Term papers health care reform
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Twenty Four Great Topics For An Essay On Healthcare Reform
Sample IELTS essay questions and papers care reform topics. If you read enough IELTS books (or take the exam too often!), you’ll soon realise that there are very definite IELTS topics. There is a good reason for this: IELTS is 3d animation, a very international exam and the topics have to be suitable for all countries and papers health reform all cultures. On Brown Of Education. Accordingly, (nice word that) the people who set the exam tend to choose relatively everyday topics – the sort of topics all educated people should be able to speak and write about in term care, their own language. So one obvious way to prepare for statement for revenge, the exam is to practise writing and speaking about these topics. They are: While the topics are predictable enough, the actual questions are invariably extremely precise.
Again, there is also a good reason for health care, this: the examiners do not want you to learn an essay, they want to research papers of education, test your English and see if you can answer a precise question, rather than produce a general answer to a general topic. Remember that in the exam these words are always included: Give reasons for your answer and papers health care reform include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience. This is no small point because it tells you that whatever the form of the question, you need to be able to explain and exemplify your answer ( see coherence). How to like it, share it and save it. Get more help with IELTS preparation on the main pages of my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the how to a ghostwriter rap updates and even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by email. 108 Responses to health care reform, Sample IELTS essay questions and topics.
if the task or question is “to what extent do you argree or disagree” should i still present both sides of the argument and on my conclusion i? will sight my opinion? or at the first part of the essay (introduction), should i give my side already? and on the body would be the evidences or reasons why i chose such side of the for revenge argument? Another good question. There is no definite right or wrong answer here. But let me give you a few guidelines. One of the things the care examiner is looking for is a clear point of view sustained throughout the essay. Accordingly, it makes sense to state your point of view clearly in the introduction. This way it makes it easy for the examiner to see what you are doing. The one problem with this approach is that it makes your conclusion slightly harder to write, as you have already given your answer in the introduction. That much said, you can still wait until the conclusion to give your own personal opinion after looking at both sides of the argument. This is perhaps the thesis for revenge slightly more academic approach and makes for papers health care reform, a better balanced essay normally.
If you do take this approach, my advice would be to state clearly in the introduction that you are going to look at both sides of the issue first before giving your personal opinion. would there be a difference in essay about hometown, the essay outline or format if the question is reform, “do you agree or disagree” and “to what extent do you agree or disagree”? or same approach could be used? thanks so much! God bless? you! This is a good question and I apologise for not answering sooner. Essays. The short answer is that there is papers health, no major difference of approach required.
If the essay prompt 2012 question was “Do you agree or disagree?” Then you can still answer in your conclusion that “There are strong arguments on both sides of the issue, but I tend to think that…” ie you can always agree to some extent. Likewise, if the question is “To what extent…” then you can still fully agree or fully disagree. Are there any sample question papers of writing? What about a discussion? Is the term health another format to write it or it can also be considered as a for and against essay? “To What Extent” should be answered by choosing arguments to support one of 3 major stances: to 3d animation, a great extent, to a certain extent / to some extent, or to a lesser extent.
The question is health reform, asking for essay writing hometown, a measurement. I have been experienced some issues about how to understand the “main” question whenever I come accross “to what extent do you agree or disagree?” For example: “Creative artists should always be given the freedom to express their own ideas (in words, pictures, music or film) in whichever way they wish. There should be no government restrictions on what they do. To what extent do you agree or disagree?(Cambridge IELTS 4)” Is it OK if I say that the main question is term care reform, ” Does government restrict freedom of speech?” As you said before, what’s the use of writting a good essay if you are not answering the question, but, how are we going to writing about, be sure that we have understood the “hidden” argument? Thanks in advance! A really good question. Health. One possible problem is essays, that the question comes in term papers health, 2 parts. This is really quite common in IELTS.
If you do get a question like this, you need to make certain that you answer both parts of the question. in your example. That is not really the case as the “they” in “There should be no government restrictions on what they do” clearly links to the creative artists in essay about, the first sentence. So your reformulation does not work as it does not relate to “creative artists”. In practical terms, my best suggestion is to papers care, underline key words in the question to rutgers 2012, make sure that you do not miss them out. one thing that why ielts exam performance sheet is not provided to candidate after result . beacuse if a candidate is not scoring the bands more than 5 or 5.5 then after knowing mistakes a person will able to term care, correct it in statement, next exam. How do we respond an essay that asks for our opinion ? Do we simply give our views all the way through? No one answer to this.
All I would say is that you should make sure that any opinions are backed up with reasons/examples. If you do this, your essay will not just be all opinion even if every paragraph contains opinion. Can I please ask you two questions? Many people told me that I am not suppose to use ” I ” , “we” and ” you ” things like that in my writting. But I noticed you actually use them quite often. Health Reform. does that mean I could use these words in my writting? Also, how to overcome umfamiliar topics?
I feel one of the most frustrate thing is to think out ideas. I never can produce an essay in a limited time. I guess the problem for me is university, I do not have opinions at all. Term Papers. do you have any good suggestion about research papers on brown of education, this? PS : I am going to have my IELTS exam this 29th, urgently need your advice! ;-))) There are no hard and term papers reform fast rules here. University Phd Thesis. But it would certainly be a mistake to overuse personal pronouns in your writing. However, given that that the essay task is frequently an opinion based task and asks you for to use your own experience, it would be strange if you avoided the “I” altogether. Health Care Reform. IELTS is not academic writing – it is its own genre, The best advice is to answer the question. plz suggest me some tips my exam is on 18 may ,2016 And i am very confused bcos i am going to statement for revenge, give this test first time.
Dear Dominic Cole, in this forum, Could I ask you an assessment of my essay relate to IELTS writing assessment ? Sorry, not for now. I may start a grading service soon but sadly my time is too short. Hi What about if you are not familiar with asked essay topic. Can you answer the care reform question with general writing? You should do your best to answer the question as asked. Essays. You may get severely penalised if you write too generally and don’t answer the question. The idea is term papers health care, that the questions are designed for anyone to answer and if you can’t you have a language problem. That sounds a little harsh, no?
The trick is to use examples from your experience and that way you should find enough to write. I do recognise the problem though and I am planning a series of postings giving ideas and language to papers on brown vs board of education, deal with the most common topic areas. Thanks for the post, keep posting stuff. I was taking IELTS classes from a tutor. When she marked my Essay , because I gave example from my own experience she said I am subjective.She thinks in Academic Writing one should write on general ie effects on society. However, I argue and told her that question stated that you can give example from your own experience.Do you think if I give my own experience the term health reform examiner will mark me down? Absolutely not. I hate to on brown, contradict other teachers – a very bad habit – but in this case I will. The rubric to term, the essay question almost always contains these words: “include any relevant examples from your own knowledge and experience” This means that you actually ought to how to become a ghostwriter rap, include examples from your own knowledge/experience.
From this point of view, academic IELTS is not exactly the same as general academic writing where you typically don’t do this so much. The question remains though how you do it. I would suggest that you don’t want to use the first person “I” too much and that maybe is what your tutor is worried about. This is an extremely good point that you have raised and I will post a lesson on this in the next couple of days. It’s very true that it doesn’t matter if your writing is subjective or not. The way you express your ideas and papers health care reform construct your writing matter. IELTS is 3d animation, designed for the purpose of testing English capability so it shouldn’t take into account the level of your education. Feel free to term reform, express your ideas but on boston phd thesis, top of everything, keep it academic! Sir, i have been teaching ielts for about four years with excellent results.
The latest rubrics for health care, wrtiing task 2 state that the essay has to be based on knowledge OR experience and NOT on both. Please maintain contact with me for further details. Thank you for the correction on research papers vs board, the exact wording. I do take issue with your interpretation of it though. It is entirely possible for candidates to use one example based on their knowledge and another based on their experience: this satisfies both the rubric and the grading criteria. Candidates can choose between the two options and are not restricted to one or the other: if that were the case, the rubric would read “either knowledge or experience”. What has not happened is that the new rubric has invented a new dichotomy between “knowledge-based” and “experience-based” essays.
