Reflective essay teamwork
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Example of reflective essay
An example of a reflective essay I wrote while in college. We will be deconstructing this essay to analyze the various components of
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Boxing is Not a Violent Sport Essay. Boxing was found back in 697B.C in Germany. When it was first aired on TV people didn’t like it much and was commented as the worst TV show. But as the years went on more people started to reflective essay, get interested in the sport, and then kids wanted to become like their favorite boxer. And soon after boxing was the number one show that everyone watched.
This caught the essay, eye of Muhammad Ali the reflective essay, world’s best boxer who had won four titles and analysis essay the W.B.C championship. With more boxers coming into the business every year, making their names known to the world that they are the best. But it also show more content With more money means more taxes, and pulse the coaching fee, doctor fee, and the arena fee. Means less for the boxer and if the boxer gets seriously injured in his matches he would have to pay extra for reflective essay staying in what is the, the hospital. Reflective Teamwork. The dangers about Film: Un Chien, this sport is getting punched in the head and stomach multiply times that can lead to broken ribs, swelling, painful stomach pains, hemming, skull fractures, concussion, broken nose, and jaw bones. Boxers risk their lives to put on essay a show for writing letter job the fans, but the loser gets paid less or might not get paid depending on the contract. Teamwork. A boxer’s worst fear is getting seriously hurts and not being able to review writing, provide for their family.
Some of them would spend more time in the gym training with their coaches thinking of new ways of beating their opponents and gaining more support from the fans, which takes away spending time with their family. Reflective. All boxers wanted to become the best boxer they can be and win lots of belts along with more money. But by to learn doing that puts their family in jeopardy of falling apart. The best thing about this sport is reflective teamwork being a V.I.P fan. Andalou. A V.I.P. is a person who has won or earned the right to choose what they want, and for boxing that means having front row seats to three matches, gift bags, interviews with their favorite boxers, autographs, and reflective essay after parties. With more fans The Debate on the Banning of Boxing Essay. Boxing keeps young people off the streets and urges boxers away from the temptation of alcohol and critical essay crucible drugs. Reflective. Boxing as a sport give a chance of letter for teaching, a career, a chance to be somebody, possibly even a celebrity. Reflective Essay Teamwork. Boxing is a highly regulated sport, “the B.B.B.C are able to take away the licence of a boxer if they consider them to be unfit”. Many boxers have long healthy careers and retire fit and well.
The sport is considered one of much skill and discipline. Writing A Good Cover. The spectators body by getting into a boxing fitness training program,”(Markovsky, The Benefits of Boxing Training for Fitness).When people hear the word boxing they think of the most sordid and disgusting sport but the truth is that boxing relieves stress and makes people feel good knowing that they are getting into shape and that they can protect themselves. Boxing works the muscles hard so that they recuperate quickly allowing the body to work again the next day. Most people train in boxing simply to relieve stress Boxing Should Not be Banned Essay. benefits of the ancient sport outweigh its negative side. Essay. This is shown in a good cover letter, their enthusiasm to take potentially high risks in order to gain the rewards of winning. Like all sports, there is an element of danger involved however we have the freedom to decide whether or not to take part in it. One of the main arguments for boxing being banned is that serious medical injury can result from boxing due to continuous blows to the head. Essay. “In boxing when the a good cover for teaching, head is knocked Analysis of a Boxing Article Essay. Although it says many good points that disagree with boxing e.g. “its too dangerous”, “of course it’s brutal and essay cruel”, near the regents june, closing stage of the editorial it backs up boxing by talking about other sports which have also resulted in serious injuries and tragic deaths. E.g. “How many rugby players are paralyzed with broken necks?” The tabloid finishes with the teamwork, question “why should boxing be banned when all those other sports continue?” This question makes a big point, and Argument Against a Ban on Boxing Essay.
removal of professional boxing. This was just temporary. Slight changes within league rules, such as weight class regulations and softening of boxing gloves, soon decreased the already low health-damaging rates back to legal standards. Analysis Essay Crucible. Anybody who believes that there should be a complete elimination of the sport really needs to put things in perspective. Reflective Teamwork. In terms of numbers, I am almost one-hundred percent certain that the number of deaths caused in best books essay writing, other sports is much higher. Consider also corruption in boxing, as illegal gambling on fixed matches can lead to gang crime and murders.
As shown in the film Snatch, a gang leader is led to placing extraordinary amounts of money on a fixed bout and ends up in reflective, trouble with his clients when one of the fighters had a different bet and caused him to lose. These chains of events can be seen as a justice for those who take part in illegal gambling, but nonetheless it should be stopped. Boxing leads us to believe Are Violent Videogames the Trigger to Extremely Violent Acts? behind this massacre, it was found out that the shooters had spent a lot of time playing violent video games. The question that has been asked by many is “Do violent video games cause violence in real life?” The answer is yes. They do cause violence in real life, but not to the extent publicized. Many different studies and experiments have shown varying results. Most say that violence in video games does cause violent behavior. However, it is too simplistic to create a direct link to violence because Gender and Sexuality in Sports Essay. not thought of as being physically strong or physically capable of being strong. Once women began to phd thesis review, enter the sports world, their coaches and spectators had different standards for them.
They were expected to look feminine, to wear feminine uniforms, and to compete against each other but to have no physical contact with other players. The fact is that when women first began to play sports they were still something to essay, be objectified. They were something to a good, survey, and they had to be pleasing to the A Crime is A Crime: Violent and non-Violent Criminals Essay. overlook a non-violent criminal. Reflective Essay. Most criminal can be very unpredictable and skeptical about their actions. Phd Thesis Literature Writing. We as society need to act fast upon their first attempt so their next attempt want escalade to something bigger. Although drug abusers aren’t harming anyone other than themselves; they’re still abusing their body. So in order to protect them from essay drug abuse they should be incarcerated to writing, protect them from endangering themselves. I strongly believe society should incarcerate all non-violent offenders: Essay on reflective teamwork Pro Athletes and Violent Crimes. disregard foe the opponent(s) that their aggression is being aimed at.
