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Photo rallycross essay 2011

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anti-sasunaru essay Description: Just read it. I think my post is on the 4th or 5th page. Rallycross Essay 2011! The thing is I really dislike teammate pairings, why? Because of the seesaw effect, what is the seesaw effect? Let me explain it to you in a story. Thinkthoughtmath! Team #99 is consisted of Boy #1, Boy #2 and Girl. They were walking in a playground when Boy #2 spotted a seesaw and wanted to get on it so Boy1 and Boy2 get on rallycross 2011, two ends of the seesaw. The boys ask Girl to come over too because she#39;s part of the team.

Because Girl is friends with both of the statement blindness in king lear, team, she decides to sit in the middle: Now, Team #99 is rallycross essay all happy playing on greatest essay, their perfectly balanced seesaw when suddenly Girl decides she has a crush on Boy1. After all, he#39;s cool, he#39;s handsome, way more attractive than Boy2 who can get really annoying. She#39;s going to want to photo get closer to Boy1 on essay topics, the seesaw. Now substitute Team #99 with either Team7, Team Gai or Team Kurenai and you will catch my drift and photo rallycross, what I#39;m saying. You see, Shikamaru particularly stands out of his group and as one of the original genin. He#39;s a genius, he was the only one to become a Chuunin in the fake exams and he went to attack the essay ever, Akatsuki without the rallycross, aid of Chouji and Ino. In conclusion, the current situation of Team Asuma looks like this: Okay, look what happens if ShikaIno became canon: In turn, if InoCho happened, there would be some balance added to the team.

You see, Sakura#39;s immaturity was especially shown on her relationship with Sasuke and Naruto. Technical Structure! How the heck is she supposed to mature from that stage of insulting Naruto and favoring Sasuke if she#39;s going to photo end up with Sasuke? She can#39;t, it just doesn#39;t make sense. SasuSaku fan Wrote: Can#39;t she mature while liking Sasuke at the same time? Not in the literary sense of things, and thesis statement lear, not according to my seesaw theory. Its not good symbolism. Sakura#39;s character development really does revolve around getting over Sasuke. Sakura ending up with Sasuke would show that she entirely revolves around him - exactly like the rallycross, beginning of university essay, Part1 - and that would be leaving her with a 2Dimensional personality and photo rallycross, character development.

Excuse me, the main girl totally revolving on getting a boyfriend? Sexism ahoy. How do you know that Sakura has no feelings for Sasuke anymore? Several things. For one, she accepted going out on a date with Naruto. Last time I checked, friends hung out, not dated. If she still liked Sasuke in a romantic way, she would have not accepted going out on university topics, a date with anyone, I know I wouldn#39;t go out on a date with a guy if I was in love with someone else as it would just be leading them on. Rallycross Essay 2011! That#39;s not all, there#39;s also the scene where Sakura cut her hair. Remember why she grew it out? For Sasuke. And what?

She cut it. In a way, she is cutting away her feelings for Sasuke. Technical Research! Sasuke kept Sakura immature. SasuSaku fan Wrote: Stronger possibly, but not mature. Photo Essay! Let#39;s look at drexel topics, the bit after Naruto#39;s battle with Gaara. Proof?

Sakura#39;s character development did not start until after Sasuke left. Kishimoto said that Sakura#39;s feelings for rallycross 2011 Sasuke were genuine unlike Ino#39;s#33; For one, never trust translators, especially when it comes to get a quote paper such a general word like #39;love#39;. Why? Because its easy to argue that Sakura#39;s genuine feelings for Sasuke was just caring for a teammate and having a crush at the same time. Photo Rallycross 2011! This gives gives off the illusion that Sakura actually loves Sasuke, but its what it is, an illusion. Genuine love as a friend and teammate, yes, genuine romantic love, no. What about that scene in the forest when Sakura calmed Sasuke#39;s rage? (Its also where we get the idea that she#39;s going to be his savior) Its been hinted at over and over again that Sasuke#39;s savior will be Naruto, and mainly Naruto and I will argue why later. The thing is, Naruto was unconscious, Lee was unconscious.

No one else could have done it, in fact, they ALL had to college be unconscious for Sakura to have that important hair-cutting scene I mentioned before. Photo Essay 2011! Either way, Sasuke was needed because at the time Sakura had stronger feelings for him than Naruto and drexel university essay topics, Lee and photo rallycross 2011, therefore provoked a stronger reaction. Get A For A Custom Essay Paper! Besides, the scene happened before Sasuke chose to go with Orochimaru, and I#39;ll get back to that later. But Sakura told Sasuke that she loved him#33; Plus that she would give up everything to rallycross essay be with him#33; I think that proves only even more that that crush is immature because ALL of us are willing to thinkthoughtmath do the same for photo rallycross essay 2011 our first love/crush, I know I did. How many do we actually end up with him? Very, very few, why? Because we mature. Research Paper Structure! In fact, if Sakura was mature by photo essay then, she wouldn#39;t have fallen for Sasuke to begin with. If you read A Hero of critical, Our Time by Lermontov you#39;ll understand what I#39;m talking about. Rallycross 2011! And no, I#39;m not comparing two works of two different artists, I#39;m using it as an example, just like I learn in my IB Junior year English class. (Mah skool is bedar dan urs lolol#33;1) (The above) was a SasuSaku moment#33; Sasuke left.

End of story. What about statement lear, Sakura#39;s reaction to Sai#39;s insult and Sai being so shocked about it? Naruto#39;s reaction was exactly the same. However, the reason why Sai was shocked from Sakura#39;s reaction was because she used the same #39;smile to photo rallycross essay 2011 conceal intentions#39; tactic he uses, and greatest, that surprised him. The reason that scene was important was to show how bad Naruto felt on photo rallycross 2011, how he couldn#39;t stop Sasuke from betraying the village and because of that couldn#39;t defend him against Sai#39;s insults. Statement In King Lear! And how about when Sakura saw Sasuke again?

She was very shocked. The last time she had seen Sasuke was when she declared her supposed feelings for him, and now she saw Sasuke attempting to kill Naruto behind Orochimaru, hey, that#39;s stressful you know. Anybody would have been shocked if only out of fear. Rallycross! Besides, even if you look for deeper meaning, it could only too easily mean that she gave up on him at that moment. We really don#39;t know, so no jumping to conclusions. Sakura spent all her time obsessing over Sasuke to quote paper only give it up later/End up with someone else? Yes actually, its called maturing and character development. Hell, NARUTO is all about friendship between the three teammates. Kishimoto isn#39;t going to photo rallycross essay throw that away in exchange for romance.

This isn#39;t a shojo manga. The three saying their goals at drexel university essay, the beginning could be seen as foreshadowing. Rallycross Essay 2011! Sasuke killing his brother and reviving his clan, Naruto becoming Hokage, and thesis statement lear, Sakura getting Sasuke. Lets look at that bit again, shall we? Close, but no cigar. Sasuke and Naruto mentioned their goals, but Sakura only said her favorite thing was Sasuke and that she hated Naruto.

She never mentioned it was her goal to be with Sasuke. Besides, I think it was mentioned later that Sakura#39;s goal was to become a strong kunoichi, not end up with Sasuke. Its possible that Sasuke did have feelings for 2011 Sakura. No, its not. Why? Well, because the so called love triangle that was shown to us when Sakura and Sasuke were introduced.

Naruto having strong feelings for Sakura would be one side. Sakura having strong feelings for Sasuke would be the other, and Sasuke having strong feelings for Naruto is the last. Sasuke: Don#39;t you envy him being alone, not having parents nag at you all the time. You make me sick#33; Sasuke: You#39;re just as bad as Naruto. Why waste your time flirting when you should be practicing? Even his skills are better than yours#33; Neji to Naruto (not exact quote): You have better eyes than mine. Only you can save Sasuke from darkness now. Warning: Yes, you guessed it, it is very pro-NaruHina. NaruSaku fan Wrote: NaruHina has no chance of happening instead of NaruSaku#33; I would agree.

But remember my statement about how crushes wore off in Part 2? Lee#39;s crush wore off, Ino#39;s crush wore off, Sakura#39;s crush wore off, Hinata#39;s crush did not wear off. If Kishimoto would want to put NaruSaku instead, he would have taken Hinata#39;s crush away instead of complicating things. He didn#39;t. Maybe he has planned doing something with them? Its sure been hinted at. NaruSaku fan: Naruto still loves/likes Sakura#33; No, he doesn#39;t. Essays Carver! I won#39;t argue on Sakura loving Naruto, but if that#39;s the photo rallycross essay 2011, case, then its not requited. Naruto knew and accepted that Sakura did not like him back in Part1 right before the the Sasuke Retrieval ARK: Naruto: Sakura-chan, you really like Sasuke huh? -smile- NaruSaku fan: What are you saying? Naruto never gives up, its his nindo#33; Sometimes part of learning is accepting that you lost and moving on. Even so, Naruto has never told Sakura he loved her, and it was never his goal to get together with Sakura. Naruto#39;s goals are to get a quote for a custom paper be acknowledged, to become Hokage and to bring Sasuke back.

Besides, why would he need to rallycross essay work to be acknowledged by drexel university topics Sakura when he is already acknowledged by Hinata? Let#39;s look at Hinata#39;s theme: Believe in yourself. How would that theme fit if Naruto ends up never acknowledging Hinata and rejects her for Sakura, someone who rejected him throughout most of photo rallycross, Part1? That#39;s not fair. Oh, and not to technical paper structure forget, Naruto#39;s nindo is never take back my words, not giving up. He has never mentioned he would get Sakura to essay 2011 love him in Part1, so I don#39;t see what the problem is. Naruto loves Sakura#33; Again, I#39;ll refer to the manga; And by thinkthoughtmath the way, Hinata#39;s theme is exactly the same. NaruSaku fan: NaruSaku is rallycross essay canon#33; Have they told eachother they love eachother? No.

Have they kissed? No. I know it is a shonen manga but there are always something that will indicate a pairing is canon. Look at Asuma/Kurenai, when Asuma died Kurenai had the university essay, bad omen, they constantly dated as you can see when Team Asuma had flashbacks. Asuma/Kurenai was canon. NaruSaku is not, if it were I wouldn#39;t be argueing this. The hero always gets the girl/Sakura is photo essay 2011 first prize while Hinata is runner-up, Naruto can#39;t get her#33; Prizes? Sexism alert#33; Look people, it wouldn#39;t be the first time the main character would get paired up with a side-character and it certainly wouldn#39;t be the last. Women aren#39;t prizes to be won. What about essays carver, Yamato#39;s statement?

Sakura in reality, you. -297. Oh, and talking about Ch297, guess who was on the cover of that chapter? You guessed it, Hinata Hyuuga. No, it wasn#39;t a coincidence and I#39;ll go more into photo rallycross 2011 it later. (This is probably Kishimoto#39;s way of saying You guessed wrong#33; ) Naruto would get Sakura to acknowledge him by loving him#33; Not necessarily. Statement Blindness! Sakura already acknowledges Naruto, she already knows about Kyuubi, she knows him probably better than most people. If the above is the case, then why hasn#39;t NaruSaku happened yet? They already know eachother well, you#39;d think they#39;d be totally over on eachother by now but they#39;re not. Makes you think, doesn#39;t it?

What about the photo essay, date? I#39;m no hypocrite. I think Kishimoto put the date as his own way of showing us that Sakura forgot her feelings for get a custom Sasuke without having to put actual important romance in photo rallycross essay 2011 it and adding to us that ShikaTema hint. Hell, Naruto hadn#39;t even said the word #39;date#39; yet so I don#39;t think it counts in statement in king lear this category. Naruto only teases Sakura, trying to cheer themselves up and doing it for #39;old time#39;s sake#39; and photo, Naruto hasn#39;t mentioned any romantic intentions to Sakura since then.

As I mentioned before, Naruto no longer has a crush on Sakura. Oh, and by the way, according to what#39;s translated, Kishimoto mentioned that the paper structure, date was not romance. No, I am not a hypocrite, love is essay 2011 a general word, romance is thinkthoughtmath not. Rallycross Essay 2011! The NaruHina in thinkthoughtmath the anime were only photo rallycross essay fillers#33; True. But why did the animators necessarily put NaruHina in greatest college essay ever the fillers? Why#39;d they do that if they knew it could end some other way ending up with loads of dissapointed fans on their asses?

It would be ridiculous and unprofessional. Its absolutely normal for manga authors to tell animators how they#39;re going to rallycross essay 2011 end the manga or at least what they have planned. I don#39;t think the animators are stupid enough to put NaruHina in if they knew NaruSaku would or could happen. NaruSaku fan Wrote: Hinata#39;s family wouldn#39;t let her#33;/Incest is practiced in the Hyuuga clan#33; One; It has NEVER been mentioned that the Hyuuga#39;s intermarry and I believe that#39;s just NejiHina fanon speculation. University Topics! Two; Its been foreshadowed that the Hyuugas will have a family reform and three; I don#39;t think they#39;d mind an exception to photo rallycross 2011 that rule with the future Hokage. Angst just makes it all better.

Hinata can be strong without Naruto#33; Wouldn#39;t that show her character development like you said with the crushes? If anyone were to ask me this, I#39;d applaud them for being a good debater, but it won#39;t work on drexel university, me. Hinata#39;s source for inspiration? Naruto, Hinata#39;s reason to grow? Naruto. Unlike Sakura#39;s crush for rallycross essay Sasuke keeping her immature, Hinata#39;s crush for blindness in king Naruto did the opposite, made her mature, made her stronger, how would that fit if Hinata ends up giving up? Yes, Hinata can become acknowledged by rallycross 2011 her clan and ever, become strong, but it wouldn#39;t resolve her feelings for photo essay 2011 Naruto. I already proved how Sakura#39;s feelings for Sasuke had resolved, how Naruto#39;s feelings for Sakura had resolved, but Hinata#39;s - maybe being a minor character - feelings have yet to be resolved.

Hell, its even be foreshadowed that Hinata will eventually confess her feelings for Naruto, let#39;s look at the second databook: Hinata, always feeling the critical essays carver, same towards Naruto. Photo! Will the day come when she can face him directly? Oh, and greatest college essay ever, let#39;s look at this picture Kishimoto himself drew, this is not fanart. This being the photo rallycross essay 2011, rough draft of the cover of the so on the familiar chapter of 297: This golden light is only too obviously Naruto. Essays On Raymond! Oh, and just to stick it in here, Hinata was the one that saw Naruto leave Konoha, not Sakura. Photo Essay 2011! - There#39;s no reason for Naruto and Sakura to be lovers as they#39;re perfectly fine as friends. Sakura already has a good portion of the greatest, spotlight, especially in a shonen manga. However, everytime Hinata gets the spotlight it has something to do with Naruto. Photo Rallycross! NaruHina not happening would be severely neglecting Hinata, as a minor character, and her theme. Quote For A! - The Seesaw effect. - If Kishimoto wanted NaruSaku he would have made Hinata#39;s feelings fade, but he didn#39;t. Photo Rallycross Essay 2011! - If Kishimoto wanted NaruSaku, he would have probably made it canon by now, they#39;re all alone without Sasuke, so why hasn#39;t it happened? -The NARUTO manga is all about get a essay paper, friendship.

Kishimoto is not going to throw that away to rallycross essay pave way for a romantic relationship between Team7 and/or Sai. Critical! He#39;s going to want to either leave them single or pair them up outside of the team. More reference to the seesaw effect. - Naruto already gave up on Sakura at photo rallycross 2011, the end of Part1. It would be pointless to bring back his feelings; it wouldn#39;t help the plot, and it certainly wouldn#39;t help his character development. -Sakura knows about Hinata#39;s feelings for custom paper Naruto, it wouldn#39;t be very nice on rallycross essay 2011, her part to still chase after him. -Continuing from the last point, both Kiba and Shino know very well of Hinata#39;s feelings for Naruto and college essay, support her. If NaruHina didn#39;t happen, it would not only bring down Hinata, but also all of Team 8/Kurenai.

Hell, it seems like all of Team 8#39;s purpose revolves around Hinata#39;s feelings for Naruto. I could use how Shino wasn#39;t included in the Sasuke Retrieval ARK as evidence for photo essay 2011 it. College! EDIT2: This is an arguement supported with facts like anything you write in school. It is not a fact and essay, I#39;m not saying that SasuSaku nor NaruSaku will never happen in the future, I#39;m argueing against SasuSaku and NaruSaku being canon now. Quote Custom Essay Paper! I#39;m not claiming all I say is a fact, its an opinion where I use a theory. Photo Rallycross Essay 2011! Now go take an English class and write a few essays on drexel university, books before coming back. -kicked out of the AMC- You see, Sakura#39;s immaturity was especially shown on rallycross essay 2011, her relationship with Sasuke and Naruto. How the heck is she supposed to mature from that stage of insulting Naruto and essays on raymond, favoring Sasuke if she#39;s going to end up with Sasuke? She can#39;t, it just doesn#39;t make sense.

I think that she realized that the world DOESN#39;T revolve around her sasuke-kun, but I still think that she loves him. So you#39;re right, she matures by realizing that the world is photo rallycross essay entirely made of her and for a, Sasuke--- but that doesn#39;t deny the right for photo rallycross essay 2011 her to still love him, and for him to have the potential of quote custom paper, loving her back. Photo Rallycross! In fact, there are a lot of things Sasuke does that hints that he cares for Sakura-- maybe not as a lover, but at least as a friend. I think that, not only does Sakura#39;s character develop, but her realationship with Sasuke, and technical research paper, even Naruto develops as well, as time passes.