Incidentally, the rubric was changed to term health, put the emphasis on the task itself and to 3d animation essays, delete “complicated” language such as “written argument”. The idea is supposed to simple and the key to understanding the new rubric is that it explicitly asks candidates to be “relevant” in their examples and health that these support the main points. Essays. Read this report by the chief IELTS examiner in Australia: http://www.englishaustralia.com.au/index.cgi?E=hcatfuncs#038;PT=sl#038;X=getdoc#038;Lev1=pub_c06_07#038;Lev2=c05_hogan. i am from Iran (just wanted you to know that people from my country visit your website, too). I’ve been searching the net for ages to find a website that can help me with my ielts essay questions and i now i can say yours is one of the bestests #128521; i have some questions. will you help me with them please? 1. in papers care, your “The three different types of boston phd thesis, IELTS essay question” you have clearly mentioned in which type of essay we should give our own opinion. can you see this page please: http://hubpages.com/hub/How-to-identify-the-type-of-essay-to-write-in-the-IELTS. i am confused a little. in which type should i reflect my opinion? and more importantly in which paragraph? 2. Term Health Care Reform. under which type does advantage/disadvantage, cause and effect/ problem/solution essays fall? discussion or argument? you seem to insist that all of them are argument type, but hubpages.com seems to differ. 3. what is writing about, explanatory essay?
Except theses common essay topics that you’ve mentioned, are there any more to add to this list?in Iran it seems the recent ielts test have been exposing the examinees to term, some different topics (speaking:what qualities should a leader have?does your political one have?, etc) thanks an ocean for spending time for how to, us. hlo dominic i do not get the ideas while writing an term health, essay,what would you like to suggest to do thats why my essay is always too short and to essays, make it bigger i repeat some lines in diffent way. Typically, I advise my students to think of papers reform, examples and reasons. It is 2012, very easy to get stuck when you are looking for term reform, ideas. Ask yourself the questions “Why is essay prompt, that true?”or “how can I explain that?” if a question says ‘agree’ or ‘disagree’,then what should i write in th body paragraphs. whether i have to stick to term papers reform, agree only through out the whole essay or also have to rutgers essay, write something about why i diasgree please answer me correctly. hello mister Cole. In the reform ielts academic exam ( writing ) , I heard that there will only be an argumentative essay. is that true ? and if not what else ? Ah.
It depends what you mean by argumentative. The problem is writing hometown, different teachers use different words to describe types of essay. I am guilty of papers health care reform, this too. To try and a ghostwriter rap answer your question, there are different types of essay you need to be able to write. These include: discussing both sides of an term health care, issue. commenting on papers of education, a proposal to solve a problem.
looking at two different options and deciding which is better. giving solutions to a problem. I could go on. You should understand that you need to be able to term health care, answer different types of questions. The secret as ever is to read the thesis statement question and think hard about it before writing. Think about term papers care reform, what it is asking you to do. The mistake is to essay prompt 2012, learn one model essay and try and write the care same essay all the time. Very helpful post for IELTS Students. (I am writing here since I could not find an boston university, email to write to) first of all I want to compliment you for your website. Term Papers Reform. It is a very usefull resource for the preparation of the university IELTS Test, the information are presented in a clear and nice way.
They are structured very well and papers care the user does not end up being overwhelmed by university, the amount of information. This is a very important point -at least to me-, because reading your site had the result of calming me me and improve my self confidence for term papers health care reform, the exam. This is often not the case on the internet, where you mostly hand up panicking, which is higly counter-productive. Nevertheless I am writing you because I would like to present to you my essay for the writing academic task 2. I would really like to statement for revenge, have a feedback from you, because unfortunately I can’t find no one to papers health reform, correct me one and I would like to have an opinion before I take the exam (which is in 7 days: unfortunately I have found your website late #128577; ). I am not asking you to correct every mistake, just to essay writing about hometown, read it once and give me your impression and maybe the main points that I have to be careful about in the test (the first being word number: by papers health care reform, rewriting to boston university phd thesis, the computer I have just seen a lot of mistakes that I could have corrected if I had the term papers reform time, thing which I haven’t). If it possible can you say to me around band score I am? Or, is this essay enough good for a minimum band score of 5.5? I am really looking forward to read an answer from you and I thank you in research on brown vs board, advance for your courtesy. Write about the following topic: In many countries schools have severe problems with student behaviour.
What do you think ar the causes of this? What solutions can you suggest? One of the health reform most important problem in the schools is the student behaviour. In fact it is known that in many countries episodes of vandalism, disrespect or bullism are frequent in 3d animation essays, the schools. This issue should be handled particularly carefully, because we have not to forget that the school has to prepare the students to become responsible adult.
It is therefore very important to individuate the causes and the possible solutions to be applied, in order for the school to fullfill its educational role in the best way. We should take into health account the basic fact that no one has a bad behaviour only for the reason to thesis, be “bad”. Term Health Care. Often those behaviours are the research papers on brown vs board expressions of health reform, other, hidden problems. Thesis Statement For Revenge. One of the main cause could be the stress that the students frequently have to papers health reform, face in the school. Exams, homeworks, presentations for many subjects put an incredible pressure over essays the students, that sometimes will be incapable of handling the stress. Bad behaviour thus manifests itself has a rebellion against the stress, a hidden “stop it” shout. Nevertheless it is care, my opinion that the main source of bad behaviour of essay writing about hometown, students is to be found outside the papers health reform school, namely in the private life of the of education students.
With both my parents being teachers, I know with certainity that an instable family environment is very often the cause of arrogant and term generally bad behaviour. Where the kids are left alone or treated bad by essays, their family members, they can end up manifesting their anger at the school, during the lessons or in the corridors. Those problems suggest their solutions. The amount of stress to care, which the students are underponed should be carefull analyzed by the teachers and accurately be revised and adjusted. The task is of course not easy, because a certain amount of boston, stress is inevitable, is the quality of the school has to be preserved. Regarding family problems, it is my firm convinction that child that were raised (or still are) in instable family environment should be followed carefully by expers, such as psyhcologists and pedagogists, and sustained by papers health care, teachers, in order to allow them to retrieve their happiness and bring their life back on the tracks. Summarizing, students can answer to exagerate stress acting bad: thus the solution is to carefully control and adjust the pressures on the students.
A more important cause of problematic behaviour is the family where student lives, that can already be a source of problems and instability. Students should be therefore sustained by expers in their personal issues. (you can answer me via email if you want) Sorry for research on brown vs board, the delay. Had a quick look and it looks an extremely good essay. Term Papers Health Care. My one concern is length. sometimes shorter can be better. Sorry but I simply don’y have the time to how to a ghostwriter rap, look at individual essays. This is a very good job. It was clearly given how to approach a task since you already have given the term reform clue how to research, practice a certain topic, and so, through this, many IELTS writing examinees will have the idea now on reform, how to how to rap, write and speak appropriately.
TheIELTSSolution.com. it is my first acknowlegment of term papers health reform, this wonderful site. Please, i have started to practice writing essay and I need a professional tutor to assess my writing. I would like to know if I can send my essays to be assessed. hey can any one (specially Dominic Cole) tell some essay topics that might be asked in thesis statement for revenge, September 2011 (24th Sep.). Term Papers. please reply fast i need some important topics . Sorry, I have no way of telling – there’s a pretty large stock of questions. My general advice is to prompt 2012, revise vocabulary for the key topic areas before the exam (you can find these on the essay question page) and papers health reform then to become rap, make sure you read the exact question in term health care reform, the exam as closely as possible. I know that this is really boring advice – but be very careful about statement for revenge, looking at “recent essay questions”. For me, their only real value is to tell you the types of topic you will need to write about and term papers what sort of vocab you need. Rutgers Essay Prompt 2012. Very frequently, the task part of the question – the term papers health care bit that tells you what you need to do – is wrongly reported. Thank you very much for your helpful hints and appreciable and dedicated efforts.As a candidate who took nearly 10 exams, I confess that I owe too much to you. This is a very simple way to say thank you.
Pleasure. How To Become A Ghostwriter. I hope it’s worked out for term health, you now. 10 tests is a lot – painful. Hi Dominic, very good exam website thankyou. Please, how much is rutgers prompt, band reduce for short answer? Happy world rabies day! It rather depends how short the term papers reform answer is. My understanding/recollection is that you cannot get above 5.0 for task response unless you use 250 words.
Your blog seems really good since you give sample IELTS essay questions and topics that would somehow helpful to those IELTS writing examinees. This would serve as a guideline for them because it discusses and statement for revenge shows the exam process of papers reform, IELTS writing through giving sample question formats, topics and tips. Through this, they can practice more in writing their essays and would develop their skills more on writing. TheIELTSSolution.com. dear Dominic Cole, can you please suggest me i started my writing task 1 and task 2 at appropriate place but.in task 2 i need another page the essay prompt 2012 invigilator give me page and stick behind task 2..but unfortunately i continue my task 2 on the first page (task 1)..if they will penalised me..p;ease answer me because i m in dilemma i write both task very well. Papers Care. when i came home then one of my friend told me that you have to write on 3rd page becz it’s task 2..no one give announcement for that..will it affect my score?? please answer as soon as possible.. I’m afraid I don’t have the answer to that one. I suspect that it wouldn’t make any difference. The examiner is likely to 3d animation, have worked out what you did. sir, i humbly wish to draw your kind attention to the fact the according to the latest rubrics, ielts essays have to be based on knowledge or experience NOT knowledge AND experience .i have been teaching ielts for term papers health, around four years and ask my students to scrupulously keep this fact in mind.Please answer. Are you seriously suggesting that candidates would be penalised for using both knowledge and experience?! As someone who holds a masters in university phd thesis, philosophy, I would be delighted if you could enlighten me as to exact distinction between them.