I think the aggressiveness in phd thesis review, sports - just making the play, charging past people or dominating somebody physically - really needs to be separated by athletes from appropriate off field behavior.(Tom Jackson, Univ. Arkansas psychology professor.) This is reflective teamwork one cause for the controversy over the amount of violence in today's sports, and the apparent nurturing and rewarding of athletes who display this over aggressive attitude. According
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Roland Barthes Barthes, Roland (Vol. 83) - Essay. Roland Barthes 1915–1980. (Full name Roland Gerard Barthes) French theorist, critic, essayist, and autobiographer. The following entry provides an overview of Barthes's career. For further information on his life and career, see CLC , Vol. Teamwork! 24. One of the Film: seminal figures in the French intellectual movement known as Structuralism, Barthes was a fundamental influence on reflective essay teamwork, the practice of modern social and literary criticism.
His most widely studied works are those in which he rigorously applied semiologic principles—derived from Ferdinand de Saussure's structural linguistics and influenced by Andalou, Jean-Paul Sartre's approach to political engagement—to the practice of literary criticism and the analysis of modern cultural artifacts. Reflective! Barthes's theoretical approach developed and changed over time, however, and his later works largely eschew systematic, scientific investigation for more meditative, belletristic considerations. While some commentators view this evolution negatively as an abandonment of his earlier aspirations toward a scientific theory of narrative and culture, most see it as a refinement of style and perspective. Barthes was born in Cherbourg, France, to middle-class Protestant parents. His father was killed in a naval battle in World War I, and Barthes was raised by his mother and a good cover letter for teaching job, maternal grandmother, first in reflective essay, Bayonne and then in Paris from the age of Un Chien Andalou, nine. In 1935 he began his studies at the Sorbonne, focusing on teamwork, French, Greek, and Latin. A case of tuberculosis that Barthes suffered when he was nineteen left him ineligible for military service during World War II. He taught off and on for a number of years in Bayonne, Paris, Biarritz, and a good cover letter job, Bucharest, Romania, although a relapse of his TB in 1941 forced him to spend most of the next six years in sanatoriums. After being pronounced cured of tuberculosis in 1947, Barthes began publishing the essays that would later be collected in his first book, Le degre zero de l'ecriture (1953; Writing Degree Zero ). From 1952 to 1959, while working as a teaching fellow at the Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, Barthes published the essays that were later compiled in reflective teamwork, his famous book, Mythologies (1957; Mythologies ). In 1960 he joined the Film: Un Chien Andalou faculty at the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes, serving as director of studies from reflective essay 1962 until 1977 when he was elected to the chair of literary semiology at english regents june essay, the College de France. From the reflective 1960s on, Barthes's reputation as France's foremost literary theorist, social critic, and essayist was confirmed by such works as Systeme de la mode (1967; The Fashion System), S/Z (1970, S/Z), Le plaisir du texte (1973; The Pleasure of the Text ), and Frag- ments d'un discours amoureux (1977; A Lover's Discourse ). Commentators have noted that Barthes came to assume the unofficial position—formerly occupied by Jean-Paul Sartre—of the a good cover for teaching job leading French intellectual and reflective, preeminent Western thinker.
Barthes remained at the College de France until his death in writing, 1980 from injuries suffered during a traffic accident. Critic Bjornar Olsen has distinguished four stages in Barthes's critical development. He labels Barthes's first three works— Writing Degree Zero, Michelet (1954; Michelet ), and Mythologies —his committed writings in that they reflect the influence of the two dominant ideological systems of their time, Marxism and Sartrean existentialism. Writing Degree Zero examines the distinctions Barthes perceived between language, literary style, and ecriture , the aspect of discourse in which the author's existential situation, or sociohistorical context, imbues writings with unintended meanings that are revealed through close structural analysis. In Michelet he demonstrated the significance of ecriture in the writings of French historian Jules Michelet, analyzing linguistic characteristics and textual structure in order to reflective essay, reveal hidden connotations and meanings. Karl Marx's early writings provided a model for Mythologies , in which Barthes studied aspects of contemporary French culture—such as professional wrestling, strip-tease, travel guides, the advertising of soap and laundry detergent—to illuminate the Un Chien Andalou ways in which bourgeois ideology is reflective essay teamwork, disseminated and made to seem natural. The second phase of Barthes's career according to Olsen encompasses his most rigorous semiological writings of the critical 1960s, works that marked the highpoint of Structuralism in France. In his 1964 essay Elements de semiologie, published in English in reflective, book form as Elements of cover, Semiology , Barthes elaborated on ideas from Saussure, Roman Jakobson, and other noted linguists to teamwork, distinguish between language, which refers to the abstract set of rules and best writing, conventions governing verbal and written communication, and speech, which refers to reflective essay teamwork, individual instances of the writing a good cover letter actual use of language.
In The Fashion System Barthes's method, according to Mason Cooley, was to study and classify the captions under the photographs in reflective essay, a year's issues of two fashion magazines, examining the theoretical ramifications of such statements as 'Prints win at the races' and 'Slim piping is striking.' Whereas Elements of Semiology laid out the blueprint for semiological analysis, The Fashion System demonstrated it. The third phase of Barthes's career—in which he popularized concepts formulated by French literary theorists Jacques Derrida and Julia Kristeva—signalled the general shift in Western critical thinking in the early 1970s from writing cover Structuralism to Post-Structuralism. While his previous writings championed the notion that a text's meaning inheres in the structure of its components and is therefore knowable and reflective teamwork, fixed, works such as S/Z and The Pleasure of the writing Text examine the essay ways in which texts present a plurality of writing, shifting connotations that are open to numerous interpretations. S/Z is a painstakingly detailed, line-by-line analysis of the Honore de Balzac novella Sarrasine in which Barthes detects five codes—specific kinds of references, meanings, and connotations—that, through their interplay, offer the reader a multiplicity of reflective essay teamwork, meanings. In The Pleasure of the a good cover for teaching job Text , Barthes categorizes all literary works as either texts of pleasure or texts of bliss. He associates the essay teamwork former with classic literary works and those that emulate them, describing texts of pleasure as readerly texts in that they reward traditional forms of interpretation and books to learn essay writing, refer to common areas of knowledge. Texts of bliss he associated with modernist works, describing them as writerly texts in that they require the reader to complete the text by filling in gaps and reflective essay, making intertextual connections in ways that mainstream literature does not. The final phase of Barthes's career—typified by such works as Roland Barthes , (1975; Roland Barthes), A Lover's Discourse: Fragments , and Le chambre claire (1980; Camera Lucida )—is frequently described as his hedonist period because his subjects are more purely aesthetic than earlier ones and his style is meditative and introspective.
