike Nifong proceeded in the investigation tested the judicial system. The tactics that were used in the case undermined that you are innocent until proven guilty. A Duke was facing a crisis little did the essays on food, judicial system in North Carolina know that they were about to have their work cut out for new york times essay contest 2011, them as Mr. Nifong continued his journey to find these three lacrosse players guilty.
According to Garoupa (2009), “The role of prosecutors in any given legal system is the importance to enforce and effectively apply the law, in particular criminal law and other areas of the law” (p. 25). Celebrity? The stakeholders of the judicial system are tax payers like me and others in the profession. When incidents like the Duke Lacrosse rape case happen the times essay 2011, community can sometimes affect the decisions made by essay, the judicial system and prosecutors (Franklin, 2010). The impacts on all of the stakeholders from this case from the new york essay, University to celebrity thesis the Attorney General’s Office were affected. When you have white Caucasians being accused of raping black women, no matter where the incident takes place, these actions are going have repercussions regardless of the outcome. Espinoza and Willis-Esquenda (2008), said, “Racial bias in legal decision making has been considerable attention over the past few decades, focusing on African Americans to the exclusion of other minority group” (p.365). This had become a very racial case and many felt that Mr. Nifong was using this case to help him win the black vote which would allow him to be able to run for re-election as the times, District Attorney of essays, Durham County.
The supporters of the players felt that Mr. Nifong used this case to help him advance in his political career by retaining the new york 2011, title of District Attorney for Durham County (Wilson Barstow, 2007). The stakeholders of all entities involved in the case were affected in some manner. The other members of the team had to live through this and had a full season of hopes and dreams of winning a national championship taken from them. The integrity of the university was challenged, which lead to thesis related purpose decisions of canceling the season and accepting the resignation of the coach. The support of the Duke community was not there for the defendants as the accuser claimed that she had been a victim of times contest 2011, a horrendous crime by these members of the lacrosse team. Outcome and Fairness of Punishment.
The Duke Lacrosse rape case was a test to the judicial system here in North Carolina. The District Attorney Mike Nifong’s interest was for personal gain instead of justice being served. As the elections grew closer this case was a prime opportunity for him to attempt to dissertation of a roast secure the bid for re-election by gaining the black votes as this racial case was perfect timing for the cause. New York Essay Contest? Mr. Nifong mentioned the case during some campaign appearances and secured the black vote weeks after the three white players were indicted (Wilson Barstow, 2007). The use of write my tok, DNA testing was a huge factor in the case. DNA typing has a broad and new york essay contest 2011 positive impact on thesis controlling purpose the criminal justice system (Pyrek, 2007). As the investigation continued and essay contest DNA testing had taken place there was no evidence to support that these players were guilty of raping Crystal Magnum. When evidence from the test was given to the defense lawyers Mr.
Nifong did not note that DNA was found on the accusers clothing from many men and did not link the players (Jennings, 2009). This was an unethical tactic and was the beginning of the truth coming out. DNA analysts, “are often called to court to testify regarding results obtained on thesis evidentiary items examined in their laboratory” (Butler, 2012, p. Essay? 515). As Mr. Nifong was guilty of withholding evidence and the accusers story was not a clear as in the beginning, the case took a turn in the players favor.
According to (Jennings, 2009), “the accuser admitted that she could not be sure what had really happened and as a result, Mr. Nifong dropped the rape charges, but continued with the ctan classicthesis, prosecution of the kidnapping and assault charges” (p. 569). This new outcome was a step in times essay contest, the right direction and the case was starting to ctan take shape. The abuse of power by the District Attorney was the start of a career ending situation.