I feel perfectly certain that 100% of IELTS examiners would be unable to split that particular epistemological hair. I believe you will find that “or” enables candidates to do both. If I offer you “coffee or tea”, I would not be offended if you decided to have both. The purpose of rephrasing the papers health care rubrics was to make them more accessible – if you read the source papers. The purpose was not to introduce a new challenge to papers, candidates. sir, i personally think that words i , we , you should be eschewed from task one along with copying the introduction from the statement of term papers, question (from task 2 as well) and sole emphasis should be laid on university, grouping the subject matter and comparisons . Health Care Reform. This is what i ask my students to do . Eschewed! a long time since I saw that word used in earnest.
I see your point about 3d animation, “you” and “I” in term papers, task 1, but cannot agree with you about “we”. I agree with you about copying wording from the question. The (difficult) skill is to rephrase the question without repeating it so that you have a valid introduction. I have given the statement for revenge IELTS recently and scored overall band 8 but the problem I faced was in term health reform, my writing section I got only 6.5 and I need a score of minimum to get into the university I desire for. CAN YOU PLEASE HELP ME.. Your blog is very helpful. Boston. With these guidelines, Ielts exam takers can have a better understanding and term papers care reform therefore feel more confident in boston university phd thesis, their exams. pls can anybody suggest me reading techniques ?? specially for headings n yes/no/not given i cnt get more thn 6. You will find my own suggestions on the reading page.
The key is to understand the difference between No and Not Given. help me #128578; write for and against argumentative essay Taking exams : for and against. I’ll see what I can do for you. It’s the term papers health reform sort of topic you need to become a ghostwriter rap, be able to write and speak about. Term Health. I’ll try and post something next week. Thanks but I need it for Monday. #128578; good job, Dominic. which kind of English should i register for, general or academic? my intention is to apply for a job as a nurse. I’ve seen somewhere, they were saying there are some professions which requires academic English, i am afraid nursing might fall under that category but I’ve already registered for general English. If you are headed for thesis for revenge, the UK, it will be academic IELTS you need. I’m not sure about Australia, but I imagine that there too the term papers health care IELTS requirement would be academic. When did you apply?
Normally, you can get a refund of your fee if you cancel 5 weeks before. Contact your local test centre. It may be that they might also take pity on for revenge, you and allow you to term health care reform, transfer to academic. This is the first time i visited this site. In Australia, you need a minimum of how to become, 7.0 in every exam including the OBS. Health. And the how to a ghostwriter requirement there is Academic.
I have a very big problem with preparing for IELTS( Academic). I took IELTS for 3 times and my overal band score was 6.0 in all of term papers health, them. My first time I scored 6.0 in every module. The second and the third I had 5.5 in Listening, 6 in papers, Reading and Writing and reform 6.5 in Speaking. I really don’t know from where to start with studying,
I have many books for IELTS, but I don’t know which one is the best. Please suggest me only 4 four books (one for every part of the exam) which are the best according to vs board of education, you. I desperately need 7.0 in every part of the test. Appreciation for this infmortiaon is over 9000-thank you! Can i use pencil to attempt IELTS writing test?please anyone must reply me. I want to health care, find out whether it is thesis for revenge, appropriate to write less that three words where it is stated that one should use no more than three words. Also, I would like to inquire maybe it is important to interpret a graph, line, table or chart by term health reform, beginning from essay writing about, any point. Front, Middle or Back. I shall be looking forward to receiving your reply. Thanking you in advance.
No more than 3 words means 1, 2 or 3 words. you helped me a lot. I have studying on your website recently. I found it great and term reform a resourceful webpage. Essays. I have taken the IELTS at least 7 times now, and I have not achieved my required results yet. I need a band score of 8 in term, each module. My next exam is on the 31.03.12, any more advice Sir?In my last 2 exam, I got 6.5 in Writing. Your website is of great help for statement, those who want to term papers, take IELTS #128521;
I just want to ask you this question: Other cultures highly value old people, while others value young people. Essay Prompt. Discuss both opposing views and give your opinion. I wanted to ask you a question about the IELTs and in term papers, partictular about paragraphs. When I did my ielts test, I finished the writing task 2, and left one line empty between each paragraph. Research Vs Board Of Education. However, when I wrote the conclusion, I left 4-5 empty lines and then started the conclusion.
I did this because I was sort of term papers care, running out of time, and didnt know if I wanted to add anything else in the last paragraph( the one before conclusion. so it looked a bit like this. Do you thing this will affect the thesis for revenge mark I get? No, I very much doubt it- examiners are intelligent people. I am really grateful to you as I only prepared for care, my IELTS examination from this website and boston university I got band 8 in all modules except writing where I got 7.5. You are awesome. In simply words . No you shoulndot give your side immediately give yours conclusion step by health care, step. Firstly explain both sides and then which you like most give him side . Agree or disagree is most important part choose 1 thing . Yes you should choose a type of argument the main factor. i m so confused which book to choose for preparing ielts so plz woud u like to suggest me which book to how to, study. After I initially commented I clicked the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and term papers health reform now each time a comment is added I get 4 emails with the same comment. For Revenge. Is there any means you possibly can remove me from that service?
Thanks! Sorry there is papers health reform, nothing I can do about that as I do not have details of that service. I can only suggest that you move the university post to spam!! Congrats on your blog. One question thou, some literature state there are 4 different types of essays instead of the 3 types you mention in your blog, these are: Do you agree with this? if so, when we have a “to what extent do you agree or disagree” type of question, which kind of essay will that be from the 4 types mentioned above?x. Hmmmm. I do need to go back to that post. The division you maker does make sense.
In truth though I increasingly wonder how helpful it is to categorise different essay types rather than just looking at the particular question in front of you and answering the question as it is asked. I say this because I feel some candidates get trapped by trying to follow a particular formula. I will put this on my to do list. Thank you for your comment. firstly thanks for the effort you have made for us.anyway i am having problem in term care reform, differentiating between agree/disgree and to what extent do you agree/disagree..i have seen essays written both by discussing both topic in 4 paragrpah model and also taking only one position.does the topic content make difference on choosing the 3d animation essays format of papers reform, such essay? Good question.
You will find advice that gives you quite strict guidelines on become, how to answer different question types -setting out formulae/formulas for each type of question. I am never really convinced by term papers care reform, that approach, I much prefer the approach of looking at each question on its own merits and focussing on answering the question as it is asked. I realise that that may not seem particularly helpful, so here is my general advice. The introduction and conclusion are the areas where you need to university, focus on addressing the question and health care reform giving your clear answer to it. So in those paragraphs you need to papers vs board, outline your your position in relation to the question and give your answer. Even if the question is term papers health care, “do you agree?”, it is open to you to say I agree but only up to papers, a point. The content paragraphs are where you introduce the reasons for your point of view.
Typically, the academic thing to papers care, do is to look at both sides of the issue – even if you have a strong opinion for one point of papers on brown vs board of education, view. This can work with almost IELTS agree/disagree type questions. Term Papers Care. Certainly, with my own students, I encourage them to look at both sides of the issue, as for them IELTS is simply a passport to academic courses at university and I want them to learn the skills of academic writing.That said, it is university, open to you to take just one position and argue that – on condition that you outline this is your introduction and the question does not ask you to look at both sides of the question. Hi Dominic Cole i introduced of your blog before few days of my IELTS exam; i also took suggestion as far as possible. i participated on IELTS exam 1st September 2012 but unfortunately my writing task was out of my general knowledge of the topics. I frustrated what i should write? my topic was quoted you. Papers Reform. It was. ” It is a natural process of animal species to become extinct (e.g dinosaurs, dodos etc). There is no reason why people should try to happening this. Do you agree or disagree?” in this case how i prepare myself to get excellent score? any suggestion? please.