Referring to himself in the third person throughout his autobiography, Roland Barthes , Barthes comments on photographs from critical essay crucible his childhood and expounds upon matters of reflective, personal intellectual interest, presenting a portrait of his mind rather than of his social, emotional, and professional life. The most popular book Barthes ever wrote, A Lover's Discourse: Fragments was a bestseller in what is the peak, France and served as the basis for a play. Reflective Teamwork! The work grew out of a seminar he taught on amorous discourse in Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's novel Die Leiden des jungen Werthers (1774; The Sorrows of Werther ) and uses monologues by a semi-autobiographical narrator to attempt to explain the meaning of love in a variety of contexts. In the first section of Camera Lucida , he analyzes news photographs and family snapshots and phd thesis writing, concludes that photography, though it can touch the emotions, is not an reflective, art because its close connection to essay, reality fixes the interplay of connotations and thus leaves little room for interpretation. In the second part Barthes meditates on a photograph of his deceased mother and, writing movingly of his relationship with her, draws a connection between photography and reflective, death. Being at the forefront of the new criticism in France, Barthes's works of the best books to learn writing late 1950s through the 1960s were frequently criticized by older, university-based academics and reflective essay, critics for being pseudoscientific and jargon-laden.
In two essays later collected in Essais critiques (1964; Critical Essays )—Les deux critiques (The Two Criticisms) and books writing, Qu'est-ce que la critique? (What Is Criticism?)—Barthes distinguished between the essay kind of criticism practiced in Film: Un Chien Andalou, universities; which he disparaged as boring, naively objective, and excessively reliant on author biographies for causal explanations; and the structuralist, ideologically aware criticism he espoused. The controversy sparked by these two essays came to a head when Barthes published Sur Racine (1963; On Racine ). This structuralist and psychoanalytic reading of the French dramatist's works was attacked by noted Racine scholar Raymond Picard in an essay entitled Nouvelle critique ou nouvelle imposture? (meaning New Criticism or New Fraud?). Picard's main points were that Barthes's brand of criticism was subjective and did not take history into account. Reflective Essay Teamwork! Outside of France, Barthes's works were accorded great critical acclaim and did much to establish Structuralism and, subsequently, Post-Structuralism in the United States. As his work began to focus on issues of pleasure and became increasingly autobiographical, Barthes was attacked by some commentators for abandoning his earlier Marxist and Structuralist agendas. However, his work, praised for its uniqueness and instructiveness, is generally regarded as among the most significant contributions to critical theory of the twentieth century, as much for the qualities of individual works as forthe unique and literature review writing, instructive character of the oeuvre. As noted Marxist scholar Fredric Jameson noted, Barthes's work is essay teamwork, a veritable fever-chart of all the significant intellectual and critical tendencies since World War II.
Access our Roland Barthes Study Guide for Free. Le degre zero de l'ecriture (criticism) 1953. [ Writing Degree Zero , 1967] Michelet (criticism) 1954. Mythologies (criticism) 1957. [ Mythologies (partial translation), 1972] Sur Racine (criticism) 1963.
Elements de semiologie (essay) 1964. [ Elements of Semiology , 1967] Essais critiques (essays) 1964. [ Critical Essays , 1972] La Tour Eiffel [with Andre Martin] (essay) 1964.
[? The Eiffel Tower, and Other Mythologies , 1979] Critique et verite (criticism). (The entire section is 278 words.) Get Free Access to this Roland Barthes Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to critical essay, unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere.
We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for free. [ Genette is a distinguished French literary theorist, critic, and educator best known in the United States for reflective teamwork his Narrative Discourse: An Essay in Method (1980), in which he analyzes Marcel Proust's A la recherche du temps perdu ( 1954; Remembrance of Things Past) and proposes general categories for the study of narration. Phd Thesis Literature Review! In the following essay, first translated into English in 1982, he analyzes the approach to semiology Barthes delineated in such early works as Writing Degree Zero, Critical Essays, and Mythologies.] The work of Roland Barthes is apparently highly varied, both in its object (literature, clothes, cinema, painting, advertising, music, news items. (The entire section is 5855 words.) Get Free Access to reflective teamwork, this Roland Barthes Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to Un Chien Andalou, unlock this resource and thousands more. Edward W. Teamwork! Said (review date 30 July 1972) [ Said is a Palestinian-born American critic and educator who has written extensively on culture and a good cover letter job, politics. In the following review, he offers praise for essay Mythologies and Critical Essays and review, examines the reflective principal tenets of Barthes's early writings .]
Roland Barthes is one of the very few literary critics in any language of whom it can be said that he has never written a bad or uninteresting page…. Barthes is neither an best books essay, academic critic, nor a reviewer, but strictly an occasional writer: he produces writing for prefaces, commemoratives, conferences, events, seminars, commissions from reflective publishers, captions for pictures, descriptions of striking objects. Although. (The entire section is 1237 words.) [ De Man was a Belgian-born American literary theorist, critic, and educator. His reputation as a pioneer in establishing the literary theory known as deconstruction—promoted in such works as Blindness and Insight: Essays in the Rhetoric of Contemporary Criticism (1971) , Allegories of Reading: Figural Language in Rousseau, Nietzsche, Rilke, and Proust (1979), and The Resistance to Theory (1986)—was tainted by best essay, the discovery of reflective essay, anti-Semitic, pro-Nazi articles he wrote while working for a collaborationist newspaper in Belgium in the early 1940s.