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montaigne essay Michel de Montaigne – zijn leven en werk. Michel Eyquem de Montaigne (1533-1592) Michel Eyquem, heer van Montaigne, heeft zijn familienaam blijkbaar nooit gedragen. Photo 2011! Hij werd geboren op 28 februari 1533 in essays on raymond carver, kasteel Montaigne, bij Bergerac, dat in rallycross essay 2011, 1477 door overgrootvader Ramon Eyquem was verworven. Thinkthoughtmath! Het kind Michel kreeg in rallycross 2011, het eerste deel van zijn opvoeding een huisonderwijzer, een Duitse medicus die geen Frans kende maar wel uitstekend Latijn, aangezien zijn vader, Pierre Eyquem, had bevolen dat in on raymond carver, de nabijheid van het kind uitsluitend Latijn moest worden gebruikt door familie en personeel. ‘Toen ik ruim zes jaar was, kon ik nog steeds net zo weinig Frans of rallycross essay 2011 Périgords verstaan als Arabisch; en zonder systeem, zonder boek, zonder grammatica of thinkthoughtmath regels, zonder zweep en zonder tranen had ik Latijn geleeerd, even vlekkeloos als mijn leraar het kon’ ( Essais 1:26). Rallycross! Latijn is dus in feite zijn moedertaal. De schooltijd van zes tot dertien jaar brengt hij door in critical essays on raymond, het Collège van Guyenne in 2011, Bordeaux, waar het onderwijs, evenals later het middelbaar onderwijs en daarna het hoger onderwijs in thinkthoughtmath, Toulouse voor de rechtenstudie, in essay, het Latijn werd gegeven.

Door deze gang van zaken had Montaigne een voorsprong waardoor hij in thesis statement blindness in king lear, 1554, op 21-jarige leeftijd, het ambt van raadsheer kon verwerven, eerst bij het gerechtshof in 2011, Périgueux en aansluitend in thesis lear, 1557 in Bordeaux. Photo 2011! Die zetel heeft hij bijna 15 jaar bezet. Als collega heeft Montaigne daar Étienne de la Boétie leren kennen, een humanist en stoïcijn die zijn beste vriend is geworden; tot zijn grote verdriet is ever, deze in 2011, 1563 vroegtijdig aan dysenterie overleden. Essay! In Essais 1:28, getiteld ‘Over vriendschap’ zegt Montaigne dat wat we gewoonlijk vrienden en vriendschappen noemen slechts toevallige kennissen zijn. Maar in de vriendschap waarover ik spreek, vermengt en versmelt de een zo volkomen met de ander dat de naad die hen verbindt onzichtbaar wordt en niet meer is essay, terug te vinden. Essay! Als men bij mij erop aandringt dat ik zeg waarom ik van hem hield, voel ik dat dat alleen uitgedrukt kan worden door te antwoorden: ‘Omdat hij het was, omdat ik het was. Michel huwt in 1565 met Françoise de la Chassaigne. 2011! Het echtpaar krijgt zes dochters waarvan er slechts één in leven blijft.

In 1568 heeft hij zijn vader verloren, ‘de beste vader die er ooit was’. Op dat moment was Michel de oudste nog levende zoon zodat hij erfgenaam werd van het landgoed en kasteel Montaigne. Statement Blindness Lear! Die naam heeft Michel kennelijk altijd gevoerd. Door de opkomst van de reformatie waren er tussen 1562 en 1598 acht godsdienstoorlogen, vooral in photo rallycross essay, West-Frankrijk, ook in de omgeving van Bordeaux en kasteel Montaigne, en werd de streek door plunderende troepen geteisterd. Vermoeid van de problemen in topics, het gerechtshof en het openbare leven heeft Montaigne in photo essay 2011, 1570 het ambt van raadsheer opgegeven. Statement Blindness! Hij was toen 37 jaar. Photo! Vervolgens verbleef hij in essays on raymond carver, verband met de publicatie van de door Étienne de la Boétie nagelaten werken zes maanden in rallycross, Parijs, o.a. Thinkthoughtmath! aan het hof van de koning. Na terugkeer in essay, zijn kasteel installeerde hij zich op de tweede etage van de torenkamer waar hij kon werken en een bibliotheek had, en waar hij zijn Essais begint te schrijven. Get A Quote Custom! Hij leefde daar niet als een kluizenaar, maar ontving gasten en buren landeigenaars.

In 1578 en 1579 bezoekt hij kuuroorden in rallycross, de Pyreneeën omdat hij steeds meer last krijgt van niersteenaanvallen. In 1580 heeft hij twee boekdelen met in thinkthoughtmath, totaal 94 essays in rallycross, Bordeaux laten drukken; op 22 juni vertrekt hij samen met vier jongemannen te paard naar Parijs om zijn boek aan koning Henri III aan te bieden en rijdt vervolgens, via Bazel en Zuid-Duitsland en de Brennerpas naar Italië tot aan Rome. Thinkthoughtmath! Onderweg bezoekt hij allerlei bezienswaardigheden en alle plekken waar geneeskrachtige bronnen zijn om de geërfde nierziekte met pijnlijke nierstenen te laten behandelen. Photo Rallycross 2011! In het Vaticaan heeft hij de mogelijkheid om manuscripten van zijn geliefde Romeinse schrijvers in te zien. College Ever! De reis duurde ruim 17 maanden en op 30 november 1581 is hij weer terug in photo, zijn kasteel. In 1581 ontvangt hij in drexel university essay topics, het kuuroord Lucca bericht dat hij voor een termijn van twee jaar is essay, gekozen als burgemeester van Bordeaux; hij krijgt hierover een brief van koning Henri III die er bij hem op aandringt het ambt te vervullen. Thesis Lear! In 1583 wordt hij herkozen voor een volgende termijn van twee jaar. Photo! In de tweede helft van 1585 heerst er een pestepidemie in thesis lear, Périgueux en Bordeaux; Montaigne vlucht met zijn gezin en bedienden weg van kasteel Montaigne en trekt zich terug in de heuvels van Cenon; het kost hem veel moeite ergens onderdak te vinden ( Essais 3:12). De Chronique bordelaise meldt 14.000 doden. Zijn afwezigheid duurt drie maanden.

In 1588 wordt in photo rallycross essay, Parijs een nieuwe editie van zijn Essais verzorgd, met een derde deel dat nog eens 13 essays omvat en 600 aanvullingen op de eerste twee delen. Technical Research Paper! Op de heenweg naar Parijs wordt hij bij Orleans beroofd; als hij op een dag vanuit Rouen in photo 2011, Parijs terugkeert wordt hij gevangen genomen en in technical, de Bastille opgesloten; door tussenkomst van Catharine de Médicis, vrouw van koning Henri III, komt hij dezelfde dag weer vrij. Begin september 1592 voelt hij het einde van zijn leven naderen; 13 september overlijdt hij in photo rallycross, zijn kasteel Montaigne. Over het werk van Montaigne. Montaigne heeft in totaal 107 essays geschreven. De Nederlandse vertaling omvat iets meer dan 1300 bladzijden. Get A Quote Custom Paper! 1 Indien iemand zin heeft ze te gaan lezen, zou ik aanbevelen te beginnen met het derde boekdeel; dat is essay 2011, het meest bezonken en gerijpt, waarschijnlijk ook door zijn ziekte (nierstenen), waarvoor in essays carver, de 16de eeuw nog geen remedie bestond. Rallycross Essay 2011! Montaigne heeft zich vooral met zichzelf bezig gehouden, doordrongen van de opdracht: Mens ken uzelf. In Essais 1:8 geeft hij aan waarom hij met het schrijven van zijn essays is get a custom essay, begonnen:

De ziel die geen vastgesteld doel heeft raakt de weg kwijt: want, zoals men zegt, u bent nergens als u overal bent. Rallycross Essay 2011! Kort geleden trok ik me hier thuis terug [in 1571], vastbesloten om me zoveel mogelijk om niets anders te bekommeren dan hoe ik het weinige dat me nog van het leven rest, in get a for a essay, rust en afzondering kan doorbrengen. Rallycross 2011! Ik dacht toen dat ik mijn geest geen grotere dienst kon bewijzen dan hem niets anders te laten doen dan zich met zichzelf bezig te houden, met werken op te houden en tot zichzelf te komen, wat hem, naar ik hoopte, voortaan gemakkelijker zou afgaan nu hij met het verstrijken van de tijd beter afwegingen kan maken en rijper is quote for a essay paper, geworden. Photo Rallycross Essay! Maar ik constateer dat hij integendeel ontsnapt als een op hol geslagen paard en honderd keer meer problemen geeft dan hij ooit voor een ander op zich nam: hij bezorgt me zoveel hersenschimmen en bizarre monsters na elkaar, ordeloos en zinloos, dat ik ben begonnen ze op te schrijven om op mijn gemak de onzinnigheid en vreemdheid te overpeinzen, in essay, de hoop dat ze zich na verloop van tijd voor zichzelf gaan schamen. Hij schreef heel openhartig, maar moest niettemin geducht rekening houden met de inquisitie. Misschien zijn er geen data in het boek vermeld om moeilijkheden met de inquisitie te voorkomen. Photo Rallycross Essay! Montaigne heeft elk essay een titel gegeven die meestal weinig of essay topics niets te maken heeft met de inhoud; het wemelt in photo essay 2011, alle bladzijden van citaten, voornamelijk van klassieke schrijvers, echter zonder hun namen te noemen; de bronnen zijn later opgespoord en toegevoegd. Quote Custom Paper! De essays bevatten ongeveer 800 spreekwoorden en gezegden: bijvoorbeeld ‘Er waait geen wind voor hem die geen bepaalde haven heeft om naartoe te varen.’ Maurice Rat schrijft: Sla Montaigne open, onverschillig welke bladzijde, vanaf de eerste woorden bent u op de hoogte. Essay 2011! Het zijn van die boeken die op alle bladzijden beginnen en eindigen. . . . Critical Essays On Raymond Carver! Montaigne wint erbij als u stukjes van hem plukt, zoals hij zelf bij de klassieke Ouden oogste.

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college essay spoof Literary Terms and Definitions: P. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted September 1, 2017. This list is meant to assist, not intimidate.

Use it as a touchstone for important concepts and photo essay 2011 vocabulary that we will cover during the term. Vocabulary terms are listed alphabetically. P TEXT, THE (Also called the P Document ): In biblical scholarship, the common editorial abbreviation for the Priestly Text (see below, or click here for more detailed discussion.). PAEAN : Among the earliest Greeks, the word paean signifies a dance and hymn with a specific rhythm which is endued with an absolving and healing power (Burkett 44). In later usage, any song of critical on raymond, praise to a deity is called a paean. PALATAL : In linguistics, any sound involving the hard palate--especially the photo rallycross essay, tongue touching or moving toward the hard palate. PALATAL DIPTHONGIZATION : A sound change in which either the ash or the /e/ sound in Old English words became a diphthong when preceded by palatal consonants. For instance, Modern English cheese comes from Old English ciese , which is a cognate of Latin caseus . Scholars can tell the essay ever, word in Old English must have been adopted after the time of palatal diphthongization--otherwise it would have a simple /e/ sound rather than the diphthong /ie/ . Thus, palatal dipthongization is useful for photo rallycross 2011 philologists who wish to research structure, date a borrowed word in Old English. PALATALIZATION : In linguistics, the process of making a sound more palatal --i.e., moving the blade of the rallycross essay 2011, tongue closer to thesis statement blindness in king lear, the hard palate. PALIMBACCHIU S: Also called an anti-bacchius , this is rallycross essay a three-syllable foot in which the first two syllables are stressed and essay ever the third syllable unstressed. Photo Rallycross Essay 2011. It is very rare in English prosody, though Gerard Manley Hopkins and Ezra Pound make occasional use of it.

PALIMPSEST (Grk, rubbed away): A surface such as a piece of greatest ever, parchment or vellum in which one text had been written, but then later became partially or completely erased when a subsequent scribe or bookmarker recycled the page and photo used a knife or edged tool to scrape away the quote for a custom, original surface. Photo Essay. This process would remove or fade the greatest college ever, original writing sufficiently for the later scribe to write over the older material. Photo. It was a very common practice in medieval times since paper was so expensive. Often, modern codicologists can rediscover the original writing by using UV light filters or chemicals to make the erased text visible again. PALINDROME : A word, sentence, or verse that reads the same way backward or foreward. Get A For A Paper. Certain words in English naturally function as palindromes: for instance, civic , rotor , race car, radar , level and so on. However, when individuals seek to combine several words at once, the result becomes a sort of perverse art. Here are some longer English examples culled from J. Photo Rallycross Essay. A. Cuddon's Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory : Madam, I'm Adam. Sir, I'm Iris. Able was I ere I saw Elba. (attributed apocryphally to Napoleon, who was exiled on Elba, though in historical fact he apparently spoke no English!) A man, a plan, a canal: Panama!

Sex at noon taxes. Lewd did I live evil I did dwel. (anonymous 18th-century gravestone) Straw? No, too stupid a fad; I put soot on warts! Deliver desserts, demanded Nemesis--emended, named, stressed, reviled. T. Eliot, top bard, notes putrid tang emanating, is sad. I'd assign it a name: Gnat dirt upset on drab pot toilet. (W. Thinkthoughtmath. H. Rallycross. Auden) Stop Syrian! I start at drexel university, rats in airy spots! The tradition goes back a long ways. Cuddon notes several, including a Greek palindrome inscribed on a vial of holy water in Saint Sophia's church in essay 2011, Constantinople that translates as Wash not only my face, but also my sins . A Latin example is the palindrome, In girum imus nocte et consumimur igni which means We [moths] fly in circles by night and we will be consumed in fire. On Raymond. Probably the photo, most excessive use of palindromes is the 1802 collection by Ambrose Pamperis, in which Pamperis writes 416 palindromic verses celebrating Catherine the Great's military campaigns (See Cuddon 673-74).

PALINODE (Greek: singing again): A poem, song, or section of a poem or song in which the poet renounces or retracts his words in an earlier work. Drexel University. Usually this is meant to apologize or counterbalance earlier material. The first recorded use of the palinode is a lyric written by 2011, the Greek author Stesichorus (7th century BCE), in technical paper, which he retracts his earlier statement claiming that the Trojan War was entirely Helen's fault. Ovid wrote his Remedia Amoris as a palinode for his scandalous Ars Amatoria --a work that may have caused Caesar Augustus to banish him to the Black Sea. As a theme, the palinode is especially common in essay 2011, religious poetry and love poetry.

The use of the palinode became conventional in patristic and medieval writings--as evidenced in Augustine, Bede, Giraldus Cambrensis, Jean de Meun, Sir Lewis Clifford, and others. More recent examples of palinodes include Sir Philip Sidney's Leave me, O love which reachest but to dust. Here, his palinode renounces the thesis statement blindness lear, poetry of sexual love for that of divine grace. Rallycross Essay 2011. Likewise, Chaucer's Legend of Good Women includes a palinode in which the for a custom paper, author takes back what he said about photo rallycross essay unfaithful women like Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde . At the end of the Canterbury Tales , Chaucer goes so far as to write a retraction for all his secular literature. See also retraction . PANDECT (Grk. pan everything + dektes reciever): A book that purports to contain all possible information on a subject. The term was first used as a title for thesis blindness in king Emperor Justinian's 50-volume encyclopedia of Roman law. Cf. summa . PANEGYRIC : A speech or poem designed to essay 2011, praise another person or group. In ancient Greek and Roman rhetoric, it was one branch of public speaking, with established rules and conventions found in the works of Menander and Hermogenes.

Famous examples include Pliny's eulogy on Emperor Trajan and critical on raymond carver Isocrates' oration on the Olympic games of 380. PANGLOSSIAN (Grk. pan everything + Lat. glossare to explain or comment upon): The word is an eponym based on the fictional Dr. Pangloss from Voltaire's satire, Candide . Dr. Pangloss is photo a naively optimistic pedant who upholds the doctrine that all is for the best, and that we live in for a custom essay, the best of all possible worlds, claiming that a benevolent deity creates all things for positive purposes, and if we could only photo rallycross 2011, decipher cause/effect accurately, we would see this. Drexel Essay. His arguments are a parody of Alexander Pope's claim that Whatever is, is RIGHT. Voltaire uses Pangloss as a straw-man in Candide , and Voltaire tries to show through the more inane Panglossian arguments that, in fact, the world is a highly flawed place and it does not live up to its ideal possibilities.

PANTHEON (Greek, all the gods): (1) A pantheon is a collective term for photo essay all the gods believed to thinkthoughtmath, exist in a particular religious belief or mythos . Thus, we can talk of the Hittite pantheon, the rallycross, Greek pantheon, etc. (2) The Pantheon is a great temple in Rome dedicated to greatest essay, all the Olympian gods, not to photo rallycross essay 2011, be confused with the Parthenon , the great temple dedicateSd to the virgin goddess Athena, which is situated on top of the Acropolis in Athens. PANTUN : A verse form from Malaysia. The pantun is a poem of research, no specific length, composed of quatrains using internal assonance. The rhymes are interlinked much like terza rima in photo essay, the sense that the second and thinkthoughtmath fourth lines of essay 2011, each stanza become the first and third lines of the following stanza. In the last quatrain, the drexel university essay topics, first line of the poem appears again as the last, and rallycross 2011 the third line as the second, forming a circle for college essay closure. Rallycross Essay. (Alternatively, the poet may end the work with a simple couplet). Statement Lear. Ernest Fouinet introduced the genre to French literature in the 1800s. Victor Hugo, Baudelaire, and Leconte de Lisle later also experimented with it in French verse.

Although rare in English poetry, Austin Dobson used it in his work, In Town . PARABASIS (Greek, stepping forward or going aside): A moment at photo rallycross, the end of a Greek tragedy in which the chorus would remove their masks and research paper step forward to address the audience directly in speech rather than song. Photo 2011. The parabasis usually contained the final thoughts or opinions of the playwright on some matter of government, theology, or philosophy. The concluding words of the chorus in thesis, Sophocles' Oedipus Rex serve as one example. PARABLE (Greek: throwing beside or placing beside): A story or short narrative designed to rallycross 2011, reveal allegorically some religious principle, moral lesson, psychological reality, or general truth. Blindness In King Lear. Rather than using abstract discussion, a parable always teaches by comparison with real or literal occurrences--especially homey everyday occurrences a wide number of people can relate to. Well-known examples of photo rallycross, parables include those found in get a quote for a custom, the synoptic Gospels, such as The Prodigal Son and The Good Samaritan. In some Gospel versions, Christ announces his parables with a conventional phrase, The Kingdom of God is like . . . . Essay. Technically speaking, biblical parables were originally examples of a Hebrew genre called meshalim (singular mashal ), a word lacking a close counter-part in Greek, Latin or English. Meshalim in Hebrew refer to mysterious speech, i.e., spiritual riddles or enigmas the speaker couches in story-form. Thesis Statement In King. Thus, in Matthew 13:11 and Mark 4:11-12, Christ states that he speaks in photo essay 2011, parables so that outsiders will not be able to understand his teachings. It is only late in get a for a paper, the Greek New Testament that these meshalim are conflated with parables or allegorical readings designed for ease of rallycross essay 2011, understanding.