Hi Dominic cole, I have given Ilets exam in General three times and every time i got 6.5 in writing but i need 7 each.How can i practice writing at home and know where is the mistake in my writing to improve.Please give some tips. Thank you. i m having my exam on 22nd sept i m not able to pass i m giving 2nd time plzz give some suggestion what should i do i m not having that much time to essay, prepare plzzz try to give suggestion abt ielts. you done very well. your blog guide me to significant progress… thanks a lot… Hi there to every single one, it’s in term papers, fact a pleasant for me to go to see this website, it includes precious Information. Awesome blog! Do you have any suggestions for aspiring writers? I’m planning to start my own blog soon but I’m a little lost on. everything. How To Become Rap. Would you suggest starting with.
a free platform like WordPress or go for a paid option? There are so many options out there that I’m completely confused .. Term Care. Any recommendations? Cheers! Practiced essay need to get it reviewed, How can i do that. I suggest you contact one of the research tutors on the site. As an ESOL teacher , this is a well thought out, clearly presented and, importantly, helpful website. I have found it extremely useful for health care, my own and my students’ use. Hy, I dont have much to ask for right now.
Just wanted to essays, clarify a query for writing test. Do we get choice to select the essay types as in, for instance choose 2 from given 3 topics…kind of. Care. I hope you get what I mean in this context. Please excuse my lame language. Hello, I was just wondering is there any difference in scoring of research papers vs board, academic and general writing ? I felt, the vocab section in academic test , requires more academic words.If not, candidates will not score a 7 or 8 in it (. ). And what about ‘ agree or disagree / positive or negative types questions? Is it necessary to stick with one side in term papers care, the opinion paragraph? ie; 2 positive points and 1 negative point.
Can I still conclude it as ‘positive’ ? Logically, it doesn’t make sense as the negative side would nullify one of the a ghostwriter positive effects, wouldn’t it? Could we go like ‘ it may be positive’ in this case ( if the question is ‘ is this positive or negative’)? Why many students are not getting 9 in term health reform, task response? Is it mainly because of the lack of how to rap, relevant example ? If you could be any of my assistance, I’d really grateful. I have had a question for writing task 2. When I went to school to term papers care reform, prepare for IELTS, they said I should not use “I, you” when I write task 2. 3d Animation. I could use “It is said/ believed/ stated that…”. Generally, they said I should not use 1st 2nd like “I, U”, should use negative voice. What do you think about term health care, this opinion? Good question.
My own preference is to avoid the writing about hometown “I”, but that does not mean you can never use it. Term Papers Health Care Reform. There are times when you want to make it clear that this is your opinion and then personal language is more appropriate. It may be more stylist though to use “In my view” rather than “I think” what will happen if i write agree/disagree while question ask for both view. Thank you for the great ideas. I have to how to become rap, focus on some time I choose to adopt to term papers care reform, write a article. It is very important that you keep to essays, the topic. Don’t stray onto term papers reform something else!
Hey DC .. I need essay writing templates that include some general words, necessary for any kind of essay.. Please help me. dear dominic i m writing from india my exam on 6 september 2014 …..pls help me in writing topics….for ex…….SMOKING SHOULD BE BANNED ON PUBLIC PLACES……TO WHAT EXTENT DO U AGREE OR DISAGREE……..can i discribe in how to a ghostwriter, introduction that smoking should banned …then in first body paragraph problems by smoking in public places then in second paragraph effects of smoking in public places …..then in conclusion about goverment should take hard step to health care, stop this………….also tell me in agree disagree we must have to how to, dicusss both …….answer soon.. I find your website really helpful. but i have faced a problem regarding your section of papers health, letter writing for how to rap, general ielts. I need to term papers health care, prepare for general ielts but as soon as i click on the section, error occurs. So please fix the problem.
Regards. Can you point me to boston university, the exact link that doesn’t work. Papers Care Reform. It all seems fine to me. Many of the research papers vs board links for the topics are broken. How many people have visited your website? Of them, what is the % from China? DCielts provides useful information in helping Chinese students who are planning to sit Ielts or Toefl. Thanks. I found your website very useful for term papers care, me.
Thanks to your sample essays, I was able to 3d animation essays, get 8 for writing. Thank you very much sir. Actually I m very confuse about writing task 2 ( Essay Writing ).Is it possible that Same Essay topic will come again next IELTS exam?Which topic I refere maximum for exam?Can you please guide me sir? thank’s dominic you helped me a lot. Sir my IELTS test will be on next week: and i need at least 6 bands in writing: Some people claim that not enough of the waste from homes is recycled. They say that the papers health only way to increase recycling is for governments to make it a legal requirement.
Mostly the recycled product is come from the home wastage’s, but nowadays concerned department are claiming that waste material from home is not properly enough as it should be. Some people of the society believe that it is the 3d animation negligence of people that waste material are not receiving enough by the concerned organization from the society, therefore, they believe that a legislation should be passed for making it a legal requirement. As far as my opinion is concerned there should be a law for recycling, but, it is also the responsibility of the society and media as well. Organizations for recycling are doing their job in papers health reform, a proper manner. On Brown Vs Board Of Education. They collected every garbage from the street even from the gutters as well.
In contrast, residents of the society are not participating with the recycling workforce; moreover, it happens due to health care, lack of awareness in writing about, people for the importance of recycling garbage. Secondly, there is the negligence factor as well in the society in participating with recycling department. For instance, people throw their house waste material into health their dustbins without separating the recycled material from the un-recycled material. Even a recently conducted survey revealed the fact that the how to a ghostwriter rap 50% materials which can be recycled are wasted because they are not separated from the non-recyclable material by the residents of the society. Secondly, citizens of the society are not giving enough importance in the recycling of wastage, therefore, government should pass the legislation that garbage should be separated as recycled and non-recycled wastage, moreover, people should pack that recyclable product and put them in a separate box instead of throwing in the dustbin. In addition, government should also penalize those people who are not obeying the law.
Therefore, these acts restrict the citizens to follow the law and help the recycling department to get as much garbage as the organizations wanted to recycle. After viewing above all discussion, it would lead me to conclude on the note that people should feel the term reform importance material and legislation should be passed for waste material. Rap. These kind of acts would be enough to health care reform, enhance the proportion of waste material. […] Sample essay questions and sample essays […]
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Twenty Four Great Topics For An Essay On Healthcare Reform
Combined effects of precipitation and nitrogen deposition on native and invasive winter annual production in California deserts. Primary production in health care reform deserts is limited by boston phd thesis, soil moisture and N availability, and thus is likely to be influenced by both anthropogenic N deposition and term papers health care precipitation regimes altered as a consequence of university phd thesis climate change. Invasive annual grasses are particularly responsive to increases in N and water availabilities, which may result in competition with native forb communities. Additionally, conditions favoring increased invasive grass production in arid and semi-arid regions can increase fire risk, negatively impacting woody vegetation that is not adapted to fire. We conducted a seeded garden experiment and a 5-year field fertilization experiment to term health care reform, investigate how winter annual production is rutgers prompt altered by increasing N supply under a range of water availabilities.
The greatest production of invasive grasses and term papers health care reform native forbs in the garden experiment occurred under the highest soil N (inorganic N after fertilization = 2.99 g m ?2 ) and highest watering regime, indicating these species are limited by both water and N. A classification and regression tree (CART) analysis on the multi-year field fertilization study showed that winter annual biomass was primarily limited by November–December precipitation. Biomass exceeded the threshold capable of carrying fire when inorganic soil N availability was at essay least 3.2 g m ?2 in pinon-juniper woodland. Care Reform. Due to water limitation in creosote bush scrub, biomass exceeded the fire threshold only under very wet conditions regardless of soil N status. Rutgers Essay Prompt. The CART analyses also revealed that percent cover of invasive grasses and native forbs is primarily dependent on the timing and amount of precipitation and term care reform secondarily dependent on soil N and site-specific characteristics. In total, our results indicate that areas of high N deposition will be susceptible to grass invasion, particularly in wet years, potentially reducing native species cover and increasing the boston university risk of fire. Communicated by Louis Pitelka. Electronic supplementary material.
The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s00442-009-1516-5 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. Climate change models indicate that many regions will experience an increase in term care the severity of extreme climatic events such as droughts, heat waves, and essay writing about floods (Solomon et al. 2007 ). These climate changes will cause vegetation distributions to shift, such as in California where the extent of arid grasslands is term reform predicted to increase due in part to increased fire size and rutgers essay 2012 frequency (Lenihan et al. 2003 ). Many studies from arid and semi-arid regions have shown a linkage between climate and fire (Swetnam and term papers Betancourt 1998 ; Grissino-Mayer and Swetnam 2000 ; Harris et al. 2008 ; Drury and papers on brown vs board Veblen 2008 ; Miller et al. 2009 ). Fire may also be promoted by invasions of non-native species (D’Antonio and Vitousek 1992 ; Brooks et al. 2004 ), which themselves are associated with increased disturbance, including climate change, land use change, and N deposition (Dukes and Mooney 1999 ). In western North America, invasion by non-native grasses has resulted in health care reform increased fire frequency and become a ghostwriter intensity (Zouhar et al.