In the following essay, posthumously published in best essay writing, 1990, he examines the strengths and weaknesses of Barthes's theoretical positions .] (The entire section is 5173 words.) Frank Kermode (review date 7 August 1977) [ Kermode is an English critic and educator. In the following review, he praises the autobiography Roland Barthes and discusses the many paradoxes that define Barthes's literary career .] [ Roland Barthes ] is a sort of serious joke. It first appeared in reflective essay teamwork, a series called x par lui-meme —for example, Michelet by Himself , to name the volume for which Barthes happens to english regents 2011, have been responsible. So to ask a writer to do his own par lui-meme was part compliment, part gag, and Barthes followed up by reviewing the book himself in reflective, the Quinzaine litteraire, under the heading 'Barthes by Barthes' by Barthes. But the joke is serious because there is more to it than literary.
(The entire section is 1249 words.) Geoffrey H. Hartman (essay date 4 February 1979) [ Hartman is an American critic and educator. In the following essay, he discusses Image—Music—Text, A Lover's Discourse, and Barthes's attempt to construct a unique critical style out of fictional and systematic forms of learning .] These are still the Banquet Years in France, though not everyone will savor the feast of books and english regents 2011, essays produced there since 1945. One might have thought that Jean-Paul Sartre, Claude Levi-Strauss and Maurice Merleau-Ponty had exhausted a certain vein. Philosophy and literature invaded each other's realm; science mingled with cultural criticism. Yet Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault, Roland Barthes and essay teamwork, others are still taking on linguistics. (The entire section is 2194 words.) Susan Sontag (essay date 15 May 1980) [ Sontag is a distinguished American critic, essayist, and novelist. Best Writing! In the following essay, occasioned by Barthes's death, she reviews his life as a writer and essay teamwork, singles out A Lover's Discourse: Fragments and Roland Barthes as his most wonderful books. ] Roland Barthes was sixty-four when he died last week [26 March 1980], but the career was younger than that age suggests, for he was thirty-seven when he published his first book. Writing A Good Cover Letter! After the tardy start there were many books, many subjects.
One felt that he could generate ideas about anything. Put him in front of reflective teamwork, a cigar box and he would have one, two, many ideas—a little essay. It was not a question of review writing, knowledge (he couldn't have. (The entire section is 2469 words.) [ Silverman is an reflective teamwork, American critic and educator best known for her books The Subject of Semiotics (1983) and The Acoustic Mirror: The Female Voice in Psychoanalysis and the Cinema (1988). In the Film: Un Chien Andalou following excerpt from the former work, which also includes a chapter-length analysis of S/Z, she examines Barthes's notion of connotation, showing how it evolved from an early formulation in Mythologies to its complex articulation in reflective teamwork, S/Z.] Because of the liveliness of his prose, and the sophistication of his textual interpretations, Barthes has probably done more than any other single theoretician to critical crucible, introduce recent semiotics to essay, American readers. (The entire section is regents essay, 2232 words.) [ Todorov is an eminent Bulgarian-born French literary theorist, critic, and educator. In the following excerpt from a work first translated in essay, 1987, he discusses the fictional, or literary, aspects of Barthes's criticism .] A personal relationship linked me with Roland Barthes while he was alive, and it did not end with his death. I cannot claim even the illusion of impartiality if I am to speak of literature, him. Not only will I be irresistibly tempted to reflective teamwork, suppress anything in him that does not suit me and to valorize the ways in which he is close to me, but I cannot find in myself the necessary strengths that would allow me to see him as a closed entity capable of being completely circumscribed, an.
(The entire section is 3121 words.) [ MacCabe is an English critic and educator who has written extensively on letter job, literary and film theory. In the following excerpt, he examines S/Z, focusing on the five codes Barthes proposed for the study of reflective, narrative texts .] The written trace of a seminar held in job, the years 1968 and 1969, S/Z is the reflective text which focuses, for me, the strengths and weaknesses of that period in an intellectual form. It is Barthes's choice of a good cover for teaching, a story to teamwork, analyse which determines Balzac's place in the title of english regents june, this paper [Realism: Balzac and Barthes] but it would be a mistake to think that Barthes's choice was aleatory. If the immediate occasion for the selection of Balzac's story.
(The entire section is 2995 words.) Peter Fitting (essay date Winter 1988) [ In the following excerpt, Fitting examines Mythologies, showing that semiology and a desire to expose ideology inform the essays that comprise the book, and comments on changes in Barthes's thought later in his career .] In a single day, how many really non-signifying fields do we cross? Very few, sometimes none. Here I am before the sea; it is essay teamwork, true that it bears no message. But on the beach, what material for semiology!
Pennants, slogans, signals, signboards, clothes, suntan even, which are so many messages to me. To speak of Roland Barthes's. (The entire section is 3593 words.) Clara Claiborne Park (essay date Autumn 1990) [ Park is an American educator and essayist who has written widely on such diverse topics as English literature and the nature of mental illness, particularly autism. In the is the peak following essay, she describes the intellectual milieu in essay, which Barthes was raised and educated—examining the French system of public education and best books, the cultural importance of the French language to teamwork, the French people—thereby attempting to account for a good cover much that appears unique, difficult, or idiosyncratic in not only Barthes's work but most contemporary French critical theory as well. Park concludes by praising Barthes for his commitment to freedom, to multiplicity, and to delight, for reflective teamwork his intelligence, and the generosity of his. (The entire section is 8528 words.)
Freedman, Sanford. Best Essay Writing! Roland Barthes: A Bibliographical Reader's Guide . New York: Garland, 1983, 409 p. Extensive bibliography of primary and secondary sources. Brown, Andrew. Reflective Essay! Roland Barthes: The Figures of Writing . Film:! Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992, 303 p. Detailed analysis of Barthes's works that attempts to chart some of the reflective essay teamwork difficulties inherent in reading Barthes. Calvino, Italo.
In Memory of Roland Barthes. In his The Uses of Literature: Essays , pp. 300-06. San Diego: Harcourt. (The entire section is 1005 words.) Roland Barthes Homework Help Questions. This is part of the general Deconstructive/Post-structuralist project: that is to decenter the source of meaning, to show the multiplicities of meaning and review writing, interpretation. For Barthes (or. In The Death of the Author, Barthes writes about Balzac's story Sarrasine and suggests that it is, like all writing, subject to multiple interpretations. Barthes then notes that as soon as a fact.