Non-religious works can be parables as well. For example, Melville's Billy Budd demonstrates that absolute good--such as the impressionable, naive young sailor--may not co-exist with absolute evil--the villain Claggart. Cf. fable , allegory , and symbolism , or click here for a PDF handout discussing the differences between these terms. PARADIGMATIC CHANGE (also called associative change ): In linguistics, these are language changes brought about because a sound or a word was associated with a different sound or word. Algeo provides the following example: PARAGRAPH (Greek, side writing): (1) Originally, a short stroke below the start of a line running horizontally to separate that material from earlier commentary. It was common in Greek manuscripts to show a break in the sense or a change of subject (Cuddon 679). (2) In modern English composition, it is thinkthoughtmath a passage, section or subdivision of a longer essay, usually indicated by indenting the first line of the section. Conventionally, a paragraph deals with one particular idea or aspect of a larger subject-matter. For the photo essay 2011, sake of reader comprehension, the writer typically includes some sort of topic sentence to tie the paragraph together, and the writer might also include a transitional sentence before or after the paragraph to smooth the flow of ideas. PARALANGUAGE : The non-verbal features that accompany speech and help convey meaning. For example, facial expression, gesticulation, body stance, and greatest college essay ever tone can help convey additional meaning to the spoken word; these are all examples of communication through paralanguage.

PARALLELISM : When the writer establishes similar patterns of grammatical structure and length. For instance, King Alfred tried to make the law clear, precise, and equitable. The previous sentence has parallel structure in photo essay 2011, use of college ever, adjectives. Photo Rallycross Essay 2011. However, the following sentence does not use parallelism: King Alfred tried to make clear laws that had precision and were equitable. If the college, writer uses two parallel structures, the result is isocolon parallelism : The bigger they are, the harder they fall. If there are three structures, it is photo essay 2011 tricolon parallelism : That government of the people, by the people, and for the people shall not perish from the for a custom essay paper, earth. Or, as one student wrote, Her purpose was to impress the ignorant, to perplex the dubious, and to startle the complacent. Shakespeare used this device to good effect in Richard II when King Richard laments his unfortunate position: PARATAXIS : Rhetorically juxtaposing two or more clauses or prepositions together in strings or with few or no connecting conjunctions or without indicating their relationship to rallycross essay, each other in terms of co-ordination or subordination; i.e. a loose association of clauses as opposed to hypotaxis . A common form of parataxis is asyndeton , in which expected conjunctions fail to appear for artistic reasons.

For example, Shipley points out how the Roman playwright Terence writes tacent; satis laudant (they are silent; that is praise enough). Statement Blindness Lear. The normal structure with a conjunction would be tacent, et satis laudant (they are silent; and that is photo rallycross praise enough.) See Shipley 422-23 for this discussion and a comparison among Greek and Latin and university essay English writers. Modern paratactic style is typically short and simple--like Hemingway's writing. PARATEXT (also French peritext ): In Gérard Genette's work, Paratext: Thresholds of Interpretation , Genette introduces the idea of paratext, i.e., anything external to the text itself that influences the way we read a text. These paratexts can be almost infinite in number, but they might include a list of other works the author has published on the front cover of a book, the gender of the author as indicated by his or her name, reviews written about the book, and photo 2011 editorial commentary about the work. For example, suppose the technical, text we are reading is a fictional story about a European woman who falls in love with a Persian graduate student. That Persian student is later viciously murdered by rallycross, the European woman's xenophobic father. Drexel. If we see the photo rallycross 2011, author's name is Susan Jones we might interpret the text differently than if we saw the author's name was Achmed bin Jaffah, for instance. Essays On Raymond. If the same author wrote a number of photo rallycross 2011, murder mysteries, we might be especially prone to read this new text as influenced by essay, that early genre work, or even expect the current text to be (rightly or wrongly) yet another murder mystery. If we read a review calling attention to the theme of lust in a work, we might experience the book differently than if we had read a different review focusing on the theme of intolerance. All of these external cues, however, are not actually in photo rallycross, the narrative itself we are reading.

Thus, they are paratextual. A New Critic from the 1930s would probably argue that all paratexts are irrelevant to research paper, determining the meaning of literary art, and the paratextual should be ignored accordingly. Genette might counter that such paratexts inescapably influence our interpretation, so it would be appropriate to identify and discuss them rather than try to sweep them away. PARCHMENT : Goatskin or sheepskin used as a writing surface--the medieval equivalent of essay 2011, paper. A technical distinction is usually made between parchment and vellum , which is made from the hide of young calves.

As Michelle P. Brown notes in Understanding Illuminated Manuscripts , the process for creating vellum or parchment is quite complicated: To produce parchment or vellum, the animal skins were defleshed in a bath of lime, stretched on a frame, and scraped with a lunular knife while damp. they could then be treated with pumice, whitened with a substance such as chalk, and greatest college ever cut to rallycross, size. Differences in preparation technique seem to have occasioned greater diversity in appearance than did the type of thesis lear, skin pused. Photo Rallycross Essay. Parchment supplanted papyrus as the most popular writing support material in the fourth century, although it was known earlier. Parchment was itself largely replaced by paper in the sixteenth century (with the rise of printing) but remained in thinkthoughtmath, use for certain high-grade books. (95) PARDONER : An individual licensed by the medieval church to sell papal indulgences (i.e., pardons), official documents excusing the recipient from essay, certain acts of penitence and alleviating the sinner's punishment while in purgatory . The Catholic Encyclopedia defines an indulgence as the extra-sacramental remission of the temporal punishment due to a sinner. Protestant students might wish to peruse the Catholic Encyclopedia's discussion of indulgences to avoid common misconceptions and distortions.

The practice of selling these pardons as a means of thesis blindness in king lear, fund-raising for the church or as a means of rewarding those who offered the rallycross essay 2011, church some service rose in prominence after the council of Clermont in 1095. There, Pope Urban II announced sweeping indulgences would be given to any individuals willing to thesis, go on Crusade. By the fourteenth century, the practice had developed extensively, and pardoners were lay officials authorized by the pope to sell indulgences in exchange for financial donations. Ecclesiastical abuses become commonplace problems. These abuses included unauthorized sales, the sale of forged pardons, extortion, and deliberate misrepresentation of the photo 2011, scope of an indulgence (i.e., treating the indulgence as a get-out-of-hell-free card).

Chaucer's Pardoner in The Canterbury Tales represents the worst excesses of pardoners during this period. PARDONS : Another term for papal indulgences. See discussion under pardoner . PARNASSIAN POETS : An aestheticist, mid-19th-century, Russian and French school of poets that advocated art for its own sake and emphasized sensual and vivid imagery divorced from critical on raymond, emotional content (Harkins 275). The term Parnassian refers to rallycross essay 2011, Mount Parnassus in thinkthoughtmath, Greece. The toponymic name alludes to the way they often adopted themes from classical Greek mythology and philosophy (275). PARODOS : In Greek tragedy, the ceremonial entrance of the chorus. Usually the chorus at this time chants a lyric relating to the main theme of the play. PARODY (Greek: beside, subsidiary, or mock song): A parody imitates the serious manner and characteristic features of rallycross essay 2011, a particular literary work in order to make fun of those same features. The humorist achieves parody by exaggerating certain traits common to thesis statement blindness, the work, much as a caricaturist creates a humorous depiction of a person by magnifying and calling attention to the person's most noticeable features. The term parody is often used synonymously with the photo 2011, more general term spoof , which makes fun of the general traits of a genre rather than one particular work or author.

Often the subject-matter of a parody is comically inappropriate, such as using the thinkthoughtmath, elaborate, formal diction of an epic to describe something trivial like washing socks or cleaning a dusty attic. Aristotle attributes the photo 2011, first Greek parody to critical essays on raymond carver, Hegemon of Thasos in The Poetics , though other writings credit the playwright Hipponax with the first creation of theatrical parody. Aristophanes makes use of parody in The Frogs (in which he mocks the style of Euripides and Aeschylus). Plato also caricatures the style of various writers in the Symposium . In the Middle Ages, the first well-known English parody is photo rallycross Chaucer's Sir Thopas, and Chaucer is himself the basis of research, parodies written by photo, Alexander Pope and W. Technical Research Paper Structure. W. Skeat. Cervantes creates a parody of medieval romance in Don Quixote . Rabelais creates parodies of similar material in Gargantua and Pantagruel. Erasmus parodies medieval scholastic writings in Moriae Encomium . In Shamela (1741), Henry Fielding makes a parody of Samuel Richardson's novel Pamela by turning the rallycross, virtuous serving girl into a spirited and sexually ambitious character who merely uses coyness and false chasteness as a tool for snagging a husband. In Joseph Andrews (1742), Henry Fielding again parodies Samuel Richardson's novel Pamela , this time by replacing Richardson's sexually beleaguered heroine, Pamela, with a hearty male hero who must defend his virtue from the sexually voracious Lady Booby. In the Romantic period, Southey, Wordsworth, Browning, and Swinburne were the victims of far too many parodies in paper, far too many works to list here.

See also mock epic , satire , and spoof . PAROLE (French, speech): In Ferdinand de Saussure's theory of rallycross 2011, semiology, parole is the carver, use of language--i.e., manifestations of actual speech and writing. Parole contrasts with langue , the invisible underlying system of language that makes parole possible. PARONOMASIA : The technical Greek term for what English-speakers commonly refer to as a pun. See extended discussion under pun , below. PART (Latin partum , a piece): An actor's role in a play, the character the actor portrays or pretends to rallycross essay, be. The term comes from Renaissance drama. Since it was too expensive in Shakespeare's day to college, print playbooks for every single actor involved in a play, penny-pinching acting companies would only give each actor a roll of paper called a part; the part would list the dialogue for one character and all the cues belonging to that character (Greenblatt 1140).

The term role , synonymous with part, is similarly derived from such rolls of paper ( ibidem ). PARTIYNOST (Russian, Party-Spirit): In Communist Russian, the requirement that literature must identify and be compatible with the methods and goals of the dominent political party, as Lenin advocated (Harkins 275). Photo Essay. Any other literature, according to the Communist Russian censors, was merely bourgeois decadence in for a essay, art (275). PARTITIVE : One of several possible numbering systems in essay, a language's grammar. For a discussion of partitives, see multiplicatives . PARTS OF SPEECH : The traditional eight divisions or categories for thesis statement lear words as described by the Latin grammarian Aelius Donatus around 350 CE, which he is turn borrowed from earlier Greek categories.

In English, these are slightly modified: English Parts of Speech: Interjections are usually treated as a separate category from the other parts of speech. Donatus' Latin Parts of rallycross, Speech : PARTIBLE SUCCESSION : The opposite statement lear, of primogeniture , partible succession is the photo rallycross, practice in which all the college essay, children share equally in an inheritance. Under this legal system, if a property-owner or king dies, the deceased's lands, money, or kingdom would be split into equal shares for essay 2011 each surviving child. While this policy is in some ways more fair than primogeniture, in which eldest child takes all, it does result in the fragmentation of estates or sometimes entire kingdoms. In the late medieval period, primogeniture was the common practice in much of Europe and Britain, but in the early dark ages, partible succession was notoriously common among some Celtic tribes in England and the Merovingian and Frankish tribes of France and Germany.

This practice is behind King Lear's sycophantic games in the first act of King Lear , as the play is set in ancient Celtic times, though the subplot about Edgar involves the much later later practice of primogeniture. PASSUS (Latin, step): William Langland uses the term passus to refer to each numbered subdivision of his poem, The Vision of Piers Plowman . The idea is each section is a step toward salvation or spiritual truth. Cf. Critical Carver. canto and fit . PASTORAL (Latin pastor , shepherd): An artistic composition dealing with the life of shepherds or with a simple, rural existence. It usually idealized shepherds' lives in order to create an image of peaceful and uncorrupted existence. More generally, pastoral describes the simplicity, charm, and serenity attributed to country life, or any literary convention that places kindly, rural people in nature-centered activities. The Greek Theocritus (316-260 BCE) first used the convention in essay 2011, his Idylls , though pastoral compositions also appear in Roman literature, in Shakespeare's plays, and in statement blindness in king, the writings of the Romantic poets. Typically, pastoral liturgy depicts beautiful scenery, carefree shepherds, seductive nymphs, and photo rural songs and dances. Drexel University. Conventional names for the shepherds and nymphs come from bastardized Latin nicknames such as Mopsy, Flopsy, and Dorcas (from Mopsius , Doricas , etc.). See also pastoral elegy under elegy . PATHETIC FALLACY : A type of often accidental or awkward personification in which a writer ascribes the human feelings of his or her characters to photo rallycross essay 2011, inanimate objects or non-human phenomena surrounding them in the natural world.

J. A. Cuddon (692) notes the technical paper structure, phrase first appears in photo essay 2011, John Ruskin's Modern Painters , Volume 3, Part IV, an 1856 publication. For Ruskin, the term is derogatory. An example might be Coleridge's Christabel , in which we read of a dancing autumn leaf: The one red leaf, the last of its clan. That dances as often as dance it can. For Ruskin, only the greatest of poets can get away with it. Aside from the thinkthoughtmath, negative connotations, the term is more or less synonymous with personification . PATHOS (Greek, emotion): In its rhetorical sense, pathos is a writer or speaker's attempt to inspire an emotional reaction in rallycross essay 2011, an audience--usually a deep feeling of suffering, but sometimes joy, pride, anger, humor, patriotism, or any of a dozen other emotions. You can read more about rhetorical uses for pathos here. In its critical sense, pathos signifies a scene or passage designed to evoke the university, feeling of pity or sympathetic sorrow in a reader or viewer.

PATRISTIC PERIOD (from Latin Pater , father): The time of the church fathers, i.e., the time of the early Church and the Church's first theologians, running through the last days of the apostles through the time of Saint Augustine's conversion and Saint Jerome's compilation of the Bible in the fourth and fifth centuries after Christ. Photo. The patristic period appears on the tail-end of the Classical Roman Period, and it marks the beginning of the Medieval Period. Click here to lear, download a PDF handout that puts these periods in chronological order. PATROLOGIA GRAECA : See discussion under Patrologia Latina , below. PATROLOGIA LATINA : A famous (or perhaps in famous) scholarly collection of 228+ fat volumes of rallycross, biblical and theological commentary that has been both a boon and bane to twentieth-century medieval scholarship.

The Patrologia Graeca reproduces a series of Greek writings from the patristic and medieval Christian writers, while the Patrologia Latina covers the essay, same sort of material in Latin sources. These works are often not available in print in any other texts. This collection, known familiarly as the PL or the photo essay, Migne (after one of its French editors), includes vast quantities of theological interpretations, Biblical exegesis, typological and anti-typological discussion, medieval treatises on hagiography , medieval medicine, lapidary lore, and oodles of relevant materials necessary for students seeking to understand the medieval world and medieval literature. Unfortunately, the material is all in research structure, Latin, with facing French translations, which makes it less useful for English-speakers hindered by linguistic inabilities. Additionally, a series of editors compiled the volumes of the PL and they did not follow the same system of rallycross 2011, cataloging and organization as their predecessors. The result is a confusing mishmash that requires four volumes of drexel, indices and rallycross essay an additional index to structure, the indices. Four generations of rallycross 2011, scholars have blessed the greatest college essay, PL as an astonishing and ambitious collection of rallycross 2011, medieval lore, while simultaneously cursing it as a devilish, misorganized amalgam riddled with errors, typos, and blunders in pagination. The PL is being displaced from its throne by the Corpus Christianorum , an drexel essay topics electronic collection superseding the older half-edited material. However, major research libraries at this time are more likely to photo rallycross essay 2011, have an old, dusty set of shelves devoted to the PL than to have an get a for a custom paper expensive, computerized copy of the rallycross, Corpus Christianorum . Critical. For a student of medieval literature who can speak Latin, the best starting spot is the index to the indices, and rallycross essay from there work one's way backward.

If any readers find a library that is about to throw away or sell its copies of the PL, please contact me at kwheeler@cn.edu. I would like to ever, have a copy myself, provided I can find a room large enough to store all 228 of these books. PATRONAGE (from Latin pater , father): The act of giving financial or political support to an artist. A person who provides financial support for an artist is known as a patron regardless of his or her gender. Sometimes patrons might seek to glorify their families or their countries. For instance, the Emperor Augustus was a patron for photo rallycross 2011 Virgil. University Essay Topics. Virgil wrote The Aeneid with the deliberate goal of rousing Roman patriotism for the Augustan regime.

Patronage was also a common way for aristocrats or wealthy merchants to flaunt their wealth and simultaneously give something of value to their community. Rallycross. The De Medici family in Florence, for instance, provided patronage to paper, famous Italian sculptors, poets, architects, and painters. In England, John of Gaunt and Richard II both served as patrons for Chaucer at various points in his career. Many literary works are dedicated to a patron. Rallycross 2011. For instance, Shakespeare's early printed anthologies of sonnets are dedicated to critical essays on raymond, a mysterious patron, W. H. In Renaissance drama, acting companies were required to photo 2011, have an important noble or royal family member as a patron, for in king lear actors not in the service of such illustrious individuals were punishable as vagabonds and tramps. Authorized acting companies were thus referred to as their patrons' Men or Servants. For most of Shakespeare's dramatic career, his acting company was first known as the photo essay, Lord Chamberlain's Men. After Queen Elizabeth died, the name was changed to the King's Men in thesis blindness, 1603, when King James I ascended the throne and took up patronage of the company. PEACE-WEAVER : In Anglo-Saxon culture, a woman who is married to a member of an enemy tribe to establish a peace-treaty or end a blood-feud without paying wergild . This was a vital role for women in Anglo-Saxon custom--but probably also a stressful and dangerous responsibility. Photo 2011. Hildeburh and Freawaru in Beowulf and the speaker of blindness in king, The Wife's Lament are probably examples of characters in Old English literature who are peace-weavers. PEASANTS' REVOLT : Also known as Wat Tyler's Rebellion , this uprising occurred in 1387 when lower-class Londoners and workers from the surrounding areas, fed up with repressive government measures such as the Labor Statutes of 1351, marched on London and photo essay incinerated the Savoy palace belonging to John of Gaunt and damaged property belonging to other noblemen, appealing directly to topics, the young king, Richard II, for his intervention.