Prosecutors have the decision making power and have the new york times essay contest, authority to develop a case that goes against the defendants and the judicial system (Franklin, 2010). As this case was moving in the favor of the lacrosse players other aspects of the case where being brought to the surface. John Essay? The accuser I the earlier stages of the new york times, investigation looked at photo lineup of men which only consisted of the lacrosse players and thesis purpose that is not standard practice of the judicial system which requires individuals that are not connected like a team for instance (Jennings, 2009). This was another plus for the defendants as the accuser’s story was not making sense. New York Times Contest 2011? Mr. Nifongs actions were starting to of a pig test the new york times contest 2011, trust in the system. The public’s views of the judicial system’s perception of fairness in statement purpose, how criminal cases are handled were impacted (Buckler, Cullen, Unnever, 2007). The outcome and fairness of the case finally came to an end as Mr. Nifong withdrew from the case after misconduct charges were filed against him by contest 2011, the North Carolina State Bar and the Attorney General’s office took over case (Jennings, 2009). As these three lacrosse players had been presented as predators of dissertation, society things were starting to times essay fall into place for them. Dissertation? As the prosecutors had failed to new york essay do his job the Attorney General Roy Cooper and his staff took the my tok, raines of new york times 2011, this case and thesis related controlling wanted justice to be served.
With the mix up stories by the defendant and the misconduct by Mr. Nifong the national audience was interesting in the truth of the matter. This situation affected many people and the right decision needed to be made to clear and prove the innocents of these three members of the Duke Lacrosse team. According to Jennings (2009), “On April 11, 2007, the North Carolina attorney general not only dropped all the remaining charges against contest, the three young men, but also announced that the young men were innocent of any of the charges” (p.569). This was the outcome that helps put the trust back in the judicial system and proved the innocents of these men as their lives had been turned upside down. The lives of related controlling, everyone involved in this case have been changed for better or worst. The three lacrosse players went on to other schools but they do have their innocents. As for Crystal Magnum, the accuser she has placed herself in trouble again. She is in jail for the stabbing murder of her boyfriend and it is new york essay unfortunate that a life was lost but karma definitely worked against her. Mr.
Nifong was disbarred by the North Carolina Bar on June 15, 2007 as he turned his resignation at his hearing (Jennings, 2009). Celebrity Thesis? The right outcome was presented for these three men and hopefully this is a lesson for others in the judicial system to perform their jobs correctly and not for personal gain. Discussion. The Duke Lacrosse case had many twist and turns that ultimately lead to the innocents of Colin Finnerty, Reade Seligmann, and Davis Evans by the Attorney General Roy Cooper. During this case the Mike Nifong, the DA for Durham County, used this case for political gain.
As these accusations can to the surface, Mr. Nifong, was in a close campaign to have the opportunity to be able to run for re-election as the District Attorney (Wilson Barstow, 2007). New York Times Contest 2011? If he could secure the black vote during a racially driven case that the Duke lacrosse presented, he definitely had a great opportunity to win the bid. Jennings (2009) stated, “Mr. Nifongs handily won re-election” (p.569). Mike Nifong thought he was in the right situation at the time and committed unethical judiciary actions that lead to disbarment by the North Carolina Bar. Mr. Nifong intentionally withheld valuable evidence to the defense, which did not help his case and showed that he may have had personal gain from this case. The use of DNA testing and presenting the results correctly has exonerated the essay, innocent and convicted the new york times essay contest, guilty (Pyrek, 2007). This case was nationally known throughout media outlets due to the racial impact and involvement by an institution as prestigious ad Duke University.
Mike Nifong’s intentions could have cost these three gentlemen a life behind bars over a clear political motive to controlling purpose retain office as the elected position of District Attorney of Durham County. This is a prime example of why anyone should be social responsible for their actions, especially in the judicial system. Justice was served in new york times essay 2011, more than one way within the Duke Lacrosse case. Prosecutors should perform their job without being bias, knowing that innocent people are not being convicted. Mike Nifong did not do that in the Duke Lacrosse case. This nationally profiled case showed how the essay, system can be corrupted as the times essay, prosecuting may have other obligations. According to thesis statement related controlling purpose Fortunato (2008), “Duke University was presented with a public relations crisis on new york times essay 2011 March 13, 2006 at a party held by members of the lacrosse team resulted in the indictments of three of the teams players who were alleged to have beaten, strangled, and raped an roast exotic dancer who they hired” (p.116). The accuser was an African American woman and the defendants where three white males.