French philosopher Barthes' essay The Death of the essay teamwork Author is a post-structuralist text that propagates the idea that there can be no essential structure and therefore, reflecting the ideas of. Among other post-structuralists and deconstructionists from the 1960s to the present, Roland Barthes shows that the phd thesis literature review meaning of a text is not owned or fixed by the author's intent. Barthes is not. Barthes' concept of the death of the author embodies, briefly, five important concepts that help to reflective essay, make clear what precisely he means. Auteur: Barthes does not use the cover letter for teaching equivalent of the reflective essay English.
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The Role of Formative Evaluation in Implementation Research and essay teamwork the QUERI Experience. VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA, USA University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA Search for more papers by this author. VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA, USA Search for phd thesis review, more papers by reflective essay this author. Minneapolis VA Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA Search for more papers by this author. VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA, USA Search for more papers by best books to learn this author. First published: February 2006 Full publication history DOI: 10.1111/j.1525-1497.2006.00355.x View/save citation Cited by (CrossRef): 0 articles Check for updates. An earlier version of essay teamwork this article was included in materials to support the State of the Art of Implementation Conference. English Regents June 2011 Essay! The conference was conducted by reflective essay the Department of Veterans Affairs, Office of Research and Un Chien Development, Health Services Research and Development Service, and was held in Washington, DC, from August 30 to September 1 2004. Address correspondence and requests for reprints to Dr. Stetler: 321 Middle Street, Amherst, MA 01002 (e-mail: email@example.com). This article describes the essay, importance and best books to learn role of essay 4 stages of is the oil thesis formative evaluation in our growing understanding of how to implement research findings into practice in order to improve the quality of clinical care.
It reviews limitations of reflective traditional approaches to implementation research and presents a rationale for new thinking and use of new methods. Developmental, implementation-focused, progress-focused, and interpretive evaluations are then defined and illustrated with examples from Veterans Health Administration Quality Enhancement Research Initiative projects. This article also provides methodologic details and critical essay highlights challenges encountered in actualizing formative evaluation within implementation research. As health care systems struggle to provide care based on well-founded evidence, there is increasing recognition of the reflective, inherent complexity of implementing research into practice. Health care managers and decision makers find they need a better understanding of what it takes to achieve successful implementation, and they look to health care researchers to provide this information. Essay Crucible! Researchers in turn need to fill this need through collection of new, diverse sets of data to teamwork enhance understanding and management of the phd thesis literature, complex process of implementation. A measurement approach capable of essay teamwork providing critical information about phd thesis writing, implementation is formative evaluation (FE). Formative evaluation, used in other social sciences, is herein defined as a rigorous assessment process designed to reflective teamwork identify potential and actual influences on Film: Un Chien Andalou the progress and essay effectiveness of implementation efforts . Formative evaluation enables researchers to explicitly study the phd thesis review writing, complexity of implementation projects and suggests ways to answer questions about context, adaptations, and response to change. The Department of reflective Veterans Affairs (VA) Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) has integrated FE into english june 2011 its implementation program. 13 This article introduces QUERI and its implementation focus. Reflective Essay! It then describes research challenges that call for the use of FE in this specialized field of study, reviews FE relative to QUERI implementation research, identifies 4 evaluative stages, and presents challenges to the conduct of phd thesis review writing FE.
THE VETERAN HEALTH ADMINISTRATION'S QUERI PROGRAM. The Quality Enhancement Research Initiative, begun in 1998, is a comprehensive, data-driven, outcomes-based, and output-oriented improvement initiative. 2,3 It focuses on teamwork identification and implementation of empirically based practices for high-risk/high-volume conditions among the veteran population and on the evaluation and refinement of these implementation efforts. 3 The Quality Enhancement Research Initiative's innovative approach 14 calls upon researchers to work toward rapid, significant improvements through the is the peak, systematic application of best clinical practices. It also calls upon researchers to study the implementation process to reflective essay enhance and english 2011 essay continuously refine these quality improvement (QI) efforts. Essay Teamwork! 14.
Classic intervention research methods 5,6 provide the cover, means to evaluate targeted outcomes of essay teamwork implementation/QI efforts. From an evaluation perspective, studies using intervention designs, such as a cluster-randomized trial or quasi-experimental approaches, routinely include a summative evaluation . Summative evaluation is a systematic process of collecting data on the impacts, outputs, products, or outcomes hypothesized in analysis crucible, a study. Reflective! 7 Resulting data provide information on critical the degree of success, effectiveness, or goal achievement of an reflective teamwork, implementation program. In an action-oriented improvement program, such as QUERI, summative data are essential but insufficient to critical meet the teamwork, needs of implementation/QI researchers. Evaluative information is needed beyond clinical impact of the change effort and beyond discovering whether a chosen adoption strategy worked.
Implementation researchers need to answer critical questions about the feasibility of critical analysis implementation strategies, degree of real-time implementation, status and potential influence of essay teamwork contextual factors, response of project participants, and any adaptations necessary to achieve optimal change. Formative evaluation provides techniques for obtaining such information and for best to learn essay writing, overcoming limitations identified in early implementation/QI studies. NEED FOR FE IN IMPLEMENTATION/QI RESEARCH. The RE-AIM framework of Glasgow and colleagues highlights critical information that is missing from current research publicationsi.e.,information needed to reflective essay evaluate a study's potential for translation and public health impact . 8,9 Such information includes the efficacy/effectiveness of an intervention, its reach relative to actual/representative subject participation rate, its adoption relative to actual/representative setting participation rate, its implementation or intervention fidelity , and its maintenance over time. The focus of the RE-AIM framework is the study of health promotion interventions. Similar issues must be addressed during implementation research if potential adopters are to replicate critical implementation processes.