The rebels burned unfavorable contracts and records of 2011, debt. They also lynched a number of competing foreign workers from Flanders along with government officials whom they blamed for drexel essay their economic woes. According to legend, they chanted, When Adam delved and photo Eve span, who was then the gentleman? (i.e., when Adam and Eve first existed, who was an aristocrat?) The revolt is commonly associated with Lollards, with John Ball's proto-communist doctrines, and with other disruptive religious groups in England. At the time of their march on college essay ever, London, they passed directly beneath Chaucer's residence. References to this rebellion appear directly or obliquely in several Middle English writers' works, including Gower and Langland. PEER-REVIEWED JOURNAL : Also called a refereed journal , a juried publication , a scholarly journal , or a critical journal , a peer-reviewed journal is a periodical publication with strict standards for accuracy and clear thinking. Photo. Only peer-reviewed journals are considered suitable sources for academic research by college students.

Most are published two to four times a year. These publications are held in such high esteem because, when an article is submitted for publication, it is passed on to two or three other experts in get a custom, the field; they in turn critique the author's thinking and rallycross essay 2011 check the article's claims and drexel facts to make sure it is as accurate as possible and (theoretically) free from distorting political, religious, ideological bias; citation errors; logical fallacies; and misattributions. This contrasts with a book, in which only a copy-editor or two will check for typos, but nobody challenges the author's ideas, and it contrasts even more starkly with a web page like this one, in which no official structure is photo consistently available to statement blindness in king, ensure scholarly accuracy let alone find all the typos. Photo Rallycross. Good college students learn to use peer-reviewed journals; they do not rely on essays on raymond, Google and web-browsing for rallycross essay 2011 their primary information. Thinkthoughtmath. Some of the most important peer-reviewed journals for rallycross 2011 medieval literature students in English include The Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies , Medievalia et Humanistica , Medium Aevum , Arthuriana, Medieval Studies , Neuphilologische Mitteilungen , the PMLA , Philological Quarterly , Reading Medieval Studies , Speculum , Chaucer Review , and Studies in the Age of Chaucer . The tell-tale signs of a scholarly journal are its typically copious footnotes, the absence of statement blindness in king, advertisements or glossy photographs, often its plain, unadorned cover, its guidelines in the back or front for scholarly submissions, and its pages, which are typically on expensive acid-free paper to photo rallycross essay, ensure archival survival. Often libraries do have these journals available in electronic databases (such as JSTOR) that can be searched as easily and as efficiently as webpages, so students have no excuse for not using them. If you need help, contact your teacher or a reference librarian.

Bribe this helper with chocolate. PEJORATION : A semantic change in which a word gains increasingly negative connotation. For instance, the lear, word lewd originally referred to laymen as opposed to priests. Essay 2011. It underwent pejoration to mean ignorant, then base and finally obscene, which is the only surviving meaning in Modern English usage. The opposite drexel, of pejoration is amelioration , in which a word gains increasingly positive connotation.

Note that some older sources follow the Latin etymology, and thus spell the word peioration, and pronounce the word pee-yore-a-shun, but increasingly modern dictionaries use a j and pronounce the letter consonantally. PEN NAME : Another term for nom de plum e . The word indicates a fictitious name that a writer employs to conceal his or her identity. For example, Samuel Clemens used the 2011, pen name Mark Twain. William Sydney Porter wrote his short stories under the pen name O. Technical Structure. Henry. Mary Ann Cross used the essay, pen name George Eliot to hide that she was a female writer, just as science-fiction writer Alice Bradley Sheldon used the drexel topics, pen name James Tiptree, Junior. Rallycross Essay. C.S.

Lewis used the structure, pen name N.W. (Anglo-Saxon, Nat Whilk, or I know not whom) in some writings, including the first edition of A Grief Observed , and then played upon that by quoting the medieval authority Natvilcius in Perelandra (Duriez 147). Likewise, Ben Franklin used a variety of pen names such as Silence Do-good, Jonathan Swift once used the name Lemuel Gulliver, and so on. Writers might choose to photo 2011, use a pen name as a way to keep a certain name associated with certain types of work, so that a writer might use one name for westerns and another name for science fiction novels. Other authors might seek to hide their identity to avoid negative repercussions (such as hate-mail, imprisonment, lynch-mobs, or even execution--all of these misfortunes can and do occur to research structure, authors, especially those writing in totalitarian regimes). PENNY DREADFUL : A sensational novel of crime, adventure, violence, or horror. The term is an English archaism referring to rallycross essay, cheaply printed books bound in paper at only a few pennies' cost.

English schoolboys also called them bloods, apparently in technical research paper, reference to the violent content. The equivalent term in photo essay, American slang is dime-novel, again referring to the cheap price, or pulp fiction, referring to the cheap wood-pulp pressed to make the paper. My personal favorite penny dreadful from thinkthoughtmath, pre-1800 writing is Varney the Vampire: Or, The Feast of photo rallycross essay 2011, Blood! The title gives some indication of the content. See also dime novel . PENTAMETER : When poetry consists of five feet in each line, it is written in pentameter . Each foot has a set number of syllables. Greatest. Iambs, spondees, and trochees are feet consisting of two syllables.

Thus, iambic pentameter, spondaic pentameter, and rallycross essay 2011 trochaic pentameter lines would have a total of ten syllables. Anapests and dactyls are feet consisting of three syllables. Thus, anapestic pentameter and dactylic pentameter lines (if such lines were common) would have a total of fifteen syllables. See foot and meter . You can click here to download a handout discussing meter in greater detail. PENTATEUCH : The first five books of the Hebrew Bible--i.e., Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. PEREVAL (Russian, The Pass): A group of Russian writers led by the critic Voronsk in 1923 and associated with the journal Red Virgin Soil (Harkins 279). This group of writers opposed the concept of enforced proletarian literature and drexel university topics the oppression of Communist conformity on writers--but the Russian authorities dissolved the group in 1932 and essay 2011 forced its members to merge with the Union of Soviet Writers (Harkins 279-80). PERFECT RHYME : Another term for critical essays exact rhyme or true rhyme. See exact rhyme . PERFECTING : In the photo rallycross, Renaissance printing industry, the term perfecting refered to printing on the second side of a sheet of get a for a paper, paper after the first side of essay 2011, that sheet had already been printed to make a double-sided copy.

In the 1500s, printers would typically do the recto side of the sheet in the morning and the verso side in the afternoon or evening. By the 1700s, it became common to use two presses consecutively--one side done on the first press and the other side done on the second press. PERICOPE (Grk, section; the last two syllables rhyme with dopey): (1) In biblical studies, a story, brief passage, or selection from gospel narrative or passage found embedded inside another story, narrative, or passage. Research. (2) Passages of gospel text inserted at the head of a homily or sermon in medieval texts. Essay 2011. See frame narrative . PERIPHRASIS (Grk. roundabout speech): The act of intentional circumlocution, expressing a short idea with many more words than is absolutely necessary, or expressing indirectly an idea that one could express briefly and simply. J.A. Cuddon cites an thesis in king example the sentence, Her olfactory system was suffering from rallycross 2011, a temporary inconvenience, instead of technical research structure, her nose was blocked (701).

While writers after the modern period have generally considered concision and directness admirable traits in style, some rhetorical situations may call for periphrasis. For example, writers may use periphrasis in order to avoid breaking a social taboo, in which case the periphrasis fulfills the same purpose as a euphemism . E.g., one might write he went to his final rest instead of he died, which is both periphrasis and a euphemism. In the 18th century, periphrasis was often considered valuable for its own sake as a means of displaying a writer's erudition or facility with language, so such writings of the rallycross essay, time might refer to blindness in king, the scaly breed for reptiles or the feathered kind for photo essay 2011 birds in a manner akin to college ever, Germanic kennings (Shipley 429). If a writer or speaker uses periphrasis with the deliberate goal of rallycross essay 2011, tricking, misleading, or confusing the audience, that act is called ambage . If periphrasis appears to have no purpose, or appears awkward and unsuitable, or detracts from the impact of the writing, rhetoricians refer to greatest college, it as perisologia , a stylistic blemish. If the photo 2011, blemish originates in unnecessary repetition, the statement, fault is called macrologia . An example of macrologia would be they returned home into their own country from whence they had come (Shipley 365). Photo. This sentence would be briefer as they returned home. A sample passage of college essay ever, periphrasis is called a periphrase , not to be confused with the honophone paraphrase (Shipley 429). PERIODIC ESSAY : The forefather of modern periodicals like magazines and literary journals, these publications contained essays appearing at regular intervals (monthly, quarterly, and so on). Photo Essay. The subject-matter varied from current events, literary criticism, social commentary, fashion, geographic and architectural features of London, childhood memories, and whatever other reverie entered the author's head. The essays often began with a Latin epigraph as a rhetorical flourish illustrating the good taste and education of the gentleman author, a practice that has fallen out of favor in more fiercely democratic and egalitarian times.

The first literary periodicals were French. They included Journals des Scavans (1665). Quote For A Paper. Italian ones followed such as Giornale de Letterati (1668). English imitators included Mercurius Librarius (1668), the Athenian Mercury (1690), and photo 2011 the Gentleman's Journal (1692). The early 1700s was a time when the English periodic essay flourished in particular. This time was especially important in the development of the modern periodical and in thesis, the growing acceptance of the photo, essay as a valid genre . Writers like Defoe, Addison, Steele, and Boswell either contributed frequently to these magazines or edited and produced their own.

The Tatler (1709), the Spectator (1711), and the Guardian (1731), all established by Addison and Steele, became profoundly influential in shaping the writing habits and publication customs of the thesis statement, modern world. Most of these publications ran for only two or three years before vanishing, but some lasted for decades. The Gentleman's Magazine first came out in photo essay 2011, 1731 and the last issue appeared in 1907, for instance, and the Quarterly Review (1809) was still being published as of 1991, when I last subscribed. PERIODIC SENTENCE : A long sentence that is not grammatically complete (and hence not intelligible to technical paper, the reader ) until the reader reaches the photo 2011, final portion of the sentence. An example is this sentence by Bret Harte: The most common type of periodic sentence involves a long phrase in which the verb falls at quote for a custom paper, the very end of the sentence after the direct object, indirect object and other grammatical necessities.

For example, For the photo rallycross 2011, queen, the lover, pleading always at greatest ever, the heart's door, patiently waits. In a non-periodic sentence , we would normally write, Always pleading at photo rallycross essay, the heart's door, the lover waits patiently for the queen. The non-periodic sentence is clearer in English. Greatest College Ever. It tends to follow the subject-verb-object pattern we are accustomed to. The periodic sentence is more exotic and photo essay arguably more poetic, but initially confusing. Periodic structure is particularly effective in synthetic languages (i.e. languages in which meaning does not depend on the order of words).

In such languages, a periodic sentence creates suspense or tension in a reader eagerly awaiting the outcome of essays carver, a grammatical action. Essay. In classical Latin or Greek, periodic sentences were accordingly considered the blindness, height of dramatic style. In English, however, the result can become confusing or comic if the writer loses control, as evidenced in the work of essay 2011, Victorian novelist George Bulwer-Lytton, which has been much mocked by modern readers. Milton's employs a periodic style in Paradise Lost because he seeks boldly to imitate the features of a classical epic --including the very grammatical structure of the technical research structure, original Latin and rallycross Greek works he loves and emulates. Statement Blindness. Compare to rallycross 2011, anastrophe . PERIODIC STYLE : A style of writing in which the sentences tend to be periodic. See discussion under periodic sentence , above. Periodic style in English is usually considered indirect or artificially artsy in comparison with the drexel essay, more straight-forward non-periodic style . PERIODIZATION : The division of literature into chronological categories of photo 2011, historical period or time as opposed to the categorization of thesis blindness lear, literature according to rallycross, genre , i.e., categories based on conventional features shared between works of similar type. For instance, if I were organizing my bookshelf, and I placed all the books from the early 1800s on one shelf, and all the books written in critical essays, the Victorian period on the next shelf, and all the twentieth-century books on the last shelf, I have organized my literature by periodization . Photo Rallycross. If, however, I placed all the books containing tragic drama together on critical essays on raymond carver, one shelf, ands placed all my Western novels on another shelf, and put all the poetry collections on the last shelf, I have organized my books according to genre . (Other possible organizing principles might be alphabetical or thematic.) Periodization is rallycross not always clear. A particular author's life span might overlap with both the Victorian period and the twentieth century, for instance. Other periods--such as the postmodern and modern periods--have no clearly defined ending or beginning point.

Still, the intellectual exercise can be useful for thinking about how particular literary artists fit (or don't fit) into an era and for thinking about the zeitgeist or spirit-of-the-age in which they live. PERIODS OF ENGLISH LITERATURE : The common historical eras scholars use to research paper structure, divide literature into comprehensible sections through periodization . Dividing literature into these sometimes arbitrary periods allows us to better compare and essay contrast the ever, writing, poetry, and drama produced in different ages, to more easily trace chains of influence from one writer to another, and to appreciate more readily the connection between historical events and rallycross 2011 intellectual trends. A few common divisions include the following: the thinkthoughtmath, Anglo-Saxon period, Middle English period, Renaissance period, Restoration period, Neoclassical period, Romantic period, Victorian period, Modern period , and Postmodern period. No universally accepted scheme exists for the divisions. For instance, some editors or anthologists might lump both the Anglo-Saxon and Middle English periods together as the rallycross essay 2011, Medieval period. Another might subdivide the Renaissance into the Elizabethan and technical research Jacobean periods, and so on. Click here for a PDF handout listing the periods in more detail. PERIPETEIA (Also spelled peripetea , Greek for sudden change): The sudden reversal of fortune in a story, play, or any narrative in which there is an observable change in rallycross essay, direction. In tragedy, this is often a change from stability and happiness toward the destruction or downfall of the protagonist. PERIPETY : Another term for peripeteia . See above.

The word was particularly common in older English writing. PERPETUUM CARMEN (Latin, continuous song): Ovid's twist on Callimachus' sarcastic description for his literary adversaries' work. Originally, in thinkthoughtmath, Callimachus' use, Callimachus applies the term to essay 2011, lengthy narrative poetry done poorly, as opposed to thinkthoughtmath, Callimachus' own work, which focuses on brief, short narratives (see Feeney xxiv). Ovid, however, takes the 2011, term and applies it paradoxically to his own work, which involves a number of short narratives worked into a single, lengthy, epic-length work. PERSONA (Plural, personae or personas ; Latin,mask): An external representation of oneself which might or might not accurately reflect one's inner self, or an external representation of oneself that might be largely accurate, but involves exaggerating certain characteristics and minimizing others. One of the most famous personae is that of the speaker in thinkthoughtmath, Jonathan Swift's A Modest Proposal.

Here, the Irish author Swift, outraged over Britain's economic exploitation of Ireland, creates a speaker who is a well-to-do English intellectual, getting on in years, who advocates raising and eating Irish children as a means of economic advancement. Another famous persona is Geoffrey Chaucer's narrator in The Canterbury Tales , who presents himself as poetically inept and somewhat dull. Contrast with alter ego and photo rallycross 2011 poetic speaker . PERSONAL ENDING : In linguistics and grammar, a verb inflection that shows if the for a custom paper, subject is first person, second person, or third person. PERSONIFICATION : A trope in which abstractions, animals, ideas, and inanimate objects are given human character, traits, abilities, or reactions. Personification is particularly common in poetry, but it appears in nearly all types of artful writing. Examples include Keat's treatment of the vase in Ode on a Grecian Urn, in which the urn is treated as a sylvan historian, who canst thus express / A flowery tale more sweetly than our rhyme, or Sylvia Plath's The Moon and the Yew Tree, in which the moon is a face in its own right, / White as a knuckle and terribly upset. / It drags the sea after it like a dark crime. When discussing the ways that animistic religions personify natural forces with human qualities, scientists refer to rallycross, this process as anthropomorphizing , sometimes with derogatory overtones.

A special sub-type of personification is prosopopoeia , in which an inanimate object is given the ability of human speech. Apostrophe (not to statement blindness in king, be confused with the punctuation mark) is a special type of personification in photo 2011, which a speaker in a poem or rhetorical work pauses to address some abstraction that is essay topics not physically present in the room. See also prosopopoeia , apostrophe therianthropic , and theriomorphic . PETRARCHAN CONCEIT : A conceit used by the Italian poet Petrarch or similar to those he used. In the photo 2011, Renaissance, English poets were quite taken with Petrarch's conceits and recycled them in their own poetry. Examples include comparing eyes to the stars or sun, hair to golden wires, lips to cherries, women to goddesses, and so on. His oxymora , such as freezing fire or burning ice, were also common. PETRASHEVSKI CIRCLE (aka Petrashevski Conspiracy ): A secret society of Russian Utopian socialists who formed in 1845 and met at statement blindness, the home of M. B. Butashevich-Petrashevski to read illegal socialist literature, including among its members the rallycross essay 2011, author Dostoyevski and the poet Pleschcheyev (Harkins 287).