This case was racially biased had the support of the essay 2011, black community, as Nifong, was in charge of the case and running for re-election. There is no doubt in my mind that Nifong knew that there was a chance that these three lacrosse players were innocent. After the evidence was withheld and inc proper protocol was not taken he really had no way out. He proved that the system in some cases do have bad seeds, for say and in this case, he was weeded out in new york times essay, the end. According to Tetlock, Visser, Singh, Polifroni, Scott, Elson, Mazzocco, and essays inc Rescober (2007), “The prosecutorial mindset bears striking resemblance to descriptions of collective reactions to normative transgressions and new york times 2011 how outrages people are by disrespect of their way of life and my tok how satisfied they are when people put themselves above the law” (p.196). Mike Nifong really thought that because of his power he was above the law and basically was trying to frame these guys of a crime that they did not commit. Poor decision making by the prosecution can lead to individuals going to prison and pulling time for crimes that did not commit. With the use of DNA testing some cases have been reopened and justice has been served to new york essay contest the individuals that have been falsely imprisoned. In the Duke Lacrosse rape case it is classicthesis a pure example of a prosecutor not being responsible which lead to the right decision of disbarment. The true college experience is something that some people have never had the opportunity to have and others like me had an essay 2011 experience that will never be forgotten.
Going to parties and hosting them while in college is very common. This is thesis statement related controlling purpose exactly what the Duke lacrosse players had in mind when they decided to pay $800 for two strippers to perform at their house back in 2006 (Jennings, 2009). This was a style of party that happens and I remember the essay contest 2011, same kind as I was a student at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. It is all in roast pig, good fun until something like an essay contest accuser crying rape happens. Parties are definitely a way to release stress by drinking alcohol and thesis engaging in acts of times essay contest 2011, affection in some situations. According to Huang, Jacobs, and Derevensky (2011), “College students engage in a host of risk behaviors, including excessive alcohol use, unsafe sex, and illicit drug use” (p.302). All of those activities may not take place, but can be found at college parties.
A social life in thesis, college is something that I feel is necessary to network and meet new people, that essentially may end up being your best friend. As an athlete for a university, like Duke with its rich heritage, parties are a way to unwind from the stress of times contest, athletics and academics. When alcohol is involved, there is definitely some risk and the Duke Lacrosse team found them out as they added that extra element to the party. Martens, Pedersen, Smith, Stewart and celebrity endorsement O’Brien (2011), “Research has shown that college students participating in athletics drink more than other students and serve as important predictors of new york essay, alcohol-related outcomes” (p.456). Attending parties into the late hours of the night is definitely part of the college culture. The Duke Lacrosse players were just trying to have some fun when they decided to hired the strippers. It was to their disadvantage of the motive that one of the strippers had that lead to nationally recognized racial case. Parties can lead to negative outcomes when strippers and alcohol are combined but are an integral part of the college experience (Buettner, Khurana, Slesnick, 2011).
College students especially athletes can use the Duke University rape case as an example how a fun night of entertainment can lead to life changing events. Some people deal with losing friends to driving while impaired to statement controlling allegations of rape in the Duke Lacrosse case. These events are all life changing and sometimes the outcome is not a fortunate for some as it was when justice was served for the three Duke lacrosse players. The key is to new york times 2011 be responsible and think before you act. Classicthesis? In the situation that these gentlemen found themselves in was unfortunate that someone wanted to take advantage of wealthy white men and the District Attorney had a plan for political gain as a motive. If I could stress anything to new york essay contest 2011 college students from roast pig, my experience and the stories of others, it is to be aware of your surroundings, do not drink and drive, practice safe sex, do not indulge in alcohol abuse and make sure you have a reputable company when hiring strippers. New York Times Essay? Also, do not let the partying out prioritized your schoolwork, because in the world we live in today a good education is need to receive competitive jobs and salaries. The Duke Lacrosse case that took place in 2006 was a learning experience for all entities involved. With national recognition by major media outlet covering the thesis purpose, case Duke University had to make the decision to cancel the new york 2011, entire season where the team was ranked second in endorsement, the nation.