In addition, implementation researchers need to capture in-depth information on participant and contextual factors that facilitate or hinder successful implementation. Such factors can be used during the project to optimize implementation and inform post hoc interpretation. As implementation efforts can be a relatively messy and complex process, traditional study designs alone are often inadequate to the task of obtaining evaluative information. Essay! For example, randomized clinical trials (RCT) may leave questions important to system-wide uptake of essay targeted research unanswered. As Stead et al. 10,11 suggest, traditional intervention research can fail to “capture the critical, detail and complexity of intervention inputs and tactics” (10, p. 354), thereby missing the true nature of essay teamwork interventions as well as significant organizational factors important for replication. 10,11. Another argument for phd thesis literature review, performing FE has been highlighted in guideline/QI literature, i.e., the essay teamwork, need to address potential interpretive weaknesses. Such weaknesses relate to a failure to account for key elements of the 2011 essay, implementation process and essay teamwork may lead to unexplainable and/or poor results.
For example, Ovretveit and books Gustafson 12 identified implementation assessment failure, explanation failure , and outcome attribution failure . Essay! Implementation assessment failure can lead to a “Type III” error, where erroneous study interpretations occur because the intervention was not implemented as planned. 12,13 Explanation and outcome attribution relate to failures to to learn essay explore the black box of implementation. Specifically, what actually did/did not happen within the study relative to the implementation plan, and what factors in the implementation setting, anticipated or unanticipated, influenced the actual degree of implementation? By failing to collect such data, potential study users have little understanding of a particular implementation strategy. For example, 1 study regarding opinion leadership did not report the concurrent implementation of standing orders.
14. Use of essay teamwork a traditional intervention design does not obviate collection of the critical information cited above. Rather, complementary use of FE within an experimental study can create a dual or hybrid style approach for implementation research. 15 The experimental design is thus combined with descriptive or observational research that employs a mix of qualitative and quantitative techniques, creating a richer dataset for interpreting study results. FORMATIVE EVALUATION WITHIN QUERI. As with many methodologic concepts, there is no single definition/approach to FE. In fact, as Dehar et al. 16 stated, there is a decided “lack of clarity and some disagreement among evaluation authors as to the meaning and scope” of related concepts (16, p. 204; see Table 1 for a sampling).
Variations include differences in critical analysis crucible, terminology, e.g., an author may refer to FE , process evaluation , or formative research . 16,17. Given a mission to make rapid, evidence-based improvements to achieve better health outcomes, the authors have defined FE as a rigorous assessment process designed to identify potential and actual influences on teamwork the progress and effectiveness of implementation efforts . Related data collection occurs before, during, and after implementation to optimize the potential for success and to better understand the nature of the initiative, need for to learn essay writing, refinements, and the worth of extending the project to other settings. This approach to reflective essay FE incorporates aspects of the critical essay, last 2 definitions in Table 1 and concurs with the view that formative connotes action. 16 In QUERI, this action focus differentiates FE from “process” evaluations where data are not intended for concurrent use. Various uses of FE for implementation research are listed in Table 2. Uses span the reflective, timeframe or stages of a project, i.e., development/diagnosis, implementation, progress, and interpretation. Within QUERI, these stages are progressive, integrated components of a single hybrid project. Each stage is described below, in the context of Film: a single project, and illustrated by QUERI examples (Tables 3, 4, and 610). Each table provides an example of 1 or more FE stages. Reflective Teamwork! However, as indicated in some of the examples, various evaluative activities can serve multiple stages, which then merge in practice. Essay! Formative evaluation at any stage requires distinct plans for adequate measurement and analysis.
QUERI, quality enhancement research initiative; SCI, spinal cord injury; VHA, Veterans Health Administration; CCR,computerized clinical reminder; FE, formative evaluation . QUERI, quality enhancement research initiative; FE, formative evaluation; CHF, congestive heart failure . QUERI, quality enhancement research initiative; FE, formative evaluation; QI, quality improvement . QUERI, quality enhancement research initiative; FE, formative evaluation; SCI, spinal cord injury . QUERI, quality enhancement research initiative; FE, formative evaluation; QI, quality improvement; NH, mental health; ATIP, antipsychotic treatment improvement program . QUERI, quality enhancement research initiative; FE, formative evaluation; CR, clinical reminder; SAS, site activation scale . QUERI, quality enhancement research initiative; FE, formative evaluation . Developmental evaluation occurs during the first stage of a project and is termed a diagnostic analysis . 1,28 It is essay focused on enhancing the likelihood of success in the particular setting/s of Andalou a project, and involves collection of data on 4 potential influences: (a) actual degree of less-than-best practice; (b) determinants of current practice; (c) potential barriers and teamwork facilitators to essay crucible practice change and to implementation of the adoption strategy; and (d) strategy feasibility, including perceived utility of the project. Essay! (Note: studies conducted to obtain generic diagnostic information prior to development of an what is the, implementation study are considered formative research, not FE. Reflective Essay Teamwork! Even if available, a diagnostic analysis is suggested given the likelihood that generically identified factors will vary across implementation sites.) Activity at this stage may involve assessment of known prerequisites or other factors related to the targeted uptake of evidence, e.g., perceptions regarding the evidence, attributes of the proposed innovation, and/or administrative commitment. 11,21,2931 Examples of formative diagnostic tools used within QUERI projects include organizational readiness and attitude/belief surveys 32,33 (also see Tables 3 and 7). Such developmental data enable researchers to understand potential problems and, where possible, overcome them prior to a good cover letter initiation of teamwork interventions in study sites. In addition to information available from existent databases about what peak oil thesis, current practice or setting characteristics, formative data can be collected from experts and representative clinicians/administrators. For example, negative unintended consequences might be prospectively identified by teamwork key informant or focus group interviews. This participatory approach may also facilitate commitment among targeted users. 34. This type of FE occurs throughout implementation of the project plan. It focuses on analysis of discrepancies between the plan and its operationalization and identifies influences that may not have been anticipated through developmental activity.
As Hulscher et al. note in a relevant overview of “process” evaluation, FE allows “researchers and implementers to (a) describe the intervention in detail, (b) evaluate and measure actual exposure to the intervention, and (c) describe the experience of those exposed (13, p. 40)” concurrently. It also focuses on the dynamic context within which change is taking place, an increasingly recognized element of implementation. 3740. Implementation-focused formative data enable researchers to describe and understand more fully the major barriers to phd thesis review goal achievement and what it actually takes to essay achieve change, including the timing of project activities. By describing the Film: Un Chien, actuality of implementation, new interventions may be revealed. In terms of timing, formative data can clarify the true length of time needed to reflective essay complete an intervention, as failure to achieve results could relate to insufficient intervention time.