In 1849, Czar Nicholas I had the circle arrested and staged a mock drama and execution--only revealing at the last moment the thinkthoughtmath, group had been issued a reprieve. Instead of execution, the members of the group were sentenced to exile in Siberia or military service (287). PETRINE DOCTRINE : Roman Catholics (and pretty much all medieval Christians in western Europe) have traditionally believed the Petrine doctrine . The Petrine doctrine is the belief that Saint Peter was given special authority by Christ that has since passed on photo rallycross essay 2011, to each Pope. Drexel University Essay. In the Gospel narratives, Matthew 16:18-19, Christ states, You are Peter [ petrus ], the Rock [ petros ], and on this rock I will build my church, and rallycross the gates of hell will not prevail against it. To you I will give the keys to the Kingdom of Heaven. Essays. What you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and photo what you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. (A similar verse is found in John 21:15-17.) Medieval and modern Catholics believed the Archbishop of Rome (i.e., the get a for a essay paper, Pope) was in photo rallycross essay, direct apostolic lineage back to Saint Peter. That means the Archbishop who anointed the Pope had been annointed by essays, others all the way back to Saint Peter.

Thus, the Pope inherited the same special authority Saint Peter had. The Orthodox Greek church did not share this belief. Essay 2011. They thought of the Pope as being the thesis in king, first among equals, an archbishop like any other. He did not have authority to rallycross essay 2011, command the whole church. The two halves of the paper structure, medieval church in photo rallycross 2011, the West and the East argued about this, but that was the sum of the research structure, dispute for several centuries. The differences between the two halves of the old Roman empire was exacerbated by the differences in language as well (Western Europe spoke Latin, but the Eastern half of the empire spoke Greek.) See also schism . PHALLIC (from Greek phallos , penis): A phallic symbol or phallus is a sexualized representation of photo essay, male potency, power, or domination--particularly through some object vaguely reminiscent of the get a for a essay, penis. Common phallic symbols include sticks, staves, swords, clubs, towers, trees, missiles, and rockets. Contrast with a yonic symbol. Essay. See also herm . PHANOPOEIA : Ezra Pound's term for research one of three techniques to create charged language. In this case, phanopoeia is a word that creates visual imagery, or as Pound states, You use a word to throw a visual image on to the photo rallycross essay, reader's imagination (37).

See also melopoeia and logopoeia. PHATIC COMMUNICATION : Exchanges or conversation designed primarily not to transmit information, but rather to thesis blindness, reinforce social bonds, signal the beginning or end of a conversation, or engage in ritual activities. For instance, if we pass a stranger in the hallway and photo essay 2011 say, Hi, howya doing? and pass on statement blindness in king lear, after a nod, the linguistic exchange was not an actual request for data, but merely a politeness acknowledging the other's presence. Similarly, thanks for stopping by or you're welcome, come again are all social lubricants to ease the photo 2011, transition to and from ritual activity rather than attempts at factual communication. Phatic communication is the term for this phenomenon. PHILOLOGY (Greek, Love of words): Not to be confused with philosophy (see below), philology was an important but now somewhat dated field of study in the 19th and early 20th century. It covered the topics of literary studies, linguistics, folklore, and mythology. Philologists were the ones who reconstructed proto-Indo-European, developed comparative mythology, deciphered the relationships between modern languages, and compiled records of research structure, regional folklore, fairy tales, and photo essay mythology before they vanished into modernity. This large and unwieldy field eventually split apart and become the academic fields we know today as separate entities (i.e., the distinct degrees of literature, lingustics, folklore, and so forth).

Few colleges offer degrees in philology today (Oxford being a notable exception), but in drexel essay topics, the first half of the twentieth century, J.R.R. Tolkien was the primary philologist in the Inklings , which sometimes became a source of tension. C. S. Lewis apparently distrusted philology's obsession with source texts, and in his diary, when Lewis first met Tolkien, Lewis wrote, he [Tolkien] is a philologist. No harm in him: only needs a good smack or two. PHILOSOPHY (Greek, Love of wisdom): The methodical and systematic exploration of what we know, how we know it, and photo rallycross 2011 why it is important that we know it. Too frequently, students use the term somewhat nebulously. They often mistakenly state, My philosophy about X is . . . when they really mean, My opinion about X is college . . . or My attitude toward X is 2011 . . . Traditional areas of technical research paper, Western philosophic inquiry include the following areas. PHOBOS (Grk, fear): The emotional purgation of negative feelings known as catharsis involved, according to Aristotle's Poetics , two emotions: eleos (pity) and phobos (fear).

If the photo rallycross, audience did not feel pity for the tragic hero in a play, or feel fear at his downfall, the play failed in its purpose. See discussion under catharsis . PHONEME : The smallest sound or part of a spoken word that serves as a building block in a larger syllable or word, and which cannot be broken down further into smaller constitutive sounds. Phonetic transcription always indicates the spoken rather than the written word. This term contrasts with graphemes (the letters or smallest written symbols that count as a unit of an alphabet) and morphemes (smallest units that have meaning-- either written or spoken). For instance, in the word rerun , the morphemes are re- and get a paper run . Though the u- or the r- by themselves are not meaningful sounds like a full morpheme, they cannot be broken down or reduced into any smaller sounds, and thus they are phonemes--the smallest possible sounds in English. Linguists often transcribe English words into photo rallycross, phonetic markings to indicate subtle differences in accent, pronunciation, etc., which may or may not correspond to the graphemes (the markings we use to symbolize sounds--i.e., the written word). When they do so, they often enclose the phonetic symbols in slashes /laik ∂ Is/ and enclose the graphic markings in chevrons like this so the thesis in king lear, reader can tell whether that linguist is discussing the spoken form of the photo, word or the written form of the word.

Contrast with grapheme and greatest college essay morpheme . PHONETIC FULCRUM: Jake Carrick's term for a sentence with two parts of opposite sounds, with a pivot in the middle separating the two sections. An example from Bram Stoker's Dracula : Broken battlements showed a jagged line across the moonlit sky. The distinction here is the first half of the sentence uses hard consonance, but after jagged, the sentence's alliteration shifts to liquid and soft consonance (Carrick). In poetry, such a shift often falls in the caesura, though the effect is not limited to alliterative verse. PHONETICS : The study of phonemes, or units of sound in photo 2011, spoken language. PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION : Written symbols that linguists use to represent speech sounds. One common transcription system is the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet). To see samples in thinkthoughtmath, PDF format, you can download IPA vowels and photo 2011 IPA consonants. PHONOGRAM : A written symbol that indicates a spoken sound. Students should not confuse this term with a gramophone (an antique record-player). PHONOLOGY : According to quote for a paper, Algeo, The units of sound (phonemes) of a language with their possible arrangements and varieties of vocal expression (329).

More generally, the study of sounds and sound-systems in photo 2011, a language. PICARESQUE NARRATIVE : Any narrative (including short stories) that has the technical paper structure, same traits as a picaresque novel. See discussion under picaresque novel . PICARESQUE NOVEL (from Spanish picaro , a rogue or thief; also called the picaresque narrative and photo rallycross essay the Räuberroman in German): A humorous novel in critical, which the rallycross 2011, plot consists of thinkthoughtmath, a young knave's misadventures and escapades narrated in comic or satiric scenes. This roguish protagonist--called a picaro --makes his (or sometimes her) way through cunning and photo essay trickery rather than through virtue or industry. The picaro frequently travels from place to place engaging in a variety of jobs for several masters and getting into thinkthoughtmath, mischief. The picaresque novel is usually episodic in nature and realistic in its presentation of the seamier aspects of photo, society. The genre first emerged in 1553 in the anonymous Spanish work Lazarillo de Tormes , and later Spanish authors like Mateo Aleman and Fracisco Quevedo produced other similar works. The first English specimen was Thomas Nashe's The Unfortunate Traveller (1594).

Probably the most famous example of the genre is French: Le Sage's Gil Blas (1715), which ensured the genre's continuing influence on literature. Other examples include Defoe's Moll Flanders , Henry Fielding's Jonathan Wild , Smollett's Roderick Random , Thomas Mann's unfinished Felix Krull , and quote for a essay Saul Bellow's The Adventures of photo rallycross, Augie March . Quote For A Custom Paper. The genre has also heavily influenced episodic humorous novels as diverse as Cervantes' Don Quixote and Mark Twain's The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn . PICKUP SYLLABLE : Another term for the unstressed syllable in photo rallycross, anacrusis . PIDGIN : A simplified, limited language combining features from essays on raymond, many languages and photo used among persons who share no common language amongst themselves. By definition, a pidgin language is not a native language--but rather it is one used between ethnic groups rather than within any particular single ethnic group. Technical Research Paper. However, artificial conditions (such as the photo essay, enforced assimilation on slave plantations) can cause children to grow up with little use for their native tongues. This can cause the pidgin language to develop into a much richer creole . PIECE-BIEN-FAIT : The French term for the dramatic genre called the thinkthoughtmath, well-made play. See discussion under well-made play . PIETAS (Latin, reverance): In Roman times, pietas is the quality of revering those things that deserve reverence. The word is the source for our modern English words piety and piousness (reverence toward the divine), but the photo, Latin term is far more all-embracing--indicating not only devotion to the gods, but also devotion to quote for a essay, one's gens (family) and essay patria (homeland or country). Thus, it also means patriotism and familial responsibility.

In Virgil's Aeneid , one epithet frequently applied to Aeneas is pius Aeneas , implying that Aeneas particularly embodies this quality so valued by the Romans. PILGRIMAGE : An act of spiritual devotion or penance in which an get a quote for a custom essay individual travels without material comforts to rallycross 2011, a distant holy place. The journey often has spiritual overtones--it may symbolize a journey to the celestial city of heaven or repeat the journey of a saint or biblical hero. Drexel University. Pilgrimage has become a prominent symbol in essay, both Western Christian writings and Middle-Eastern Islamic writings. John Bunyon's Pilgrim's Progress and Chaucer's Canterbury Tales are two literary examples using the college essay ever, pilgrimage motif . P'ING HUA : A Chinese yarn or tall tale. The genre typically involves a strong narrative presence and colloquial or idiomatic Chinese. The tone is realistic, but the content is 2011 typically fantastic or hyperbolic. Contrast with the Russian skaz . PIT : In indoor theaters during the Renaissance, the most expensive and prestigious bench seating was the pit--an area directly in front of the thesis blindness lear, stage.

The Blackfriar's theater was one such architectural example containing a pit. In later centuries, the photo 2011, musical orchestra would be moved to blindness in king lear, this position. PITCH : In linguistics, a semi-musical tone or quality used in some languages to distinguish meaning. PLACE OF ARTICULATION : The point in the oral cavity where the position of speech organs (lips, teeth, tongue, etc.) is most important for a particular sound. PLACE POEM : A poem whose subject is a specific location, such as a building, a city, a regional geographic feature like a river or hill, or a particular area of the countryside.

Examples include Percy Bysshe Shelley's Mont Blanc, William Wordsworth's Tintern Abbey, or the Galician poems of Rosalia de Castro. Contrast with occasional poem . PLAGIARISM : Accidental or intentional intellectual theft in which a writer, poet, artist, scholar, or student steals an essay original idea, phrase, or section of writing from someone else and presents this material as his or her own work without indicating the source via appropriate explanation or citation. Click here for more information. PLATONIC : In common usage, people often use the word platonic to mean intellectual rather than physical. Technical Research Paper. Thus, a Platonic love-affair is one in which the couple is photo 2011 attracted to each other for mental or psychological qualities rather than bodily attributes. More specifically, however, Platonic philosophy is drexel topics Plato's idea that behind (or above or outside) the imperfect physical world, another intangible world of abstract ideas has its own existence. These abstract-but-perfect ideas (called Platonic forms ) appear only as dim outlines (or shadows) in the physical world.

For instance, Plato argues that traits such as Justice, Beauty, and photo essay 2011 Goodness theoretically exist in perfect forms. Material creatures, who cannot see or enjoy the abstract quality of Beauty itself, can only technical paper, enjoy specific manifestations of Beauty--such as sunsets or starlight or silvery snow. What the unenlightened do not realize is that it is not these specific objects they should admire, but the quality of beauty behind them--the form of absolute Beauty that is eternal and unchanging even as specific sunsets fade and yearly snowfalls melt away. Photo Rallycross. Because these abstract traits remain eternal even as the essay paper, physical world changes ever, Plato concludes that the Platonic forms are somehow even more real than the concrete things we see, hear, smell, touch, and taste every day. Rallycross Essay 2011. His breathtaking, nearly mystical conclusion is that the physical world is the illusion or dream, and the world of the mind is thinkthoughtmath closer to the real world of the eternal forms. Platonic thinking had profound influence on medieval theology and philosophy. In C. S. Lewis's The Last Battle . Professor Digory Kirke interprets the New Narnia of Heaven's relationship to Narnia and England as being one of Platonic forms (spiritual) and essay 2011 Platonic shadows (material) , and Aslan refers to the land of England and Narnia as being Shadowlands, i.e., the world of material shadows rather than spiritual realities. See also Cave, Plato's . Platonic thinking profoundly influences Plotinus, Boethius, Saint Augustine, Castiglione's The Book of the Courtier , Spenser's Hymn in Honor of Beauty, Shelley's Hymn to Intellectual Beauty, and Wordsworth's Ode on get a quote essay paper, Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood . PLATONIC FORM : The permanent and photo rallycross essay 2011 perfect ideas, images, or patterns of which physical reality is but an college imperfect or transitory symbol or expression. See discussion under Platonic for full details. PLAY : A specific piece of drama, usually enacted on a stage by 2011, diverse actors who often wear makeup or costumes to statement in king lear, make them resemble the character they portray.

See drama . PLEONASM : A bad habit of rallycross essay, speech or writing in which an idea repeats itself in a single sentence, i.e., a redundancy. For example, tiny little town is a pleonasm, as opposed to tiny town or little town. Likewise, Shipley points out With mine own ears I hear his voice (429) as a pleonasm. Most modern style books, perhaps influenced by Hemingway, discourage pleonastic constructions as being wordy or repetitive. I also steer students away from them. However, pleonasms have been fashionable in other centuries. Geoffrey of Vinsauf favored them in his twelfth-century style manual, the Poetria Nova. The New Testament book of Mark happily used them, as David Smith points out (8). Consider Mark 13:33, Blepete, agrupneite! (Watch out! Be aware!) in which the author emphasizes alertness by greatest college essay, using a pleonasm. PLOT : The structure and relationship of actions and events in a work of fiction.

In order for a plot to begin, some sort of catalyst is necessary. Photo. While the temporal order of events in the work constitutes the story, we are speaking of plot rather than story as soon as we look at how these events relate to one another and how they are rendered and organized so as to achieve their particular effects. Note that, while it is most common for statement blindness in king events to essay, unfold chronologically or ab ovo (in which the first event happens first, the second event happens second, and for a so on), many stories structure the plot in photo essay, such a way that the reader encounters happenings out of order. A common technique along this line is to college ever, begin the story in the middle of the photo rallycross 2011, action, a technique called beginning in medias res (Latin for in the middle[s] of things). Some narratives involve several short episodic plots occurring one after the other (like chivalric romances), or they may involve multiple subplots taking place simultaneously with the main plot (as in many of Shakespeare's plays).

PLUCK BUFFET : Anthropologists suggest that pre-adolescent male children in get a quote for a custom essay, a variety of rallycross essay 2011, cultures share the critical essays on raymond carver, game of pluck buffet. In this game, one child trades blows on the arm or chest with another to see who is bravest or toughest. Alternatively, pluck buffet also refers to any game in which two individuals challenge each other to some contest (often archery) and the loser must receive a strike from the winner. For instance, the poem Garland depicts Richard the Lion-Hearted and Robin Hood having an archery contest, and the loser must Beare a buffet on rallycross, his hede. This exchange becomes an important theme in ballads like Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne . Pluck buffet may also lie at the heart of a Celtic motif known as the trade of blows in which one warrior agrees to critical, trade strikes with another; in the case of rallycross essay 2011, Sir Gawain and thesis blindness the Green Knight , pluck buffet takes a potentially lethal turn when Gawain and the green elf-knight play the rallycross, game using giant axes. POETIC DICTION : Distinctive language used by poets, i.e., language that would not be common in their everyday speech. The most common signs of poetic diction include involve archaisms , neologisms , rhyme , and unusual figures of speech. Teachers often point to Spenser's use of words like gentil and tobraken , or Shakespeare's use of abysm and climature , or Emily Dickinson's use of thee and thine . Statement Lear. When they ask students, why did this poet write in such a way? students often mistakenly reply, Because that's the way people talked back then. On the contrary, in the 1500s, Spenser is resurrecting language that was common in Chaucer's day in the 1300s--not the language of his own time. The words abysm and climature are made-up words Shakespeare invented from abyss/chasm and photo 2011 climate/temperature , not words he would hear in everyday use on the London streets.

Likewise, the pronouns thou/thee/thine faded in thinkthoughtmath, the 1600s, long before Emily Dickinson's heyday in the 1800s. These poets chose such language precisely because it is unusual for photo 2011 their time--because it is different from humdrum ordinary speech. (That's what makes it striking poetry, after all.) The concept of literary decorum (and its requirement for certain genres and characters to critical on raymond, use lofty, elevated language) also generated thick poetic diction. As M. H. Abrams notes in volume I of The Norton Anthology , the results were phrases such as the finny tribe for fish and photo essay the the bleating kind for sheep (2958). To modern poets, such phrasing might seem overblown.

The point, however, is paper structure that poetic diction is vastly different from daily speech. POETIC LICENSE : The freedom of a poet or other literary writer to depart from the norms of common discourse, literal reality, or historical truth in order to create a special effect in rallycross essay, or for the reader. When applied to prose writers, the term is often called artistic license. Contrast with verisimilitude . POETIC JUSTICE : The phrase and the idea was coined by Thomas Rymer in the late 1600s. He claimed that a narrative or drama should distribute rewards and punishments proportionately to drexel essay topics, the virtues and villainies of each character in essay 2011, the story. Thus, when a particularly vicious character meets a despicable end appropriate for his crimes, we say it is poetic justice. Paper Structure. This formula for resolving plots has fallen into disfavor in later centuries, and no widely influential critics today advocate such a formula without qualifications. POETIC SPEAKER : The narrative or elegiac voice in essay 2011, a poem (such as a sonnet, ode, or lyric) that speaks of thinkthoughtmath, his or her situation or feelings. It is a convention in photo rallycross, poetry that the speaker is not the same individual as the historical author of the poem. For instance, consider the poet Lord Byron's mock epic Don Juan . Lord Byron wrote the ever, poem as a young man in photo 2011, his late twenties.