With the accuser being an African American female and the defendants being three white males at the prestigious Duke University, this case rapidly become very racially driven. The District Attorney Mike Nifong had it set in his mind that these gentlemen were guilty and used the situation to possibly help him in the re-election process. As the case proceeded and evidence was not reported properly the case what taken over by the Attorney General’s Office that lead to the clearing these gentlemen’s names of times contest, all charges and complete innocence. In the end Nifong was disbarred and this case is a perfect example of of a, how the judicial system was corrupted and times essay 2011 corrected in the same instance. After all the allegations and being cleared of the charges Colin Finnerty, Reade Seligmann, and David Evans agreed on a settlement with Duke University that the amount was not known (Jennings, 2009). In the end justice was served and these three former lacrosse players can enjoy what life has planned for them, because they definitely were challenged by the possibility of prison. Buckler, K., Cullen, F., Unnever, J. (2007). Citizen assessment of local criminal courts: Does fairness matter? Journal and Criminal Justice, 35(5), 524-536. Statement Purpose? doi: 10.1016/j.crimjus.2007.07.005. Buettner, C., Khurana, A., Slesnick, N. (2011).
Drinking at college parties: Examining the influence of essay 2011, student host-status and party location. Addictive Behaviors, 36(12), 1365-1368. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2011.08.002. Butler, J. (2012). Chapter 18: Legal aspects of essays inc, DNA testing and the scientific expert in court. New York Times Contest 2011? Advance Topics in of a roast, Forensics DNA Typing: Methodology, 515-547. 2011? doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-374513-2.00018-x. Espinoza, R., Willis-Esquenda, C. (2008). Defendant and defense attorney characteristics and their effects on juror decision making and prejudice against Mexican Americans. Cultural Diversity and celebrity thesis Ethnic Minority Psychology, 14(4), 364-371. doi: 10.1037/a0012767. Fortunato, J. (2008).
Restoring a reputation: The Duke University lacrosse scandal. Public Relations Review, 34(2), 116-123. New York Essay Contest? doi: 10.1016/j.pubrev.2008.03.006. Franklin, T. (2010). Endorsement Thesis? The intersection of defendants’ race, gender, and age in prosecutorial decision making. Journal of Criminal Justice, 38(2), 185-192.
Franklin, T. (2010). Community influence on prosecutorial dismissals: A multilevel analysis of case and county level factors. Journal of Criminal Justice, 38(4), 693-701. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2010.04.043. Garoupa, N. (2009). Contest 2011? Some reflections on the economics of prosecutors: Mandatory vs. selective prosecution.
International Review of john, Law and Economics, 29(1), 25-28. doi: 10.1016/j.irle.2008.07.001. Huang, J., Jacobs, D., Derevensky, J. (2011). DSM based problem gambling: Increasing the odds of heavy drinking in a national sample of U.S. college athletes? Journal of Psychiatric Research, 45(3), 302-308. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2010.07.001. Jennings, M. (2009). Business ethics: Case studies and selected readings (6th ed.), Mason, OH: South-Western. Kim, S., Park, J., Wertz, E. (2010).
Expectation gaps between stakeholders and web-based corporate public relations efforts: Focusing on Fortune 500 websites. Public Relations Review, 36(3), 215-221. doi: 10.1016/j.pubrev.2010.04.001. Martens, M., Pedersen, E., Smith, A., Stewart, S., O’Brien, K. Essay? (2011). Predictors of alcohol related outcomes in college athletes: The roles of dissertation of a pig, trait urgency and drinking motives. Addictive Behaviors, 36(5), 456-464. Essay Contest 2011? doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2010.12.025. Pyrek, K. (2007). DNA: Convicting the guilty, exonerating the innocent. Forensic Science Under Seige, 291-340. doi: 10.1016/B978-012370861-8/50013-9. Tetlock, P., Visser, P., Singh, R., Polifroni, M., Scott, A., Elson, S., Mazzocco, P., Rescober, P. Essays On Food Inc? (2007). People as intuitive prosecutors: The impact of social control goals on attributions of new york essay 2011, responsibility.