Implementation-focused formative data also are used to keep the strategies on track and as a result optimize the books essay, likelihood of essay teamwork affecting change by essay resolving actionable barriers, enhancing identified levers of change, and refining components of the implementation interventions. Rather than identify such modifiable components on a post hoc basis, FE provides timely feedback to lessen the likelihood of type III errors (see Tables 4, 6, 7, and essay 9). In summary, FE data collected at this stage offer several advantages. They can (a) highlight actual versus planned interventions, (b) enable implementation through identification of phd thesis review writing modifiable barriers, (c) facilitate any needed refinements in essay, the original implementation intervention, (d) enhance interpretation of project results, and (e) identify critical details and guidance necessary for replication of english regents 2011 results in other clinical settings. Measurement within this stage can be a simple or complex task. Table 5 describes several critical issues that researchers should consider. As with other aspects of FE, both quantitative and essay qualitative approaches can be used. This type of FE occurs during implementation of study strategies, but focuses on monitoring impacts and indicators of progress toward goals. The proactive nature of FE is emphasized, as progress data become feedback about the degree of movement toward desired outcomes.
Using implementation data on dose, intensity, and analysis essay crucible barriers, factors blocking progress may be identified. Steps can then be taken to optimize the intervention and/or reinforce progress via positive feedback to key players. As Krumholz and Herrin 49 suggest, waiting until implementation is completed to assess results “obscures potentially important information about trends in essay, practice during the what is the, study [that] could demonstrate if an reflective essay, effort is gaining momentumor that it is critical analysis essay crucible not sustainable” (see Tables 6 and 7). This stage is usually not considered a type of FE but deserves separate attention, given its role in the illumination of the black box of teamwork implementation/change. Specifically, FE data provide alternative explanations for results, help to clarify the meaning of success in implementation, and enhance understanding of an implementation strategy's impact or “worth.” Such “black box” interpretation occurs through the end point triangulation of what is the oil thesis qualitative and quantitative FE data, including associational relationships with impacts. Interpretive FE uses the results of all other FE stages. In addition, interpretive information can be collected at the end of the project about key stakeholder experiences. Stakeholders include individuals expected to put evidence into practice as well as those individuals expected to support that effort. These individuals can be asked about their perceptions of the implementation program, its interventions, and changes required of them and their colleagues.
10,13,27,38,46,54 Information can be obtained on stakeholder views regarding (a) usefulness or value of each intervention, (b) satisfaction or dissatisfaction with various aspects of the process, (c) reasons for their own program-related action or inaction, (d) additional barriers and facilitators, and (e) recommendations for reflective essay, further refinements. Information can also be obtained regarding the degree to which stakeholders believe the implementation project was successful, as well as the overall “worth” of the writing cover letter for teaching job, implementation effort. Statistical significance will be calculated using the reflective, summative data. However, as inferential statistical significance does not necessarily equate with clinical significance, it is useful to obtain perceptions of stakeholders relative to the “meaning” of english regents june 2011 essay statistical findings. For some stakeholders, this meaning will be placed in teamwork, the context of the cost of obtaining the change relative to its perceived benefits (see Tables 810). Formative evaluation, as a descriptive assessment activity, does not per se test hypotheses.
However, within an experimental study, in-depth data from a concurrent FE can provide working hypotheses to explain successes or failures, particularly when the a good cover letter job, implementation and evaluation plans are grounded in a conceptual framework. 5557 In this respect, interpretive FE may be considered as case study data that contribute to theory building. Teamwork! 58 Overall, FE data may provide evidence regarding targeted components of a conceptual framework, insights into the determinants of behavior or system change, and hypotheses for future testing. Formative evaluation is a new concept as applied to writing a good cover letter for teaching health services research and reflective teamwork as such presents multiple challenges. Some researchers may need help in understanding how FE can be incorporated into a study design.
Formative evaluation is writing a good cover letter for teaching job also a time-consuming activity and project leaders may need to be convinced of its utility before committing study resources.In addition, much is yet to be learned about effective approaches to the following types of issues: 1 In the well-controlled RCT, researchers do not typically modify an experimental intervention once approved. However, in improvement-oriented research, critical problems that prevent an optimal test of the reflective teamwork, planned implementation can be identified and resolved. Writing Cover! Such actions may result in alterations to the original plan. The challenge for the researcher is to identify that point at which modifications create a different intervention or add an additional intervention. Likewise, when the researcher builds in “local adaptation,” the challenge is to determine its limits or clarify statistical methods available to control for the differences. An implementation framework and clear identification of the underlying conceptual nature of each intervention can facilitate this process. As Hawe et al.
43 suggest, the researcher has to think carefully about the “essence of the intervention” in order to understand the actual nature of reflective implementation and the significance of formative modifications. 2 Implementation and june essay QI researchers may encounter the erroneous view that FE involves only essay teamwork qualitative research or that it is not rigorous, e.g., that it consists of critical analysis essay “just talking to a few people”. However, FE does not lack rigor nor is it simply a matter of reflective teamwork qualitative research or a specific qualitative methodology. Rather, FE involves selecting among rigorous qualitative and quantitative methods to accomplish a specific set of aims, with a plan designed to produce credible data relative to explicit formative questions. 61 3 A critical challenge for measurement planning is selection or development of methods that yield quantitative data for the following types of issues: (a) assessment of what associations between outcome findings and the intensity, dose, or exposure to interventions and (b) measurement of the adaptations of a “standard” protocol across diverse implementation settings. 62 Whether flexibility is essay a planned or unplanned component of a study, it should be measured in some consistent, quantifiable fashion that enables cross-site comparisons.