2008 ). This so called “grass-fire cycle” occurs because the invasive grasses create a persistent and continuous fine fuel load that allows fire to carry between widely spaced shrubs (D’Antonio and Vitousek 1992 ; Brooks et al. 2004 ). Term Papers Health Care. The invasive grasses recover more quickly than shrubs, increasing fire frequency until the rutgers essay prompt shrubs are lost from the term papers landscape. This type-conversion has occurred in several ecosystems including sagebrush, coastal sage scrub, and creosote bush scrub (Minnich and Dezzani 1998 ; Menakis et al. 2003 ; Brooks and Matchett 2006 ; Zouhar et al. 2008 ). An increase in fire size and university phd thesis frequency has been observed in the Sonoran and papers health care reform Mojave Deserts resulting in reduced shrub density and diversity (Brown and Minnich 1986 ; Brooks and how to Berry 2006 ; Hereford et al. 2006 ). Fires in papers these deserts often occur in thesis years with below-average precipitation but that are preceded by 1–2 years of above-average rainfall (Swetnam and Betancourt 1998 ; Grissino-Mayer and Swetnam 2000 ; Lenihan et al.
2003 ; Brooks and Matchett 2006 ). The years of papers health care reform high rainfall result in high production by on brown of education, native and invasive annuals thereby increasing the fine fuel load (Brown and Minnich 1986 ). Arid land winter annuals have also been found to be sensitive to within-season precipitation timing, which differentially affects germination of invasive grasses and native forb species (Beatley 1974 ; Brooks 1999 ; Lundholm and Larson 2004 ; Sher et al. Term Health Care. 2004 ). While several large native annuals produce persistent fuel beds (Minnich 2008 ), the fuel components of greatest concern are invasive annual grasses red brome ( Bromus madritensis ), cheatgrass ( Bromus tectorum ), and Mediterranean split grass ( Schismus barbatus and Schismus arabicus ) that may increase in productivity in years of high rainfall (Brooks 1999 ; Brooks 2003 ; Salo 2004 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). No threshold of fine fuels has been determined for desert biomass, although thresholds for fine fuels needed in grass-dominated systems are estimated to be 70–150 g m ?2 (Anderson 1982 ; Scifres and thesis statement Hamilton 1993 ; Fenn et al. Term Papers. 2003a ). In the desert this range is more likely to essay writing hometown, be reached under high invasive grass abundance because grass litter does not disarticulate as rapidly as native forb litter (Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). Additionally, invasive grasses are responsive to both increased precipitation and papers care reform increased N availability (Monaco et al. 2003 ; Fenn et al. 2003a ; Salo et al. 2005 ).
After precipitation, N is considered most limiting to plant production in arid and semi-arid regions (Hooper and Johnson 1999 ). In arid regions downwind of thesis statement for revenge major urban or agricultural centers, dry N deposition is increasing and is likely influencing plant communities through fertilization effects (Brooks 2003 ; Fenn et al. 2003b ; Allen et al. 2009 ; Rao et al. Term Health Care Reform. 2009 ). The co-limitation of production by N and 3d animation essays water suggests that the term care reform build-up of how to a ghostwriter rap fine fuels sufficient to carry wildfires would most likely occur when both N deposition and above-average precipitation are present. Thus, the hypothesis addressed by this study is: N and precipitation interact such that the term health reform biomass produced by annual vegetation exceeds the fire threshold more frequently under N deposition. We tested the hypothesis using a seeded garden experiment and a multi-year (2004–2008) field fertilization of research papers vs board natural vegetation to evaluate the interactions between N fertilization and water availability on term health care biomass production. By using classification and regression tree analysis (CART) on the long-term fertilization experiment results, we were able to essays, examine the data for care reform, thresholds of soil N and how to rap consider the implications of uncertainty regarding fine fuel thresholds. Additionally, we examined the response of total annual production, native forb cover, and invasive forb cover to care, changes in precipitation timing to better determine the effects of within-season precipitation variability on production and winter annual community composition. General soil characteristics for the garden and field fertilization of natural vegetation experiments.
Rock and gravel (%) Total soil N (g m ?2 ) Extractable P (ppm) a. Bulk density (g cm ?3 ) N deposition (kg ha ?1 ) b. Joshua Tree National Park. Means presented with SEs in parentheses where available. PJ Pinon-juniper woodland, CB creosote bush. NA not applicable. a Olsen-P extraction method. b Total wet + dry N deposition measured in 2005 using throughfall and interspace bulk resin collectors (M.
Fenn, personal communication) c Gravel only, rocks 2 cm excluded during sample collection. There were five replicates of each water treatment, for a total of fifteen 1.7 ? 2.5-m plots that were subdivided into six 0.65 ? 0.6-m subplots with a 20-cm buffer around each subplot. Three subplots were planted with A. tessellata and papers on brown vs board of education three subplots with B. madritensis in a randomized manner, with each species fertilized with either 0.5, 3.0 g N m ?2 , or left unfertilized as a control. Fertilizer additions were chosen to be comparable to the JTNP field fertilization experiment. We took one 8-cm-deep soil core from each subplot prior to fertilization for extraction with 1 M KCl and colorimetric determination of NO 3 ? and NH 4 + (Technicon Instruments, Tarrytown, NY). After the first rain and before seed planting, N fertilizer was added as granular NH 4 NO 3 . We collected seeds from care multiple areas within JTNP where both species were abundant.
Within 1 week of the first rain seeds were planted to achieve a density of 150 plants m ?2 . After establishment, average densities were 110 and 29 plants m ?2 for become rap, B. madritensis and A. Papers. tessellata respectively, which were within observed field densities (Hunter 1991 ). All plants that germinated naturally from the seed bank (primarily Pectocarya sp., Schismus sp., and Erodium cicutarium ) were removed by hand-weeding. Our three water treatments included low (or drought), intermediate (or average precipitation), and phd thesis high rain. The drought precipitation regime was achieved by installing rainout shelters that were modeled after the design by Yahdjian and Sala ( 2002 ) and constructed to intercept 80% of incident precipitation. Shelter roofs were constructed from strips of clear corrugated plastic and were removable in order to reduce shading of treated and nearby plots. We installed 25-cm-deep plastic lined trenches around the term health reform plot perimeter to papers, prevent movement of water into the plot. Care Reform. A gutter collected rainwater and channeled the on brown vs board of education water to a 38-l storage unit. Collected rainwater was applied to the high-rainfall plots, which were also trenched and term papers health lined to prevent movement of a ghostwriter rap water out care of the plot. All plots contained ECH 2 O volumetric soil water sensors (Decagon Devices, Pullman, WA) that were field calibrated by 3d animation essays, relating actual volumetric water content to term papers health reform, sensor millivolt readings.
Rainout shelter roofs were not installed on the shelters until the seedlings established, and the threat of a storm was imminent. Only one storm occurred after establishment and so the rainout shelter roofs were used for a total of 1 week. Because of university a lack of rain during the late winter and early spring, water was added to the intermediate and high-rainfall plots. Yucca Valley tap water was used to water the plots and contained 3.5 mg NO 3 ? l ?1 with non-detectable amounts of NH 4 + . Intermediate rain plots received three applications of water equivalent to 0.25 cm of precipitation per application and high-rainfall plots received six applications of papers 0.84 cm of water. Boston University Phd Thesis. In total, the plots received 16, 11, and 9 cm of term papers health natural + artificial precipitation in the high-, intermediate-, and 3d animation low-water treatment plots, compared to the 70 year mean ± SD of 10 ± 8 cm of winter precipitation as determined from a nearby weather station. We harvested eight individual B. madritensis plants from term papers reform each subplot 4 times throughout the spring (Online resource 1). Because of the small number of A. tessellata that germinated, an allometric relationship between plant width and height and plant weight was developed for each harvest period using a total of 15 individuals. The harvest-period specific allometric equations were used to calculate the weight of eight individuals from each treatment for boston phd thesis, which height and width were measured. At the papers health care reform final sampling eight individual A. tessellata plants were harvested from each subplot. All plants were oven dried at university 60°C to constant mass and weighed.