However, the speaker of the poem depicts himself as being an elderly man looking back cynically on the days of youth. Clearly, the voice talking and narrating the story is not identical with the author. In the same way, the speaker of the poem My Last Duchess characterizes himself through his words as a Renaissance nobleman in Italy who is university essay cold-blooded--quite capable of murdering a wife who displeases him--but the author of the poem was actually Robert Browning, a mild-mannered English poet writing in photo rallycross 2011, the early nineteenth-century. Many students (and literary critics) attempt to decipher clues about the author's own attitudes, beliefs, feelings, or biographical details through the words in a poem. However, such an activity must always be done with caution. Shakespeare may write a sonnet in which the critical, poetic speaker pours out his passion for a woman with bad breath and essay wiry black hair (Sonnet 130), but it does not necessarily mean that Shakespeare himself was attracted to drexel university essay, halitosis, or that his wife had black hair, or that he had a fling with such a woman. In fact, it is a convention in some genres , such as the medieval visio or dream vision, that the poetic speaker is a dull, imperceptive caricature of the author. See also authorial voice and photo essay 2011 dream vision , above. POETRY : A variable literary genre characterized by rhythmical patterns of language. These patterns typically consist of patterns of meter (regular patterns of high and thinkthoughtmath low stress), syllabification (the number of syllables in rallycross essay, each line of text), rhyme , alliteration , or combinations of these elements.

The poem typically involves figurative language such as schemes and tropes, and the poem may bend (or outright break) the conventions of normal communicative speech in the attempt to embody an drexel university essay original idea or convey a linguistic experience. Many modern students mistakenly believe that rhyme is the dominant feature separating poetry from prose (non-poetic) writings. However, rhyme is actually a fairly recent addition to poetry. In classical Greece and photo rallycross essay Rome, meter was the drexel essay, trait that separated poetry from photo, prose. POEISIS (from Greek poieo , to make): In Plato's Symposium , this term refers to act of creating or making something--both in the biological act of procreation and in technical research, the realm of the mind. It covers the action itself as well as the moment of transition where one thing becomes something new, and encompasses, as the photo rallycross, character Diotima argues in critical on raymond, The Symposium, all of the following (1) natural poiesis or reproductive sexuality, (2) poiesis in a city through the attainment of worthy fame, and (3) poiesis in the soul through virtuous habits and moral education. The word is related to the root of the modern English word poetry . POINT OF VIEW : The way a story gets told and rallycross essay who tells it. It is the method of narration that determines the college ever, position, or angle of photo, vision, from which the story unfolds. Point of view governs the reader's access to the story. Many narratives appear in the first person (the narrator speaks as I and the narrator is thinkthoughtmath a character in the story who may or may not influence events within it). Another common type of narrative is the third-person narrative (the narrator seems to be someone standing outside the story who refers to all the characters by name or as he , she , they , and so on).

When the narrator reports speech and photo action, but never comments on the thoughts of other characters, it is the dramatic third person point of view or objective point of view. The third-person narrator can be omniscient --a narrator who knows everything that needs to be known about the agents and events in the story, and is free to move at technical structure, will in time and place, and who has privileged access to a character's thoughts, feelings, and motives. The narrator can also be limited --a narrator who is confined to what is experienced, thought, or felt by a single character, or at most a limited number of characters. Rallycross 2011. Finally, there is the unreliable narrator (a narrator who describes events in the story, but seems to make obvious mistakes or misinterpretations that may be apparent to a careful reader). Thesis Statement Blindness In King Lear. Unreliable narration often serves to rallycross 2011, characterize the narrator as someone foolish or unobservant. See also authorial voice . POINT OF VIEW CHARACTER : The central figure in a limited point of view narration, the character through whom the technical, reader experiences the author's representation of the world. See point of view , above. POLIS (Greek, City): The Greek city-state, a small, independent government consisting of a single town and its immediate environs. Some of these city-states were democracies in photo rallycross, which every male citizen voted on every government action. Others were oligarchies in thesis blindness in king lear, which a few rich or aristocratic families cooperated and shared powers.

Others were dictatorships in which a single military leader came to power. The two most influential city-states were Athens and Sparta. They eventually rose to photo 2011, power over their neighbors through combinations of alliances and drexel topics conquests. Athens was famous for its culture and art and intellectual life. Sparta was famous for its toughness and its martial lifestyle. POLYGENESIS : The theory that, if two similar stories, words, or images appear in two different geographic regions or languages, they are actually unrelated to each other. Rallycross. Each one arose independently. For an analogy, in both early Mayan architecture and in Egyptian architecture, pyramids are striking engineering features. However, since no contact took place between the technical paper structure, two cultures, archeologists believe each group invented the design independently rather than adopting it from a single source (such as one group borrowing it from the other). Photo Rallycross Essay. Circumstances such as the lack of mortar, concrete, or flying buttresses ensured that both Mayans and Egyptians would come up with a wide-base structure to support any large edifice--leading to pyramid designs by default.

In the same way, similar legends appear across the world even when each group has no contact with others. Many cultures that master metallurgy create legends or myths about crippled smiths (witness Hephaestus or Vulcan in Greco-Roman myth, Weiland in paper, Norse and Germanic legend, and Silverhand in Celtic stories). Photo Essay. Cultures that do not master metal-smithing do not create crippled craftsmen-gods in their pantheons. College Essay Ever. This lack can be explained by the theory of polygenesis. Men who are crippled cannot join the hunters in gathering food or join the farmers in photo essay, digging irrigation ditches, so they tend to stay in thesis in king, the village and work as craftsmen, developing skills that ultimately seem magical to the untrained without these years of experience. However, the archetype of the crippled craftsman/god does not appear in cultures without the technology of metal-working. In the same way, flood-narratives appear across many cultures--Noah's flood in the Judeo-Christian tradition as well as in Welsh, Chaldean, and Greek legends. Fundamentalist Christian interpretations accordingly see this as evidence of a literal flood occurring world-wide. Scholars of myth would argue that myths of a universal flood appear only in cultures that experience flooding regularly as a natural disaster. Aborigines in the Australian outbreak or desert-dwelling tribesmen do not share such a legend, for rallycross essay 2011 instance.

This leads to the idea that these flood-narratives arose independently in different places through polygenesis. Statement In King Lear. See also archetype . Contrast with monogenesis . POLYSYLLABIC : Having more than one syllable. POLYSYNDETON : Using many conjunctions to achieve an overwhelming effect in a sentence. Photo Rallycross Essay. For example, This term, I am taking biology and English and history and math and carver music and physics and sociology. Photo Rallycross Essay. All those and college s make the student sound like she is completely overwhelmed. It is the opposite of asyndeton . Both polysyndeton and asyndeton are examples of rhetorical schemes. For a literary example of photo 2011, polysyndeton, click here. POLYTHEISM : The belief in multiple deities--usually non-omniscient and drexel essay non-omnipotent--in contrast with the idea of a single all-powerful deity. POMP É : In classical Greco-Roman culture, many major festivals were marked by a pompé . A pompé was a combination of a parade, pilgrimage, and photo religious procession.

Worshippers would don special garb, line up in rows by the thousands, and thesis statement in king lear then travel through the city or from one holy site to another (such as from the Parthenon to the site of the rallycross essay 2011, Eleusinian mysteries). The most important pompé in Athens celebrated Athena's birthday. On this day, her shrine would be cleaned and scrubbed, and the cult statue would be physically carried or carted in a procession leading to the Aegean, where it would be cleansed with sea-water and given a new peplos (woman's cloak) to college essay, wear for the upcoming year. POOH-POOH HYPOTHESIS : In linguistics, the idea that language began as emotional outbursts or surprised exclamations; contrast with the bow-wow theory , the ding-dong theory , and the yo-he-ho theory . PORTRAIT EN CREUX : A rhetorical or literary device in which a writer mentions an absence to evoke the photo rallycross essay 2011, counterpart presence. This is the verbal equivalent of get a quote paper, negative space in sculpture or painting.

POSTMODERNISM : A general (and often hotly debated) label referring to the philosophical, artistic, and literary changes and tendencies after the 1940s and 1950s up to the present day. We can speak of postmodern art, music, architecture, literature, and photo rallycross poetry using the same generic label. The tendencies of postmodernism include (1) a rejection of traditional authority, (2) radical experimentation--in some cases bordering on gimmickry, (3) eclecticism and multiculturalism, (4) parody and pastiche, (5) deliberate anachronism or surrealism, and (6) a cynical or ironic self-awareness (often postmodernism mocks its own characteristic traits). In many ways, these traits are all features that first appeared in modernism , but postmodernism magnifies and intensifies these earlier characteristics. It also seems to me that, while modernism rejected much of tradition, it clung to science as a hopeful and objective cure to the past insanities of history, culture and drexel essay topics superstition.

Modernism hoped to tear down tradition and longed to build something better in rallycross essay 2011, its ruins. Paper. Postmodernism, on the other hand, is photo 2011 often suspicious of scientific claims, and thinkthoughtmath often denies the possibility or desirability of photo rallycross 2011, establishing any objective truths and shared cultural standards. It usually embraces pluralism and spurns monolithic beliefs, and it often borders on greatest essay, solipsism. While modernism mourned the passing of unified cultural tradition, and photo essay 2011 wept for its demise in the ruined heap of on raymond, civilization, so to speak, postmodernism tends to dance in rallycross 2011, the ruins and play with the fragments. Some of the technical research, new literary movements growing from postmodernism include the darker or horrific tales of science fiction, neo-Gothic literature, late twentieth-century horror stories, concrete poetry, magic realism , Theater of the photo, Absurd, and so on. Finally, postmodernism is statement blindness in king often used loosely and interchangeably with the rallycross 2011, critical movements following post-structuralism--the growing realms of Marxist, materialist, feminist, and psychoanalytical approaches to drexel essay topics, literature that developed during and after the 1970s. Photo 2011. To see where postmodernism fits into a chronology of college ever, literary movements, click here for a PDF handout.

POSTPOSITIVE : A function word--often a preposition--that must come after its object rather than before it. By definition, a postpositive word or phrase cannot begin a sentence. Photo Rallycross. Several words in Latin and Greek are postpositives. POST-STRUCTURALISM : A collective and loose term for technical research paper structure any of the literary theories appearing after the structuralist movement in linguistics--including Derrida's infamous concept of rallycross essay, deconstruction . The more radical poststructuralists attempt to subvert, question, or eliminate common concepts accepted before the structuralist movement--like individual identity, the subconscious mind, rules for social interaction, and so on. PREFIX : A morpheme added to the beginning of a word. For instance, the prefix re- can be added to the word play to create the word replay . PREQUEL (formed from the prefix pre - and the root word sequel ): A novel, play, film, or other narrative usually written after the popular success of an earlier work but set before the events in thesis in king, that successful earlier work, and essay incorporating characters, settings, and situations with which the critical essays on raymond carver, audience is already familiar. Photo. Contrast with sequel and series . PRE-RAPHAELITE : Pre-Raphaelitism, or the Pre-Raphaelite movement, begins in 1848 as a protest against conventional art and literature. A band of young London artists, poets, and intellectuals formed a brotherhood dedicated to re-creating the type of medieval art existing before the Renaissance . Critical On Raymond. Hence, they took their name from Raphael (1483-1520), the earliest major Renaissance artist in photo rallycross essay, Italy. Like the Romantic poets, Pre-Raphaelites wished to regain the spirit of blindness lear, simple devotion and adherence to nature.

Hence, they rejected modernity, mass production, and urbanization. Typical Pre-Raphaelite writings involve an interest in chivalry , courtly love , ballads , archaic diction, pictorial qualities and visual imagery. The first Pre-Raphaelites included Dante Gabriel Rossetti (the ringleader), William Holman Hunt, William Michael Rossetti, Thomas Woolner, James Collinson, John Everett Millais, and Frederick George Stephens initially. Photo. The movement later grew to include or influence Dante Rossetti's sister, the quote custom essay, poet Christina Rossetti; William Morris, the craftsman and writer; the author Swinburne, and photo rallycross essay 2011 Burne-Jones the artist. In 1850, they formed their own literary journal, The Germ , to propagate their views and writings. Click here to download a PDF file of Christina Rossetti's poem, A Birthday, to sample the research paper, diction and style of Pre-Raphaelite poetry. PRE-ROMANTICISM : The first phase of the Romantic movement in European literature of the late 1700s and early 1800s. Harkins labels its main traits as greater freedom in expression of personal feelings, a new interest in landscape, the rallycross essay, cultivation of medieval, chivalric themes as well as . . . the supernatural, and the melancholy mood of statement lear, 'graveyard' poetry (309). See Romanticism for further details. PRESCRIPTIVIST : A grammatical treatise or a lexicon is said to photo rallycross essay 2011, be prescriptivist if it has the goal of fashioning guidelines or rules for grammar, spelling, and word use, as opposed to describing unjudgmentally how a group of people tend to use language. Thinkthoughtmath. Contrast with descriptivist . PRESS VARIANT : Unlike a deliberately revised edition printed at a later date, a press variant is a minor and usually unintentional variation among books printed in the same edition or print run.

Greenblatt notes they usually result from corrections made in the course of printing or from slipped type (1142). PRIESTLY TEXT (Also called the P Text or the Priestly Document ): In biblical scholarship, this refers to material in Genesis and the Hebrew Bible that probably appeared during a late period of editing--in contrast with the older J Text and E Text . The name P Text comes from Priestly Text. Priests probably incorporated this material during or soon after the Babylonian exile of 2011, 587 BCE--though possibly as recently as 450 BCE. (Some scholars in thinkthoughtmath, the minority argue that portions of the material might date pre-exilicly from the late eighth/early seventh century BCE during Hezekiah's reign, but this stance is not widely held.) At the time of the rallycross essay, exile, the Judaic priests were probably desperate to retain their unique monotheistic beliefs in the face of thesis blindness lear, overwhelming Babylonian influence, but they also faced the challenge of harmonizing their world view with that of Babylonian tradition. At this point, many Aramaic (aka Chaldee) loanwords appear in the Hebrew text and they are incorporated into the Hebrew Bible thereafter. Essay 2011. This influence explains why today most biblical concordances and dictionaries (such as the 1979 version of Strong's Comprehensive Concordance of the Bible ) refer to critical on raymond, their Hebrew sections as a Concordance of Hebrew and 2011 Chaldean, a Hebrew and Chaldee Dictionary, or a Hebrew and blindness lear Aramaic Dictionary. Christ will still be using some Aramaic terms 400 years later in rallycross 2011, the New Testament gospels, which show how influential and long-lasting the linguistic effects of the thinkthoughtmath, Exile were on photo rallycross 2011, the Hebrew vocabulary.

Biblical scholars think that Genesis 1:1-2:3 and other sections such as Genesis 6 come from the get a quote essay, P Text, and these are probably the latest additions to photo essay, the Genesis account. The foreign loanwords mean these sections couldn't have been written before coming into contact with the Chaldeans--at least not in the form in quote essay paper, which they come down to us today in surviving manuscripts. Some features of the P text include a stress on photo rallycross essay, ritual observances such as the Sabbath, circumcision, and dietary taboos believed to be late additions to the religious tradition. Other features of the essay topics, P text--such as the rallycross essay 2011, details of the Passover ritual, ordination ceremonies, and descriptions of the tabernacle--appear to have come from statement in king lear, now lost older manuscript traditions after being updated and modified in the P tradition. Finally, the photo essay, P text is marked the prominence it gives to Aaron (as opposed to the dominant role of Moses in the J and E texts), the account of Moses' death in Deuteronomy, the legal materials of quote custom essay paper, Leviticus and Numbers, and a series of photo, genealogies showing some influence from Mesopotamian sources. If students are reading a study Bible like the Anchor Bible series, the editors helpfully mark which sections come from the J, E, and P Texts. PRIMARY SOURCE : Literary scholars distinguish between primary sources , secondary sources , and educational resources . Students should also. Thinkthoughtmath. To understand the difference, click here. PRIMOGENITURE : The late medieval custom of allowing the first born legitimate male child to inherit all of his father's properties, estates, wealth, and photo rallycross essay 2011 titles upon the father's death. Primogeniture was a key issue in determining succession to college essay ever, the royal throne, and it plays an photo 2011 important part in Edmund's villainy in King Lear , in King Henry V's claim to the French throne in Henry V , and in get a for a paper, many other Shakespearean plays.

In medieval times, primogeniture lead to huge social problems since Western Europe was producing large numbers of second born militarily trained knights who had no means of making a livelihood. Since the firstborn son inherited everything, the only legitimate option for the other sons was becoming celibate and then joining the church hierarchy as clerics or entering monasteries. Since this was not always a preferable option for hot-blooded young men, many involved themselves in coups to gain the family estate, took up lives of brigandage, or became mercenaries and wandered from one war to another seeking their fortunes. When Pope Urban II called the first crusade to reclaim Jerusalem, the church saw that part of the solution to this problem was to essay, provide a legitimate arena of warfare for these dispossessed knights. The opposite get a quote essay, custom of photo rallycross essay 2011, dividing inheritance is known as partible succession . PRINTING PRESS : Chinese and Japanese inventors developed simple printing techniques centuries earlier in monasteries, but in the 1440s and 1450s, Europe developed printing independently. Even though forerunners of the college, printed book might have existed in Holland, the photo, most important developments were in Mainz, Germany, where Indulgence was printed in drexel topics, 1454, and the Gutenberg Bible in 1456. John of Gutenberg is credited with the invention by fifteenth-century writers, and photo rallycross 2011 the invention spread rapidly to Italy, France, Holland, and get a quote custom paper other countries.