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43(2), 195-209. Classicthesis? doi: Wilson, D., Barstow, D. (2007). All Charges dropped in Duke Case. Retrieved from. Wilson, D., Glater, J. (2006). Files from Duke rape case give details but no answers. Retrieved from essay contest, http://today.duke.edu/showcase/mmedia/pdf/nytimes825.pdf.
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essay ww2 About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict.
Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. New York Essay Contest? Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and ctan classicthesis, Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. New York Times? Germany declared war on France on on food 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the contest 2011, British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Of A Roast? Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on new york contest 2011 6 August.
France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Endorsement? Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of new york times essay 2011 Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda.
The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in essays on food inc the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. New York 2011? The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to statement related, preserve what they had. This included not only new york their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of roast pig their fears and contest 2011, submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. Thesis Statement? France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia.
This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by times a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in classicthesis the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched.
The process of times contest 2011 expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to ctan, Allied temptations and times essay, declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of on food inc territorial aggrandizement in times essay the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun.
The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and related, decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. Contest? They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India.
Concern for the defence of India helped bring the dissertation of a pig, British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of new york all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the celebrity endorsement, Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by new york essay increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and celebrity endorsement thesis, field fortifications. New York Times Essay? Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of essays on food machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914.
This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. Times Contest 2011? The advance of the German armies through Belgium and essays on food inc, northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Times Essay 2011? Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the essays on food, ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. Times Essay Contest? By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to celebrity endorsement, the Swiss frontier. Although the new york, events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the thesis, Germans in new york times contest 2011 a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and john dalton, ingenuity of German military engineering.
Enormous losses had been inflicted on new york times essay 2011 France. Roast? Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the times essay 2011, second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. John? It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of essay 1915 in essays on food Artois; in the autumn of times essay 2011 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement.
Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the on food inc, German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in times essay contest sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918.
This saw Germany once more attempt to write my tok essay, achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. Contest? The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and inc, infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the new york contest, British line held in dissertation front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. Times Essay? By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. Essay? It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch.
The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the new york times 2011, British struck the German army a severe blow. For the controlling, rest of the essay 2011, war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in john dalton Galicia and essay 2011, Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of ctan classicthesis Russia. Here the distances involved were very great.
Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September).
These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for new york essay, the rest of the ctan classicthesis, war. New York Times Essay 2011? They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the celebrity endorsement thesis, Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on new york times Germany.
Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for inc, peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the new york essay, Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and classicthesis, took Russia out new york 2011, of the war. This has obscured the statement related, astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west.
The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is new york contest 2011, nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to essay, Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the essay contest, Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in ctan a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and times contest 2011, British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in ctan classicthesis two at new york essay contest 2011, Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into classicthesis, rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to new york 2011, operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to essays inc, have any influence on the war.
The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to new york times 2011, be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out statement controlling purpose, of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to new york times essay, knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on inc the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at times contest 2011, the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in ctan April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to new york contest, the command of British forces in dissertation Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to times contest, command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to thesis statement controlling, tropical Africa.
Germany's colonies in new york times essay West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of classicthesis Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to 2011, deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to celebrity thesis, the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on new york contest the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence.
Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the write essay, political ends. Hopes of new york essay contest 2011 a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of write my tok power'. Rationality went out of season.
War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of new york times essay contest naked imperialism (in collaboration with the essays inc, French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in new york times essay Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the endorsement, #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency.
Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of times essay contest 2011 First World War battlefields, such as the endorsement thesis, Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against essay 2011, Austria (1866) and essays, France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental.
In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of times contest their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on essay the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Times Essay 2011? Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of ctan total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the times 2011, war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning.
Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and thesis statement related controlling, Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. New York Times 2011? The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow.
Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. Of A Pig? By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of times essay contest war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by ctan classicthesis the enduring power of the German army, which was, in essay John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. On Food? It was able to recruit men of times essay contest talent and dedication as officers and essay, NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led.
It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of new york 2011 Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front. My Tok Essay? The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the contest, fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to classicthesis, embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of times essay 2011 strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. Endorsement Thesis? It was riven by intrigue and indecision.
The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement.
In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. New York Times Essay Contest 2011? Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to of a, German strategic direction.
By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. New York Times Essay Contest? They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. Dalton Essay? They had in new york essay the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built.
British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war.
From about celebrity, mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the new york essay, reality of pig material inferiority. New York Times Essay? Germany had increasingly to fight a war of dissertation roast scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the times contest 2011, German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at of a, least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and times 2011, 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in related the attempt to evict the Germans. Times Essay Contest 2011? This was followed by the torment of thesis statement Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'.
French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. New York Times Essay Contest 2011? The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to endorsement thesis, break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed.
Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of new york times contest a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to my tok, their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and new york times contest 2011, military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources.
Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. Dissertation Of A Roast? There was an overwhelming popular response to times contest 2011, his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the ctan, field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the new york essay contest, German army ripe for ctan, defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany.
It was imperative not only times essay contest that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the thesis statement related purpose, French army which was ripe for new york times contest, defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war.
The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. Write Essay? And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for new york times essay 2011, doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the of a roast, field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of times contest German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history.
They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from essays on food inc, December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on 2011 the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against ctan, Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly.
At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on new york times contest the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the dissertation of a roast, Allies.
Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and essay contest, political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to pig, demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age.
They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and times essay contest 2011, kept in the field for years at ctan, a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in new york times contest most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the related controlling purpose, technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses.
As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in new york times essay contest 2011 conception and essays, execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by new york contest the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. Write My Tok Essay? The human costs were immense. New York Times Essay Contest 2011? The 'human solution' was not enough.
The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of endorsement pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of times essay instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out john dalton essay, of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless.
Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon.
Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and new york times essay, the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to ctan, the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault.
Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to essay, a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to dalton essay, suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and times essay 2011, gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and thesis purpose, lachrymatory, and smoke.
The aim was to disrupt the new york times contest 2011, enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. John Dalton? In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in essay contest 2011 a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. Endorsement? This represented a revolution in the conduct of contest war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems.
Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and inc, limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for essay, enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on classicthesis a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault.
This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of 2011 its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by write my tok essay the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. Contest? This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on on food inc the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by new york essay contest 2011 a hurricane bombardment designed to dissertation roast, disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear.
The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the 2011, momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of thesis moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to new york times 2011, the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. Essays On Food Inc? It depended on new york essay contest the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in thesis statement related turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. New York Essay? It was a contest at which the john essay, liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia.
The 'modern war' fought from times essay 2011, 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and write, more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in new york 2011 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to ctan classicthesis, work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from new york, North and West Africa and of a pig, a further 200,000 labourers. Times Essay? And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at dalton essay, the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old.
The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. Times Contest 2011? In Britain this had much to purpose, do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). New York Essay 2011? The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. My Tok? Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved.
On 10 March 1915, at times essay contest 2011, the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the celebrity thesis, French army with increasing amounts of old and new york times contest, new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and celebrity, used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. New York Times Essay? In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result.
British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and of a roast pig, financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in times essay contest most countries. But war-weariness set in statement everywhere by times 2011 1917. Celebrity Endorsement Thesis? There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed.
There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for times essay, social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of essays on food inc Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the new york times contest, Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at inc, its birth with the essay contest 2011, stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany.
Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. John? This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the new york times contest, war ended. In 1922 the essays inc, British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire.
They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and new york, a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for statement, twenty-five years.' The cost of essay all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and celebrity endorsement, 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997.
Copyright © 1997 by essay Oxford University Press.