Flowers or seed heads from red brome were counted and term health care weighed separately from the shoots. The average shoot biomass from the eight individuals harvested from each subplot was used as one data point in subsequent analyses. Field fertilization of natural vegetation. We established fertilization plots at four sites within JNTP. Two sites were in rutgers essay 2012 creosote bush (CB) scrub located in the lower elevation Sonoran Desert (33°49?52.2?N, 115°45?26.6?W; 33°56?36.5?N, 116°23?44.3?W). The other two sites were pinon-juniper woodland (PJ) in the higher elevation Mojave Desert (34°2?13?N, 116°4?29.6?W; 34°0?48.7?N, 116°18?39.9?W).
In each vegetation type one site was located on the western edge of the park, which was subjected to high levels of N deposition (high N), and one site was located in the interior of the park where there were low levels of N deposition (low N; Allen et al. 2009 ). Selected site characteristics are listed in Table 1 and health reform site-specific vegetation data are in Allen et al. ( 2009 ), with general descriptions in Keeler-Wolfe ( 2007 ) and Schoenherr and Burk ( 2007 ). The dominant shrub at the CB sites was Larrea tridentata with an understory of native forbs and invasive annual grasses, S. arabicus and thesis for revenge S. Health Care. barbatus (hereafter Schismus spp.). Rutgers Essay. Total live shrub cover was 9.5 ± 2.7 and 18.1 ± 3.8% for CB-low N and CB-high N, respectively. The dominant trees/shrubs at the PJ sites were Juniperus californica and Pinus monophylla with an understory of shrubs, native forbs and invasive annual grasses, B. madritensis , B. tectorum , and Schismus spp. Live tree + shrub cover was 20.8 ± 0.9 and 22.7 ± 1.4% at PJ-low N and PJ-high N, respectively.
Annual invasive forbs, primarily Erodium cicutarium , were not a major component of the term health reform cover at any of the sites (Allen et al. 2009 ). Cumulative winter precipitation (mm) for the years in which vegetation was sampled at the four Joshua Tree National Park sites: creosote bush (CB)-low N ( a ), CB-high N ( b ), pinon-juniper woodland (PJ)-low N ( c ), and PJ-high N ( d ). The 70-year average winter precipitation for each site is indicated by the dashed line. 3d Animation Essays. Shading indicates years that did not receive sufficient precipitation to elicit germination and thus were excluded from the statistical analyses. We centered each plot on term papers health care an individual tree or shrub, with the plot size determined by the shrub or tree size (6 ? 6 m for creosote bush, 8 ? 8 m for university phd thesis, juniper, and 10 ? 10 m for pine). Term Papers Health. Two levels of fertilizer were used, 0.5 and 3.0 g N m ?2 year ?1 , plus unfertilized controls.
In the winter 2005, a lower fertilization treatment (0.2 g N m ?2 year ?1 ) was added because the 0.5 g N m ?2 year ?1 treatment had significant effects on thesis statement for revenge biomass in the spring 2005 and we were interested in term determining if a lower N threshold existed. 2012. The fertilization levels bracket the observed range of term health care reform N deposition found in this region (Sullivan et al. 2001 ; Tonnesen et al. 2007 ). In addition, the high level of boston university phd thesis fertilization was chosen to be comparable to term health care, other desert fertilization studies where 3.0 g N m ?2 year ?1 has induced responses by the invasive grasses (Brooks 2003 ). Ten replicates of how to become a ghostwriter rap each shrub or tree species were fertilized and selected across the landscape in papers care reform a randomized block design, with the exception of PJ-low N where the limited availability of trees and shrubs resulted in university phd thesis nine blocks. Care Reform. At the PJ sites, both pine and junipers were fertilized with 0, 0.5, and boston university 3.0 g N m ?2 year ?1 in each block, but only health care reform, juniper 0.2 g N m ?2 year ?1 plots were added to each block in 2005 due to limited numbers of pines at these sites.
Plots were fertilized with granular NH 4 NO 3 each December beginning in 2002. We sampled vegetation each spring (March–May) at the peak of production, which varied by site and year depending on how to rap temperature and precipitation. Percent cover of invasive grasses and native forbs was determined in a 1.0 ? 0.5-m gridded quadrat placed outside the term drip line of each shrub (i.e., just outside the edge of the shrub canopy) on the north- and south-facing sides. Become. Biomass was calculated from the percentage cover data using equations developed for one CB site and one PJ site relating percent cover to biomass using 0.25 ? 0.5-m clipped plots. Papers Reform. Biomass relationships were determined in 2005 and 2008 for fertilized and boston university phd thesis unfertilized plots, with the 2008 data applied to all years except 2005 due to the very high amounts of precipitation received during the 2004–2005 growing season. Term. Percent cover was generally a good predictor of biomass with R 2 -values ranging from 0.77 to 0.97 (2005 regressions n = 11, 2008 regressions n = 21). A relationship between percent cover at the drip line and a ghostwriter the percent cover in the interspaces (i.e., the spaces outside the influence of the shrubs) was developed using 2008 cover data from PJ-high N. Because interspace vegetation carries fire through the desert by creating a continuous fine fuel source between shrubs and is the term basis for a ghostwriter, the fire thresholds, it was necessary to care reform, convert all drip line percent cover values to interspace cover estimates. Percent cover, measured in 1 ? 0.5-m gridded quadrat in the interspaces of papers vs board of education a subset of PJ plots was found to be 0.76 of the percent cover on the south side of the shrub.
This conversion was applied to papers care reform, all sites and treatments in all years and biomass calculated from the interspace cover estimates. Prior to fertilization, we took soil cores to boston university, a depth of 5 cm from interspace areas in all plots for health care reform, extractable soil N analysis. Soils collected in 2003 and 2004 were extracted with 1 M KCl and analyzed colorimetrically for NO 3 ? and NH 4 + (Technicon Instruments). Beginning in 2005, soils were sent to the DANR Analytical Laboratory for NO 3 ? and essay writing NH 4 + determination based on published protocols ( http://www.danranlab.ucdavis.edu/ ). Extractable soil N was converted to term papers, an aerial basis using average site rock content and bulk density measurements and summing the measured soil N with the N fertilizer added. In the cases of outliers or missing data, the mean value from all plots in a treatment was used in essay writing hometown the statistical analyses.
The shoot weight from the garden experiment was analyzed using a residual maximum likelihood ANOVA to account for the split-plot design. The ANOVA was run for each species and sampling period to determine the effect of care reform N, water availability, and statement the N ? water interaction on health care biomass using JMP version 7 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Significant effects were determined with post-hoc Tukey’s honest significant difference test using an ? = 0.05. Rutgers Essay. All data were transformed as necessary to meet requirements for equal variance and normal distribution of error. For the field fertilization of natural vegetation experiment, CART was conducted using JMP version 8 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). We chose to use regression tree analysis due to its ability to care, handle non-linear combinations of rutgers prompt 2012 predictor variables and term health reform identify thresholds (De’Ath and Fabricius 2000 ; Vayssieres et al. 2000 ). In CART, decision trees are generated through recursive partitioning of the data set into subsets that are more homogeneous in terms of the response variable (Breiman et al. 1984 ). Regression trees can be advantageous over traditional linear techniques because they allow for interactions and how to a ghostwriter rap non-linearity when numerous predictors are present (Prasad et al.
2006 ). In addition, CART is reform robust with respect to outliers and does not require that the data be normally distributed (De’Ath and essays Fabricius 2000 ; Vayssieres et al. 2000 ). Variable descriptions used in term papers care regression tree analysis. For vegetation type analyses only; identifies the site location in 3d animation each vegetation type (low N or high N) For PJ only; identifies the species of tree or shrub about which the plot was located. Amount of precipitation that fell during September and October. Amount of precipitation that fell during November and December. Amount of precipitation that fell during January and February. Amount of precipitation that fell during March and April. Amount of soil N measured prior to fertilization each winter + the amount of fertilizer added, converted to g m ?2.
Total interspace biomass calculated from % cover of health invasive grasses and native forbs measured outside the shrub dripline and multiplied by a reduction factor. Average percent cover of invasive (exotic) grasses measured outside the dripline of the north and south sides of shrubs. Average percent cover of native forbs measured outside the dripline of the north and research vs board south sides of shrubs. The 2007–2008 winter rain season in the Yucca Valley region was characterized by four precipitation events; one each in December and January, and two in February (Online resource 1). Papers Health Reform. After the water treatments were applied, the low-water plots showed a decrease in volumetric water content (VWC), approaching zero in early April.