William Caxton set up a printing press in Europe (Bruges) in 1475, and photo essay 2011 there printed the first book in English, The Recuyell of the college ever, Historyes of photo essay 2011, Troye . Returning to England in 1476, Caxton set up his second printing press in essays, Westminster. Rallycross. He next printed a number of Latin texts before printing in thesis statement in king lear, English the Dicts or Sayings of the Philosophers (1477), Chaucer's Canterbury Tales (1483), Malory's Le Morte Darthur (1485), and others for about a hundred titles in rallycross, total. His assistant, Wynkyn de Worde, took over the business after Caxton's death and published perhaps 800 additional titles. The printing press was a revolution comparable to essay ever, the modern internet revolution. Rallycross Essay 2011. It made books for the first time cheap enough for mass production and mass purchasing, ensuring a rise in literacy, blurring dialectal vocabularies, spreading geographic and cultural knowledge, and fueling the flames of religious reformation. PRIVATE SYMBOL : In contrast with an archetype (universal symbol), a private symbol is one that an critical essays carver individual artist arbitrarily assigns a personal meaning to. Photo Rallycross Essay 2011. Nearly all members of an ethnic, religious, or linguistic group might share a cultural symbol and research paper structure agree upon its meaning with little discussion, but private symbols may only be discernable in rallycross essay, the context of thinkthoughtmath, one specific story or poem.

Examples of private symbols include the rallycross 2011, elaborate mythologies created by J. R. R. Tolkien in The Silmarillion (such as the One Ring as a symbol of power lust) or William Butler Yeats' use of Constantinople as a symbol to get a for a custom paper, represent poetic artifice in Sailing to Byzantium, or Yeats' use of a gyre to symbolize the cycles of history and the sphinx as an emblem of the Antichrist in The Second Coming. See also token and emblem . PROBLEM PLAY : There are two common meanings to this term. (1) The most general usage refers to any play in which the main character faces a personal, social, political, environmental, or religious problem common to his or her society at large. Essay. Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman is representative of a problem play in that Loman must face the challenges of what the author considers false values in a capitalistic society. (2) In a narrower sense, Shakespearean scholars apply the term problem play to drexel topics, a group of rallycross essay 2011, Shakespeare's plays, also called bitter comedies, especially Measure for Measure , Troilus and Cressida , and All's Well That Ends Well . These plays explore dark and ignoble aspects of human psychology without attempting to solve or resolve the plot to the reader's satisfaction beyond a superficial level. Because of the uneasy endings, the plays do not seem to follow the standard conventions of Renaissance comedy . PROCATALEPSIS (Greek anticipation): Procatalepsis is a rhetorical strategy in which the writer raises an objection and then immediately answers it; by doing so, the rhetor seeks to strengthen his argument by carver, dealing with possible objections before his audience can raise counter-arguments. PROFANITY ACT OF 1606 : This law passed under King James I required that any profanity in a publicly performed play or in published material would result in a ten-pound fine for the performer or printer, a substantial sum.

Three of Shakespeare's quartos show signs of revision to meet the requirement of the Profanity Act, such as omissions of obscenity, the essay 2011, word God changed to heaven, or Jove, etc. Contrast with the Censorship Ordinance . PROLIXITY : A type of wordiness or periphrasis characterized by unnecessary rambling or excessive detail, as Shipley puts it (429). A writer or speaker who has this tendency is said to greatest college essay, be prolix. See dicussion under periphrasis . PROLOGUE : (1) In original Greek tragedy, the prologue was either the action or a set of introductory speeches before the first entry ( parados ) of the rallycross 2011, chorus. Here, a single actor's monologue or a dialogue between two actors would establish the play's background events. (2) In later literature, a prologue is a section of any introductory material before the first chapter or the main material of technical paper structure, a prose work, or any such material before the first stanza of a poetic work. PROMPTBOOK : A manuscript of a play adapted for performance by a theatrical company--usually with extra stage directions, notes on special effects or props, and last minute revisions or corrections. In some promptbooks, the photo essay 2011, characters' names and speech prefixes are scribbled out and replaced with the names of the actors playing those roles. PROMYTHIUM : A summary of the moral of a fable appearing before the main narrative. If the get a quote essay paper, summary is found at the end of the narrative, it is called an rallycross epimythium . Contrast with prologue . PRONUNCIATION SPELLING : A new spelling of an old word that more accurately reflects the current pronunciation than the essay topics, original spelling does. PROPAGANDA (Latin, things that must be sent forth): In its original use, the term referred to a committee of cardinals the photo rallycross essay, Roman Catholic church founded in 1622 (the Congregatio de propaganda fide ). This group established specific educational materials to be sent with priests-in-training for greatest ever foreign missions . The term is rallycross essay 2011 today used to refer to information, rumors, ideas, and artwork spread deliberately to help or harm another specific group, movement, belief, institution, or government. The term's connotations are mostly negative.

When literature or journalism is propaganda and when it is not is hotly debated. For instance, the Roman Emperor Augustus commissioned Virgil to write The Aeneid for specific goals. He wanted Virgil to glorify Rome's greatness, instill public pride in Rome's past, and cultivate traditional Roman virtues such as loyalty to the family, the Empire, and the gods. Is this propaganda? Or patriotism? Typically, readers claim a work is propaganda when it sets forth an argument with which they personally disagree. In other cases, readers will call a work propagandistic if they can perceive that the characters or the author advances particular doctrines or principles.

Harry Shaw notes: Propaganda is attacked by most critics and general readers because it is an attempt to influence opinions and actions deliberately, but by this definition all education and most literature are propagandistic (220). PROPARALEPSIS (plural: proparalepses ): A type of essays on raymond carver, neologism that occurs by photo 2011, adding an greatest extra syllable or letters to the end of photo essay 2011, a word. For instance, Shakespeare in Hamlet creates the word climature by adding the end of the word temperature to essays carver, climate (1.1.12). The wizardly windbag Glyndwr (Glendower) proclaims that he can call spirits from the rallycross essay 2011, vasty deep in 1 Henry IV (3.1.52). We would expect him to greatest college, speak of the vast deep normally. Proparalepsis is an example of a rhetorical scheme. PROPORTIONAL : One of several possible numbering methods in a language's grammar.

For a discussion of proportionals, see multiplicatives . PROPS (abbreviation of stage properties): Handheld objects, furniture and photo similar items on stage apart from thinkthoughtmath, costumes and the stage scenery itself used to provide verisimilitude , to reinforce the setting , to help characterize the actors holding or wearing them, or to provide visual objects for practical, symbolic, or demonstrative purposes on the stage. PROSCENIUM : An arch that frames a box set and holds the curtain, thus creating a sort of invisible boundary through which the audience views the on-stage action of rallycross 2011, a play. PROSE : Any material that is not written in a regular meter like poetry. Many modern genres such as short stories, novels, letters, essays, and treatises are typically written in prose. PROSKENION : A raised stage constructed before the college, skene in classical Greek drama. The proskenion sharply divided the actors from the chorus, and the elevated height made the actors more visible to the audience. PROSODIC SIGNAL : Algeo defines this as the [p]itch, stress, or rhythm as grammatical signals (327). PROSODY (1) : the mechanics of verse poetry--its sounds, rhythms, scansion and meter, stanzaic form, alliteration, assonance, euphony, onomatopoeia, and photo rallycross essay rhyme. (2) The study or analysis of the previously listed material. This is also called versification . PROSOPOPOEIA (Grk prosopon , face): a form of personification in which an critical essays carver inanimate object gains the rallycross essay 2011, ability to speak. For instance, in the Anglo-Saxon poem, The Dream of the greatest college, Rood, the wooden cross verbally describes the death of Christ from rallycross 2011, its own perspective.

Ecocritical writers might describe clearcutting from the viewpoint of the tree, and thinkthoughtmath so on. Rallycross. See personification , above. PROSTHESIS : Adding an extra syllable or letters to the beginning of a word for poetic effect. Shakespeare writes in his sonnets, All alone, I beweep my outcast state. He could have simply written weep , but beweep matches his meter and thinkthoughtmath is more poetic.

Too many students are all afrightened by photo rallycross essay 2011, the use of prosthesis. Prosthesis creates a poetic effect, turning a run-of-the-mill word into something novel. Prosthesis is an example of a rhetorical scheme. It results in blindness in king lear, a neologism . PROTAGONIST : The main character in photo essay 2011, a work, on whom the author focuses most of the thinkthoughtmath, narrative attention. See character . PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN : The reconstructed ancestor of all Indo-European languages. Many scholars use this term interchangeably with Indo-European. Click here for more information. PROVIDENCE : The theological doctrine stating God's sovereignty--especially his omniscience--allows complete divine control over the universe in the past, present, and future. It connects closely with questions of omniscience, free will and predestination. In John Milton's Paradise Lost , Milton emphasises providence as one of his themes, depicting a universe in which God allows complete free will, but one in which God will ultimately use providence to turn even evil choices and decisions to a greater good in the long run through his own mysterious means. Cf.

Augustinian time . PRYS (also spelled pris ): The French noun prys , meaning worthiness, is a cognate with the English word price. Prys was rich in connotations, appearing frequently in French chansons de geste and medieval romances . It embodies knightly worthiness on photo rallycross, a number of levels. College Essay. A knight who has prys is loyal, brave, polite, courtly, proud, refined in taste, and perhaps a bit foolhardy and arrogant, quick to take anger at an insult and essay fast to accept a challenge or dual. Get A Quote For A Custom. Chaucer uses this term to describe the Knight in the General Prologue of The Canterbury Tales : PSYCHOLOGICAL REALISM : The sense that characters in fictional narratives have realistic interiority or complex emotional and rallycross intellectual depth, including perhaps subconscious urges and fears they are not aware of. On an outward level, this realism typically involves reacting to external characters and situations in custom essay, a manner consistent with the expectations of photo rallycross essay, readers ( verisimilitude ). On an drexel university topics internal level, it may involve the revelation of photo rallycross essay 2011, characters' thoughts and internal meditations about themselves and others. Such internal machinations are a standard part of paper structure, Elizabethan drama in the form of the soliloquy . However, psychological realism is associated most closely with the movement toward realism and naturalism in essay 2011, the nineteenth- and twentieth-centuries. After psychoanalysis appeared, Freudian ideas influenced many writers who sought to incorporate his theories into their own depictions of characters. Whether or not we can speak of get a essay paper, psychological realism in literary works before the Renaissance is a thorny issue.

Medieval saint's lives ( vitae ) , chivalric romances , sagas , and most other pre-Renaissance literary texts pay little attention to psychology, rarely describing a character's internal thoughts beyond a sparse assertion that a character was angry, sad, or lonely (and that assertion often made as part of a stock formula, such as Then King Arthur fared wondrously woode.) Often ancient works are so focused on allegory to the exclusion of psychology that some critics assert pre-Renaissance writers and photo rallycross 2011 readers had very little sense of interiority or any unique self apart from tribe, family, religious caste, occupation, or social standing. The difference is so marked that some scholars like Harold Bloom speak of the invention of the human in the Renaissance. On the other hand, it is difficult to read something like The Confessions of Saint Augustine without getting a sense of a real human being intensely aware of his own psychology. Possibly, the research, difference is rooted in conventions of literature rather than any actual historical change in human self-awareness, but the rallycross essay 2011, debate continues. PSYCHOPOMPOS (Greek, soul procession or soul carrier): A spirit-guide who leads or escorts a soul into the realm of the dead. College Ever. Such a character often appears in the motif of the descent into the underworld . Examples of a psychopompos would be deities like Hermes and Charon in Greek mythology, or the characters of photo essay 2011, Virgil and Beatrice in Dante's Inferno . PULP FICTION : Mass market novels printed cheaply and intended for a general audience. The content was usually melodramatic, titillating, or thrilling. The earliest samples are the thinkthoughtmath, penny dreadfuls or bloods of the eighteenth century, which were followed in the nineteenth century by so-called dime novels (which were sold for ten cents). Examples included westerns, Horatio Alger novels, soft science fiction series, murder mysteries in serialized format, and melodramtic crime stories. The designation pulp comes from the photo rallycross 2011, paper quality--these novels are usually printed on the cheapest newsprint available.

PUN (also called paronomasia ): A play on two words similar in critical on raymond, sound but different in meaning. For example, in Matthew 16:18, Christ puns in Koine Greek: Thou art Peter [ Petros ] and upon this rock [ petra ] I will build my church. Shakespeare, in Romeo and Juliet , puns upon Romeo's vile death ( vile = vial , the photo, vial of poison Romeo consumed). Shakespeare's poetic speaker also puns upon his first name ( Will ) and thinkthoughtmath his lover's desire (her will ) in the sonnets, and John Donne puns upon his last name in Hymn to God the Father. Originally, puns were a common literary trope in serious literature, but after the eighteenth century, puns have been primarily considered a low form of humor. A specific type of pun known as the equivoque involves a single phrase or word with differing meanings.

For instance, one epitaph for a bank teller reads He checked his cash, cashed in his checks, / And left his window. / Who's next? The nineteenth-century poet, Anita Owen, uses a pun to side-splitting effect in her verse: They tell sweet lies of Paradise; And in photo rallycross essay 2011, those eyes the lovelight lies. And lies--and lies--and lies! Another type of pun is the asteismus , in which one speaker uses a word one way, but a second speaker responds using the word in statement in king lear, a different sense. Photo. For instance, in Cymbeline (II, i), Cloten exclaims, Would he had been one of my rank! A lord retorts, To have smell'd like a fool, twisting the meaning of greatest college essay, rank from a noun referring to essay, noble status to an adjective connoting a foul smell.

Yet another form of pun is the paragram , in which the wordplay involves altering one or more letters in a word. It is often considered a low form of humor, as in various knock-knock jokes or puns such as, What's homicidal and lives in the sea? Answer: Jack the thinkthoughtmath, Kipper, or in Chapter Four of C.S. Lewis' The Silver Chair , which is titled A Parliament of rallycross 2011, Owls (a pun on thesis lear, Chaucer's Parliament of Fowles ). In spite of the pun's current low reputation, some of the best writers in English have been notoriously addicted to puns: noticeably Shakespeare, Chaucer, and James Joyce. PURGATORY (Latin, purgare , to purge): Donald Logan writes: The medieval and Catholic doctrine of purgatory stated that Christian souls who had accepted rites of baptism and been accepted into the body of the faithful church, but who died unexpectedly with unconfessed sins or minor venial faults, would not be sent to hell, but would rather spend an indeterminate period in a spiritual place of temporal punishment.

The same temporary suffering was believed to be the fate of baptised infants who had not yet reached the age of reason where they could choose to accept Christian doctrine and make first confession. In this spiritual place, popularly called purgatory, such souls would suffer for a time as an rallycross act of penance. This would purify them so they could enter heaven. The Council of drexel, Florence (1431 AD) was the first time the church officially embraced purgatory as a doctrine, but the belief in purgatory had long been a part of church practice going back to the patristic period of the rallycross essay 2011, fourth century, when Epiphanius mentions the practice of praying for deceased souls in order to lessen their time in purgatory. It is clear, however, that at get a paper, this early point, the issue of hell, purgatory, and photo rallycross the afterlife was still a matter of dispute among proto-Christians, as theologians like Acrius denied the doctrine. The popularity of purgatorial doctrine increased, and by technical research paper structure, the tenth century, it was practically universally accepted in the church. In the Middle Ages, some heretical groups like the Albigensians, the Waldensians, and rallycross essay 2011 the Hussites challenged the belief, but the research, first serious breach with the doctrine appears in essay 2011, the sixteenth-century during the drexel university, Protestant Reformation. At that time, Martin Luther initially considered retaining the essay 2011, doctrine of Purgatory in thinkthoughtmath, the Lutheran Church, as witnessed in rallycross, the Leipzig Disputation, but as the breach between Catholics and Protestants increased, political pressure to make a clean break with popishness decided the issue. The rejection of purgatory became practically universal among the Protestant churches. John Calvin's doctrine was especially sharp in its break, and Calvinist teaching included the doctrine of infant damnation, in drexel essay topics, which all children who die in the womb, in childbirth, or during infancy were damned for eternity in hell. Calvin went so far as to photo rallycross 2011, term the Catholic position exitiale commentum quod crucem Christi evacuat . . . quod fidem nostram labefacit et evertit ( Institutiones , lib.

III, cap. v, 6, quoted in The Catholic Encyclopedia ). The modern Greek Orthodox church has also discontinued the purgatorial doctrine. Click here for a link to quote for a paper, The Catholic Encyclopedia 's discussion of purgatory that is much more thorough than mine. The doctrine and imagery of purgatory is especially prevalent in medieval literature. It is the rallycross, focus of Marie de France's Saint Patrick's Purgatory . The Purgatorio , the second book of Dante's Divine Comedy , involves a spiritual journey through purgatory just after the poet's trip through the Inferno . C. S. Lewis explores the question of purgatory in The Great Divorce , where he attempts to greatest, have his cake and eat it too by suggesting purgatory does and does not exist simultaneously, arguing that we experience purgatory temporally and 2011 perceive it as a real thing, but in Augustinian time , we are able to research paper, see that purgatory (and material life on photo rallycross 2011, earth) on some level always have been heaven or hell, when we examine the afterlife sub specie aeternitatis . PURIST GRAMMAR (also called Grammatical Purism ): The belief in an absolute or unchanging standard of correct grammar. PURITAN : Most familiar to modern Americans as the quote, religious denomination of the Mayflower colonists, the Puritans were a Protestant sect particularly active during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In a positive sense, Americans associate Puritanism with the struggle for rallycross essay religious freedom since the Puritans colonized America to escape religious persecution; however, the idea is research structure something of photo essay 2011, a misconception since the Puritans' hope was to drexel university topics, create an all-encompassing Puritan culture in rallycross 2011, the new colony, not to thesis blindness in king lear, create a cosmopolitan, tolerant society open to other branches of Protestant Christianity, much less Catholicism, Judaism, or other religions. (That sort of religious tolerance comes about in rallycross essay 2011, American culture largely as a result of the Deism fashionable among intellectuals in the eighteenth century during the writing of the statement blindness in king, Constitution.) In its negative sense, the word Puritan often evokes the idea of dour, grim, religious conformity, since Puritans stereotypically wore only black and white; they frowned upon drinking, dancing, and displays of sexuality; burned aging misfits as witches; censored literature, and closed Shakespeare's playhouses in photo essay 2011, England because of thinkthoughtmath, acting's immorality. These tendencies have led to H. L. Mencken's jest defining Puritanism as the photo essay 2011, haunting fear that someone, somewhere, may be happy. Puritanism forms the backdrop of The Scarlet Letter and The Crucible in American literature. Shakespeare uses a Puritan named Malvolio as the party-pooping villain in quote, Twelfth Night . See also Roundhead and Puritan Interregnum . PURITAN INTERREGNUM (Latin, inter + regnum , between reigns): The term refers to both the Puritan government established under Oliver Cromwell after a civil war against the British monarch and those years in which that government lasted (1649-1658). This interregnum marks the end of the English Renaissance.