The decrease in VWC in the control plots was more gradual due to writing about, three applications of water and approached zero in mid-April. Term Papers Health. In the high-water plots the essay prompt 2012 VWC was above that of the papers health care two lower water treatments until the water applications were stopped in mid-April and VWC decreased to zero by the final harvest. Average individual plant biomass (g per plant ± SE) for thesis statement for revenge, each harvest of term papers reform Amsinckia tessellata ( a ) and Bromus madritensis ( b ) across the papers on brown of education water and soil N treatments. At the end of the growing season the largest individuals were found in papers health care reform the high water, high-N ( black bars ) treatments. Asterisks indicate the most significant response. ANOVAs on biomass of B. madritensis at each harvest also showed a significant effect of rutgers N throughout (in all sampling periods P 0.0001).
In all cases the 2.99 g soil N m ?2 plots had larger plants, with no difference in plant size between 0.95 and health care 1.54 g N m ?2 . The only harvests with a significant water effect were the last two, where the how to rap plants in the high-water treatment were larger than those in the intermediate and low-water treatments (1st, P = 0.54; 2nd, P = 0.46; 3rd, P = 0.0002; 4th, P 0.0001). In all N treatments the plants reached the maximum size by second harvest in the low- and intermediate-water plots; in care reform the high-water plots individuals continued to grow until the final harvest (Fig. 2 b). Rutgers Prompt 2012. No N ? water interactions were observed at any harvest for term health, either species. Field fertilization of natural vegetation. Summary of regression tree results. Total SS explained by each variable a (%) NDP = 76.8, SOP = 16.9, SoilN = 1.8.
JFP = 88.8, NDP = 7.0, SoilN = 2.7, SOP = 1.5. NDP = 78.5, SOP = 19.2, SoilN = 1.4. SOP = 88.5, SoilN = 6.5, MAP = 5.1. SOP = 94.6, SoilN = 5.4. NDP = 95.4, SOP = 4.6. NDP = 87.1, SOP = 8.8, SoilN = 4.0. NDP = 69.1, SoilN = 15.6, JFP = 9.9, MAP = 3.3, SOP = 2.1. Site = 79.1, SOP = 15.1, NDP = 4.2, SoilN = 2.1.
NDP = 58.3, SoilN = 23.1, Site = 10.6, SOP = 7.9. JFP = 85.3, SOP = 10.3, SoilN = 4.4. SOP = 82.8, SoilN = 12.2, MAP = 4.9. SOP = 76.9, SoilN = 23.1. SoilN = 56.9, NDP = 39.4, Species = 3.7. n-Cal Number of plots in phd thesis calibration dataset. n-Val number of papers care plots in validation dataset. NV number of university phd thesis explanatory variables in final model.
NTN number of terminal nodes in term reform final model. a Percentage of total SS explained by each variable in prompt 2012 the representative final tree, See Tables 1 and 2 for other abbreviations and variable definitions. Regression tree results on total biomass for each vegetation type. Predictor variables (see Table 2 ) in ovals , threshold value and percentage of model variance explained by term health care reform, that variable under the oval. Mean value of the response variable in rectangles , number of observations falling within that class shown under the university phd thesis mean. Papers Care. Biomass above the fire-carrying threshold indicated by shading. Asterisks indicate when multiple variables explained equal SS.
Individual regression trees for native forb and thesis invasive grass cover at the low- and high-N-deposition CB sites had fewer terminal nodes than those for the combined sites (Table 3 ). For both invasive grass and native forb cover at CB-low N, precipitation explained the term papers health majority of the model variance. In both cases there were several precipitation periods that explained equal variance (as indicated by asterisks in Fig. 3 and Online resources 2 and 3); the most frequently occurring variable from the cross-validations is presented in the figures. At CB-low N, soil N was a significant explanatory variable for both invasive grasses and essay native forbs, but at CB-high N, only precipitation was found to be significant in explaining invasive grass cover (Table 3 ). Native forb cover was primarily explained by precipitation, with soil N explaining 4% of model variance and resulting in greatest cover when soil N 3.8 g m ?2 (Online resource 2). The combined and individual site regression trees for papers, PJ generally explained less variance than the CB regression trees (Table 3 ). The regression tree on joint-site total biomass indicated that precipitation was the primary explanatory variable, with NDP and JFP precipitation having equal explanatory power for the first split. Soil N explained 15.6% of the model variance, and when late fall-early winter precipitation was high and soil N 4.2 g m ?2 , biomass exceeded the fire threshold. Except for two other cases, average biomass was less than the university fire threshold (Fig. 3 ). The first split of the term papers joint-site regression tree for invasive grasses was on the site variable, while native forb cover was primarily influenced by winter precipitation (NDP and 3d animation JFP with equal variance explained for the first split) and term health care reform was maximized when soil N was between 0.37 and 0.67 g m ?2 . The site-specific PJ regression trees revealed that the greatest cover of invasive grasses occurred with JFP 15 mm at PJ-low N and high fall rains (SOP 50 mm) and soil N (between 1.4 and research vs board 3.5 g m ?2 ) at PJ-high N (Online resource 3). Overall, these models explained relatively little of the term care total variance in invasive grass cover (Table 3 ). Native forb cover at writing PJ-low N was more responsive to soil N than invasive grasses; the greatest cover of papers health care reform forbs occurred with between 3.4 and research papers on brown vs board 4.0 g m ?2 or greater than 0.5 g m ?2 of soil N depending on term care reform the timing and amount of early and late season precipitation (Online resource 2).
Native forb cover at essays PJ-high N was greatest under the influence of pine trees when soil N between 0.37 and 0.42 g m ?2 . The CART results indicate that the primary limiting factor for production at these arid sites is water, with the reform first split occurring on precipitation and explaining 77 and 69% of model variance in CB and statement for revenge PJ, respectively. The greater explanatory power of term papers health care precipitation at CB is likely because CB occurs in 3d animation areas with less mean annual precipitation (Rowlands 1995 ); at health our sites the mean winter precipitation in PJ was 17 mm greater than in CB over the study period. Studies in arid systems have shown that water availability is most limiting for annual production (Noy-Meir 1973 ; Beatley 1974 ; Patten 1978 ; Gutierrez et al. 1992 ; Brooks 2002 ). However, while some researchers have found that annual production exhibits secondary limitation by N (Whitford and Gutierrez 1989 ; Gutierrez et al. 1992 ; Hooper and Johnson 1999 ), the results are not always straightforward. Often the response to boston university, increased soil N is species or site specific, depending on term papers health reform antecedent soil N conditions (Gutierrez and phd thesis Whitford 1987 ; Ludwig et al. 1989 ; Brooks 2003 ). In our CART models, soil N is a significant explanatory variable for both CB and PJ biomass, but only health care, weakly so in CB (2%) compared to PJ (16%). Again, this is how to rap likely because CB is more water limited than PJ.
However, we have a limited dataset (2004–2008) and do not include the severe drought year of 2007. Given the importance of precipitation timing on production and population dynamics (Went 1948 ; Bowers 1987 ; Brown 2002 ; Levine et al. 2008 ), additional years of data would be needed to fully understand the term papers health interacting effects of rutgers essay 2012 soil N and precipitation on production. An additional factor that may confound our results is papers health care reform that the thesis four sites are spread throughout JTNP in areas with different soil textures, amounts of rock cover, and long-term patterns of precipitation and N deposition. Term Reform. These site characteristics are known to impact community composition (Noy-Meir 1973 ; Wood et al. 2005 ; Kelly and Goulden 2008 ), the papers of education effect of which is observed through the PJ CART analyses where Site is a significant explanatory variable of both exotic grass and native forb cover. In spite of differences between the papers care reform sites, there are consistent results regarding the become rap response of native forb cover to soil N. Native forb cover is greatest at all sites except PJ-high N when soil N is term care less than 3.8–4.0 g N m ?2 (Online resource 2), suggesting that above this soil N level native forbs are either directly harmed or outcompeted by how to become, nitrophilous species such as invasive grasses (Brooks 2003 ; Salo et al. Term Papers Health Care. 2005 ). At PJ-high N, the rutgers essay prompt 2012 greatest percent cover of native forbs occurs under low-N conditions (0.4 g m ?2 ) and in the influence of pine trees. The second highest cover of native forbs at this site is under intermediate soil N levels, 1.5 g m ?2 N 3.8 g m ?2 , which is consistent with the threshold identified at the other three sites. The garden experiment also indicates that native forbs benefit from inputs of N between 1.5 and 3 g m ?2 , supporting the care reform findings from other studies showing that native forbs in arid environments are N limited (Romney et al. 1978 ; Mun and Whitford 1989 ; Salo et al.
2005 ). Exotic grass cover is more influenced by essay 2012, precipitation than native forb cover (Online resource 3), particularly at term papers reform PJ-low N and 2012 CB-high N where there is inherently low grass cover. Health Care Reform. When grass cover is high, soil N concentrations as low as 0.9 g m ?2 promote increased grass cover but no threshold of soil N emerged as with the native forbs. It is become unclear whether the lack of papers health care reform a soil N threshold is due to an inherent property of the exotic grasses or because soil sampling occurred at individual points, resulting in research papers on brown of education high within-treatment variability and obscuring threshold identification. Understanding the factors promoting grass invasion is particularly important given that exotic grasses are associated with increased fire frequency in the deserts due to their persistent standing litter on term the landscape through the dry season when fire threat is greatest (Brown and Minnich 1986 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). Our CART analysis is also useful for investigating the factors influencing biomass production and fire thresholds in the desert. There is 3d animation essays currently a great deal of uncertainty regarding the term papers health amount of fine fuel needed to carry fire through arid landscapes. Studies of fire thresholds in essay grass-dominated systems have shown that the amount of fine fuel needed to term health care, carry fire is thesis for revenge between 70 and term health care reform 150 g m ?2 (Anderson 1982 ; Scifres and Hamilton 1993 ; Minnich and Dezzani 1998 ; Fenn et al.
2003a ). As a first approximation, we set the fire threshold for essay prompt, both ecosystem types at 100 g m ?2 and found that the conditions leading to biomass production above this threshold are high amounts of rain in CB, and term papers health high amounts of rain combined with high amounts of soil N in PJ (Fig. 3 ). Although years with greater fine fuel buildup increase the fire risk in both vegetation types (Brown and Minnich 1986 ; Rogers and Vint 1987 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ), PJ is boston phd thesis more prone to burning than CB due to greater amounts of woody fuels (Brooks and Matchett 2006 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). Papers Health Reform. Thus, it is likely that the fine fuel threshold is closer to the low range (70 g m ?2 ) in PJ and the high range (150 g m ?2 ) in thesis statement for revenge CB. When we re-evaluate the CART results with these adjusted fire thresholds, we find that the only case when the fire threshold is exceeded at CB is when SOP is term health care greater than 1 mm and research on brown NDP is greater than 93 mm. The precipitation record from the papers health past 75 years indicates that this precipitation pattern occurred 17 times, primarily in the late 1930s–1940s and the late 1960s to early 1980s. This is consistent with the rutgers essay prompt findings of Brown and Minnich ( 1986 ) who determined that fires in CB increased during the late 1970s, which they attributed to increased rainfall and exotic grass invasion in that period. Brooks and papers health care Matchett ( 2006 ) examined factors influencing fire spread in the Mojave Desert and showed that the high-elevation woodlands and desert montane zones show little change in the size distribution of fire in response to rainfall amounts because of the amount of woody biomass in these zones. In the middle elevation zone they found that native fuels are generally just below the threshold allowing fire spread and thus are influenced by increased precipitation. Our PJ sites are in between the high-elevation woodlands and mid-elevation zone examined by essays, Brooks and Matchett ( 2006 ) indicating that there is likely a fine fuel threshold for term papers care, our sites that may be as low as 70 g m ?2 . There are four cases when biomass exceeds this threshold; three are when NDP is greater than 73 mm and one is when precipitation is intermediate but soil N is high, greater than 3.2 g m ?2 . In the garden experiment invasive grass biomass was greater in essay writing about hometown all water treatments when soil N was 3 g m ?2 , although the greatest biomass was observed under the highest precipitation and care N. Boston University Phd Thesis. Similarly, a field fertilization experiment in the Mojave by Brooks ( 2003 ) showed that invasive grass biomass was largest when 3.2 g N m ?2 was added in the year with 300% above-average December precipitation, whereas no effect was observed when that amount of N was added in a year with average December precipitation.
Together these results indicate that, in average years, soil N must be greater than 3 g m ?2 for the fire threshold to be reached. Studies of fire in other arid and semi-arid regions have linked fire frequency with wet years that were followed by periods of below-average precipitation (Swetnam and Betancourt 1998 ; Grassino-Mayer and Swetnam 2000; Harris et al. 2008 ). Thus, with the exception of areas under very high N deposition loads, PJ in transitional mid- to high-elevation zones may be unlikely to burn in the absence of a period of health care wet years. One purpose of the CART analysis was to understand the research papers on brown of education influence of precipitation timing on invasive grass and native forb cover. Climate change models indicate that precipitation variability is likely to increase across the southwestern United States and that the timing of precipitation may also shift (Lenihan et al. 2003 ; Bell et al. 2004 ; Bell and Sloan 2006 ). Such changes in the precipitation regime may favor either invasive grasses or native forbs if there are differences in the responses to precipitation timing by papers reform, these two groups. Germination studies have shown that the common invasive grasses at our sites tend to germinate rapidly with small inputs of rain and without strict temperature requirements (Beatley 1974 ; Gutterman 1994 ; Salo 2004 ). In contrast, native winter forbs have strict germination requirements, generally needing at least 25 mm of precipitation and cold nighttime temperatures (Juhren et al.
1956 ; Gutterman 1994 ; Levine et al. 2008 ). The exception is a small group of summer-germinating plants that flower during the papers vs board following spring (Went 1948 ). In years of late-August early-September rains, individuals from this species group can grow very large and make up a significant portion of the biomass (Went 1948 ). The CART model for CB native forb biomass indicates that NDP 28 mm provides conditions favorable for native forb cover, with the greatest cover observed in combination with SOP 56 mm. These results lend support to the findings that fall precipitation of at least 25 mm allows desert native plants to term reform, germinate, and that under conditions of early fall precipitation summer-germinating spring-flowering annuals can greatly increase native cover. For CB invasive grasses, JFP and MAP have equal explanatory power for the first split, indicating that invasive grasses are favored not only by rutgers prompt, a wet winter, but an extended rainy season. Our garden experiment resulted in an extended growing season in the high-water plots since natural precipitation ended in late February. The results from this controlled experiment show that by prolonging the growing season, the individual biomass of papers health B. madritensis continues to increase, which translates to increased cover in the field. Unlike in CB, PJ native forb cover is boston more influenced by late fall (NDP) and early winter (JFP) rain, while invasive grasses are influenced by SOP in the high-N site and NDP/JFP at the low-N site. The reason for papers health, the virtual flip in the seasonality effects on invasive grass and native forb cover between CB and PJ may be due to the influence of temperature. The high-elevation PJ sites are much colder than the low-elevation CB sites, and as such exhibit later season maturation of native forbs in the spring. Temperatures are rarely cold enough to result in decreased survival of rutgers 2012 native forb seedlings once they have germinated (Juhren et al.
1956 ), but having sufficient moisture in the late winter months appears to allow the rosettes to grow, resulting in larger individuals and health total cover at peak. The invasive grass cover in our PJ sites is primarily governed by site effects, making it difficult to draw generalizations based on our data. Additional plot-scale measurements on soil and landscape characteristics might be useful in further understanding the factors controlling invasive grass cover in this region. We combined a garden experiment, where the invasive grass B. Essay Writing. madritensis and the native forb A. tessellata were grown in term papers health monoculture, with a multi-year field fertilization of natural vegetation experiment to examine the essay about hometown interaction between soil N and water availability on production of desert winter annuals. We found that while native forbs and invasive grasses are limited by term health care reform, water availability, the response to increased soil N is boston university dependent on factors such as the degree of water limitation, site characteristics (e.g., soil texture, soil C), and term papers degree of grass invasion. However, our results also show that in some cases added soil N increases production above the fire threshold, thereby increasing the for revenge risk of fire in some polluted areas.
In addition to increasing fire risk, increased soil N promoted invasive grasses and term decreased native forb cover at some sites. These results provide further evidence that native forb and for revenge shrub communities, and the associated wildflower displays, may be threatened by non-native grass invasions particularly in areas such as JTNP that are subjected to increased N deposition. This research was funded by the National Park Service PMIS no. Papers Care. 72123, National Science Foundation DEB 04-21530, the Community Foundation of San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, and a grant from the University of California, Riverside Graduate Division. The manuscript was substantially improved by comments provided by C. Barrows and L. Santiago, as well as three anonymous reviewers. Thanks also to M. Fenn for papers vs board of education, providing N deposition values, the care Foote family for allowing L. E. R. to use their property in Yucca Valley for the garden experiment, and to boston phd thesis, the members of the E. Allen laboratory, especially Chris True and Robert Steers, for field and lab support. This article is distributed under the reform terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. Leela E. How To Become A Ghostwriter. Rao 1 3 Email author Edith B. Allen 1 2 1. Center for Conservation Biology University of California Riverside USA 2. Department of Botany and Plant Sciences University of California Riverside USA 3. Term Papers. Air Resources Board Emission Research Section El Monte USA. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley.
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