It came into photo rallycross, being after a long civil war between two political factions, the research paper, Roundheads , non-aristocrats who supported Puritan reforms, and the Cavaliers , the aristocratic courtiers loyal to the monarchy. Ultimately, the Stuart monarch was captured and 2011 executed, and his supporters fled to the continent with the heir to the throne, leaving the Puritans in thinkthoughtmath, power. The Puritans called their regime the Commonwealth, and photo rallycross essay 2011 it was nominally a parliamentarian government but a de facto dictatorship under Cromwell. This government fell apart upon Cromwell's death. At that point, the essay ever, English royal heir returned to 2011, claim the throne, leading to the Restoration . Get A Quote Custom. See also Puritan , above. PURPLE PATCH : A section of purple prose or writing that is too ornate or florid for the surrounding plain material, which in turn looks too tranquil or dull by photo, the incongruity of the startling purple patch. On Raymond. The colorful image for this term comes from Horace's Ars Poetica 2.3.14-19, where he refers to the purpureus pannus , the purple piece of royal or princely cloth that is rallycross 2011 a colorful but irrelevant insertion into a plain-speaking work. PURPLE PROSE : Writing that seems overdone or which makes excessive use of imagery, figures of get a essay paper, speech, poetic diction, and photo essay polysyllabication. Custom Essay Paper. These artifices become so overblown that they accidentally become silly or pompous. Photo Rallycross Essay 2011. See also purple patch . PUSHKIN PLEIAD : A group of young Russian poets, friends and contemporaries of Pushkin, who shared his general poetic outlook--including Vyazemski, Dadydov, Delvig, Yzykov, Venevitinov, and Baratynski (Harkins 323). PYRRHIC : In classical Greek or Latin poetry, this foot consists of two unaccented syllables--the opposite of a spondee . At best, a pyrrhic foot is an unusual aberration in English verse, and most prosodists (including me!) do not accept it as a foot at all because it contains no accented syllable.

Normally, the for a paper, context or prevailing iambs, trochees, or spondees in surrounding lines overwhelms any potential pyrrhic foot, and a speaker reading the foot aloud will tend artificially to stress either the photo rallycross essay, first or last syllable. University Essay Topics. See meter for more information.

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Edgar Allan Poe Poe, Edgar Allan (Literary Masters) - Essay. While the enormous popularity of Edgar Allan Poe's famous short stories and poems continues to highlight his creative brilliance, Poe's renown as the rallycross 2011, master of horror, the father of the detective story, and critical, the voice of The Raven is something of a mixed blessing. Today, Poe is known, read, and appreciated on the basis of a comparatively narrow body of work, roughly a dozen tales and half as many poems. For the novice reader, these favored texts offer easy (but still challenging) access to Poe's most exemplary writing, entry into his uniquely terrifying world, and intriguing connections to facets of rallycross essay their author's tragically disordered life. The total effect of all this is compelling, and Poe himself would certainly approve. In King! He wrote for photo essay, the masses, using his learned artistry to reach the common people of for a custom his day and to essay, then elevate their minds while intensifying their emotional reactions. Poe was not averse to the commercial sensationalism either: he wrote several hoaxes as news and essay, later capitalized on his personal notoriety for bookings on the lecture/recital circuit.

Along with Mark Twain and photo rallycross, Ernest Hemingway, Poe ranks among the foremost literary stars in the firmament of statement blindness in king lear popular American culture. A century and half after his death, Poe is instantly identifiable, stands without rival, and remains (with effort) immensely enjoyable. In his normal frame of rallycross essay mind, at research paper least, Poe would have been deeply amused by the widespread adulation and fame he has enjoyed in posterity. The rub is that we may be tempted to stop here and neglect the rallycross essay, breadth and the depth of Poe's contributions to Western Literature. Poe, in fact, wrote nearly seventy short works of fiction. He is duly credited with creating the detective story genre and with transforming the Gothic mystery tale of the Romantic Period into the modern horror or murder stories centered in the outlying regions of human mind and essay ever, experience. But he also wrote several comic and satirical pieces, literary parodies, sketches, and experimental stories, including A Descent into photo 2011, the Maelstrom, and his novella, The Narrative of thinkthoughtmath Arthur Gordon Pym . His most famous poems—The Raven, Ulalume, The Bells, The City in the Sea—were enormously influential. These famous verses were behind a powerful wave of enthusiasm for Poe that arose among the leading writers of Europe during his own lifetime, spread thereafter around the world, and was sustained through the discovery of existential human condition themes in rallycross essay 2011 his short stories generations later. But Poe also wrote three volumes of poetry during the for a, first period of his literary career (1827-1831) that deserve our attention, as does his metaphysical Eureka: A Prose Poem and his verse drama, Politian . In terms of the hidden breadth of his accomplishments, during most of his career, Poe labored as an editor of literary journals and reviewer of fiction, verse, and non-fiction books. Among the latter, Poe wrote reviews on books of such diverse fields as medicine, natural history, archeology, philology, and economics. As for Poe's criticism of fiction and verse, there is an intersection with the often-overlooked depth of rallycross essay his work.

Poe developed a theory of thinkthoughtmath composition that he applied to both his short stories and his poems. Rallycross Essay! Its most basic principle was that insofar as short fiction and thinkthoughtmath, poetry were concerned, the writer should aim at creating a single and total psychological/spiritual effect upon the reader. The theme or plot of the piece is photo rallycross 2011 always subordinate to the author's calculated construction of a single, intense mood in the reader's or listener's mind, be it melancholy, suspense, or horror. Thesis In King! There are no extra elements in Poe, no subplots, no minor characters, and no digressions except those that show the madness of deranged first-person (I) narrators. Rallycross Essay! Ultimately, Poe took writing to be a moral task that worked not through teaching lessons, but in simultaneously stimulating his readers' mental, emotional, and spiritual faculties through texts of absolute integrity. Thinkthoughtmath! Poe, moreover, judged others by photo essay these same standards. By doing so, he is establishing the thinkthoughtmath, rules and methods common to essay, New Criticism, the leading school of literary analysis in the twentieth century with its insistence that the text must be interpreted as a self-contained unit apart from the critic's opinions of its author or the suitability of its themes. Access our Edgar Allan Poe Study Guide for Free. Edgar Allan Poe was born in Boston on January 19, 1809.

His mother, Elizabeth Arnold Poe, was an actress who had attained some prominence as a leading lady. His father, David Poe, Jr., had pursued a somewhat less successful career on the stage, punctuated by alcoholic binges. Although the precise dates and other details are unclear, Poe's father apparently abandoned his family around the time of Edgar's second birthday. Drexel Essay! We do know that his mother took Edgar, his brother, William Henry, and sister, Rosalie, with her to Richmond, Virginia, sometime in 1811 and that she died there in December of photo rallycross 2011 that same year. Edgar was separated from his siblings and drexel, placed in the care of a childless couple, John and photo, Frances Allan.

John Allan was an English/Scottish merchant who kept a tight hold on the family's purse strings but who also recognized the value of education. Thinkthoughtmath! In 1815, he took his wife and photo, stepson (Edgar was never legally adopted by the Allans) to England on an extended business trip. In England, Edgar spent his early childhood at prestigious boarding academies, including the Manor House School of Doctor Bransby at Stoke Newington. Evidently, he was an get a for a custom paper, excellent student: in 1819, John Allan wrote to his friend William Galt that Edgar is in the Country at photo rallycross essay 2011 school, he is a very fine boy a good scholar. It was while he was in England that young Edgar first became acquainted with the Gothic literature that was popular in Europe at the time. When Allan returned to Richmond in 1820, Edgar continued his education at private schools, studying Latin, verse, and oratory.

He was also an critical essays on raymond carver, athletic youth, a superior swimmer, and marksman. But he was not popular. He was taunted by his peers as the son of actors (a disreputable profession) who occupied an odd status in the Allan household as an unadopted stepson. Rallycross! Poe received support and research, encouragement from the mother of a classmate, Jane Stith Stanard, but she died of a brain tumor when he was fifteen years old. More so than Elizabeth Poe or Mrs. Allan, he looked upon this woman as his idealized mother, and her untimely death was the apparent cause of his first extended period of psychological depression, during which he often visited her grave. Around this time, John Allan's trading firm suffered a series of photo rallycross financial setbacks, the company itself was dissolved, and critical essays on raymond carver, Poe's stepfather took to extramarital affairs and to the bottle. In 1825, however, John Allan inherited a large sum of money, and this abrupt reversal of rallycross essay 2011 fortune enabled him to enroll Edgar at the University of Virginia. Shortly before his departure for college, Poe began to court a fifteen-year-old woman named Sarah Elmira Royster.

Whether the two were engaged before he left for college is unclear; that he was serious about his intention to marry Sarah is fairly certain. Poe entered the University of Virginia in 1826 at the age of seventeen, concentrating on thesis blindness in king lear, classical and modern languages. But he found it difficult to maintain a gentleman's life style on the relatively meager allowance that John Allan furnished to him. He took to photo, gambling and compiled debts of honor amounting to some $2,000, an enormous sum in the 1820s. John Allan refused to pay these debts; Poe left school and returned to Richmond, where he worked for a time in Allan's counting house. When he tried to renew his courtship of Sarah Royster, her parents first told him that she was abroad; he eventually learned that his first fiancee had become engaged to another young man. Alienated from critical essays on raymond, his stepfather and rejected by Sarah's family, the headstrong Poe set out on his own, moving first to photo essay 2011, Baltimore in March 1827 and then back to the city of his birth, Boston, where he took the greatest essay ever, first of photo rallycross several pseudonyms, calling himself Henri Le Rennet.

It was in Boston that Poe wrote the first poems that would eventually bear his real name. Without a regular source of income, Poe joined the army at the age of critical eighteen, enlisting under the fictitious name of Edgar A. Perry. Rallycross Essay! He was initially assigned to duty with coastal artillery at Fort Independence in Boston Harbor and get a quote for a, later transferred to Fort Moultrie on Sullivan's Island outside the harbor of essay Charleston, South Carolina. With his keen mind and still-sturdy body, Poe did well in college the military, rising to the rank of sergeant major during his two-year stint. While he was stationed at Fort Independence, Poe prevailed upon a local publisher to 2011, print his first volume of drexel essay verses, Tamerlane and Other Poems in 1827 under the name of Edgar Perry. To these, he would eventually add six new poems for a volume that would be published in Baltimore under his real name at photo essay 2011 the end of get a custom 1829. By then, however, tragedy struck Poe's life once more. Photo Essay 2011! In February 1829, Poe's stepmother, Frances Allen, died, the third mother figure in his life to suffer an untimely death.Alienated from greatest essay, his stepfather and rejected by Sarah's family, the headstrong Poe set out on his own, moving first to Baltimore in March 1827 and then back to the city of his birth, Boston, where he took the rallycross 2011, first of several pseudonyms, calling himself Henri Le Rennet. It was in Boston that Poe wrote the first poems that would eventually bear his real name.

Without a regular source of income, Poe joined the army at the age of eighteen, enlisting under the fictitious name of Edgar A. Perry. He was initially assigned to duty with coastal artillery at essays carver Fort Independence in Boston Harbor and later transferred to Fort Moultrie on essay, Sullivan's Island outside the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. With his keen mind and still-sturdy body, Poe did well in the military, rising to the rank of sergeant major during his two-year stint. Thinkthoughtmath! While he was stationed at Fort Independence, Poe prevailed upon rallycross a local publisher to print his first volume of verses, Tamerlane and greatest ever, Other Poems. By a Bostonian, in 1827 under the name of Edgar Perry. Rallycross! To these, he would eventually add six new poems for a volume that would be published in Baltimore under his real name at the end of 1829. By then, however, tragedy struck Poe's life once more. In February 1829, Poe's stepmother, Frances Allen, died, the third mother figure in blindness in king lear his life to suffer an untimely death. The death of Frances Allan set the stage for reconciliation between Poe and essay, John Allan. On Raymond Carver! According to some accounts, it was through Allan's influence that Poe received an appointment to the United States Military Academy at West Point.

He did enter West Point in photo rallycross essay July 1830, but a few months later, he learned that John Allan had. (The entire section is 2658 words.) Get Free Access to this Edgar Allan Poe Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thinkthoughtmath, thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the photo rallycross 2011, chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere.

We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for critical on raymond carver, free. The Influence of Poe’s Life on his Work. Edgar Allan Poe is considered the father of both the horror genre and the detective novel. His stories of murder, revenge, and paranoia are still popular more than 150 years after his premature (and mysterious) death. Many readers wonder where he came up with the ideas for his stories and what type of a man would write such horrifying tales. Poe's life was interesting. Born in 1809, his parents were actors, but he and his brother and sister were orphaned when Poe was two years old.

Poe was sent to foster parents in Richmond, Virginia, named John and Frances (Fanny) Allan. This is where the Allan in Edgar Allan Poe comes from, but the Allans also affected Poe's writing. (The entire section is 1146 words.) Get Free Access to this Edgar Allan Poe Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. The Debate Over Poe’s Use of rallycross Alcohol and paper structure, Drugs. The characteristic themes in Poe’s work are those “of horror, terror, strange fantasies and photo rallycross essay, psychological abnormalities.” 1 A myth has developed, over the years, which attributes these themes to the writer’s drinking and drug-taking. Before any comment can be made about the thesis statement blindness, influences of drugs and alcohol on Poe’s work, the facts should be reduced to their proper proportion.

Poe was not a heavy daily drinker and photo, was abstemious for long periods of time. Get A For A Essay Paper! He drank in times of emotional turmoil, when excitement or crises overtook him. In his own words he drank not for pleasure but to escape from “torturing memories … insupportable loneliness … a dread of some strange impending. (The entire section is 1089 words.) Short Story Samples of Poe's Stylistic and 2011, Thematic Gifts. Edgar Allan Poe’s popular short stories “Ligeia,” The Cask of Amontillado,” “The Tell-Tale Heart,” “The Murders in the Rue Morgue,” and “The Pit and the Pendulum” serve as fine samples of greatest essay his stylistic and rallycross 2011, thematic gifts. Although Poe’s stories. (The entire section is 6080 words.) During his life, Poe was a prolific writer, who often published work, revised it, and then republished it under a different title.

Though his works were widely published in America during his lifetime, he remained relatively unknown as a literary figure until the printing of his poem The Raven in 1844. Technical Paper! Poe historians feel that his lack of fame may have been due to the misfortune of his trying to establish a literary career in America during the photo rallycross 2011, mid-1800s. J. R. Hammond writes that if Poe had been in England, he not only would have been paid more for his work with various publications but would have most likely enjoyed increased popularity of his works in the favorable English literary climate. (Hammond, pp. 17-24). (The entire section is 4079 words.) Dividing the world of mind into its three most immediately obvious distinctions, we have the Pure Intellect, Taste, and the Moral Sense. Just as the Intellect concerns itself with Truth, so Taste informs us of the Beautiful while the Moral Sense is regardful of Duty. Of this latter, while Conscience teaches the obligation, and university essay, Reason the photo rallycross essay 2011, expediency, Taste contents herself with displaying the thesis blindness lear, charms:—waging war upon Vice solely on the ground of her deformity—her disproportion—her animosity to the fitting, to the appropriate, to rallycross 2011, the harmonious—in a word, to Beauty.

Poe began his editorial career with the Messenger in 1835. His contribution. (The entire section is 5202 words.) Frequently Asked Questions About Poe. Poe was never admitted to a sanatorium, nor did he ever seek professional help for a mental problem. There is, therefore, no clinical evidence that he suffered from any type of madness. But even if he had doubts about his own sanity, he would have been rational enough to avoid treatment. In his day, lunatics were usually placed in prison-like asylums for keeps. Essay! The narrators of photo rallycross essay 2011 several of Poe's stories are mad psychopaths, and he had uncanny insights into university, the workings of the essay 2011, murderer's mind, including some ideas that were later validated by criminal psychologists.

But simply because he wrote about supernaturally horrible acts from the perspective of deluded narrators does not. (The entire section is 2264 words.) Edgar Allan Poe Homework Help Questions. The poem “Alone” by critical carver Edgar Allan Poe was not published during his lifetime. It was not until 1875 that the poem was verified as being an authentic Poe poem written in 1830 when Poe was only.

The narrator is a classic example of an unreliable narrator, because he is photo essay 2011 telling the statement, entire story himself and there is no objective narration to back up his assertions. The first lines of essay 2011 the. Poe was the thinkthoughtmath, father of the modern-day detective story and also the short story. He also wrote primarily of the macabre and introduced his readers to ambiguity of the characters and places so they. Edgar Allan Poe uses many different elements of rallycross 2011 style in his writing. Most commonly, he uses first person narration. You can find first person narration in many of greatest his works, including The Raven. Edgar Allan Poe was an American poet, author, editor, and literary critic.

Poe wrote during the Romantic period, and therefore, was considered a Romantic writer. Within this period, he was most. Edgar Allan Poe. Edgar Allan Poe. Edgar Allan Poe.

Mark Twain, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Kate Chopin, Stephen Crane, Sherwood Anderson, Herman Melville, Jack London, Edgar Allan Poe, O. Henry, Bret Harte.