Goal attainment scaling is 1 possibility. 47,48 4 A final issue facing implementation researchers is how to determine the degree to which FE activities influence the results of an implementation project. If FE itself is an essay writing, explicit intervention, it will need to be incorporated into recommendations for others who wish to replicate the study's results. More specifically, the researcher must systematically reflect upon why formative data were collected, how they were used, by reflective essay whom they were used, and to Film: Andalou what end. Reflective Teamwork! For example, to what extent did FE enable refinement to the implementation intervention such that the likelihood of encountering barriers in the future is adequately diminished? Or, in examining implementation issues across study sites, to what extent did FE provide information that led to modifications at individual sites? If the data and subsequent adjustments at individual sites were deemed critical to project success, upon broader dissemination to additional sites, what specific FE activities should be replicated, and by Film: Andalou whom? Formative evaluation is a study approach that is often key to the success, interpretation, and replication of the results of reflective essay teamwork implementation/QI projects. Formative evaluation can save time and frustration as data highlight factors that impede the Un Chien Andalou, ability of reflective essay clinicians to implement best practices. It can also identify at a good letter for teaching, an early stage whether desired outcomes are being achieved so that implementation strategies can be refined as needed; it can make the reflective essay, realities and literature black box nature of implementation more transparent to decision makers; and it can increase the likelihood of obtaining credible summative results about reflective teamwork, effectiveness and transferability of an implementation strategy.
Formative evaluation helps to meet the many challenges to effective implementation and its scientific study, thereby facilitating integration of research findings into practice and improvement of patient care. The work reported here was supported by critical the Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration, Health Services Research and Development Service. The views expressed in this article are those of the teamwork, authors and do not necessarily represent the Film: Un Chien Andalou, views of the essay, Department of Veterans Affairs. process assessment (health care); evaluation methodology; evaluation studies. Issue online: 24 March 2006 Version of record online: 24 March 2006. 1 QUERI. HSRD special solicitation for service directed projects (SDP) on books to learn essay writing implementation of research into practice (posted 2003). Available at: http://www.hsrd.research.va.gov/for_researchers/funding/solicitations/.
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Accessed August 10, 2005. To Learn! 33 Luther SL , Nelson A , Powell-Cope G. Provider attitudes and beliefs about clinical practice guidelines . Essay Teamwork! SCI Nurs . 2004 ; 21 : 206 12 . PubMed 34 Brown K , Gerhardt M. Formative evaluation : an integrative practice model and case study . Personnel Psychol. 2002 ; 55 : 951f . Web of Science® 35 Legro M , Wallace C , Hatzakis M , Goldstein B. Barriers to optimal use of writing a good letter for teaching computerized clinical reminders : the SCI QUERI experience . VA QUERI Quart. 2003 ; 4 : 2 . 36 Wallace C , Hatzakis M , Legro M , Goldstein B. Understanding a VA preventive care clinical reminder : lessons learned . SCI Nurs. 2004 ; 21 : 149 52 . PubMed 37 Stetler C. The role of the organization in translating research into essay evidence based practice . Outcomes Manag Nurs Practice . Is The Peak! 2003 ; 7 : 97 103 . Reflective Teamwork! 38 Rycroft-Malone J , Kitson A , Harvey G , et al . Film: Andalou! Ingredients for essay, change : revisiting a conceptual framework . Qual Saf Health Care. 2002 ; 11 : 174 80 . Critical Essay! PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® 39 McCormack B , Kitson A , Harvey G , et al . Getting evidence into practice : the meaning of ‘context’ . Teamwork! J Adv Nurs. Phd Thesis Literature Review! 2002 ; 38 : 94 104 . PubMed | Web of Science® 40 Bradley E , Holmboe E , Mattera J , et al . A qualitative study of increasing β-blocker use after myocardial infarction : why do some hospitals succeed? J Am Med Assoc.
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Human factors barriers to the effective use of ten HIV clinical reminders . Film:! J Am Med Inform Assoc . Reflective! 2004 ; 11 : 50 9 . English June 2011! CrossRef | PubMed | Web of reflective essay teamwork Science® 60 Sharp ND , Pineros SL , Hsu C , Starks H , Sales AE. A qualitative study to identify barriers and facilitators to implementation of pilot interventions in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Northwest Network . Worldviews Evidence-Based Nurs . 2004 ; 1 : 129 39 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed 61 Devers KJ , Sofaer S , Rundall TG (Guest eds.). Critical Analysis Crucible! Qualitative methods in health services research : a special supplement to HSR . Health Services Res. Essay! 1999 ; 34 (part II) : 1083 263 . 62 Litchman J , Roumanis S , Radford M , et al . Can practice guidelines be transported effectively to different settings? Results from a multi-center interventional study . J Comm J Qual Improv . English Essay! 2001 ; 27 : 42 53 . Articles related to the one you are viewing. Copyright 1999 - 2017 John Wiley Sons, Inc.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Reflective Essay? The SAT Essay is review writing scored separately from the rest of the SAT now, thanks to the changes that went into effect in March 2016. While the reflective teamwork, essay is now optional (you don't automatically have to best essay, take it every time you take the reflective essay teamwork, SAT), some colleges still require students to submit SAT essay scores with their applications. Learning how to consistently write a perfect SAT essay will be a huge boost to critical, your application to these schools. In this article, we'll discuss what it takes to get a perfect 8/8/8 on the SAT essay and what you need to essay teamwork, do to train yourself to get this top score. If you’re reading this, we’re assuming that you already have a basic understanding of the SAT essay. You know the standard format of how you should write an books essay essay – introduction, evidence paragraph 1, evidence paragraph 2, (optional) evidence paragraph 3, conclusion. You know that you should state your thesis in the introduction. All of this will get you a 5/8 as long as you develop your points enough. If you aren’t fully aware of this, take a spin through our 15 SAT Essay tips to reflective essay teamwork, raise your essay score.
But how do you push your essay to the next level? That’s what this article is phd thesis literature writing about. feature image credit: NEW YORK 1970'S TRAILER PLATE 888-883 by Jerry Woody, used under CC BY-SA 2.0/Cropped from essay teamwork, original. You’ll have to practice this. The perfect SAT essay is like a puzzle that happens to be in written form – it can be mastered, but to cover for teaching, do it well and completely every time requires practice with a lot of sample topics. You need to learn the format of an effective essay and how to fill out a complete essay within 50 minutes. What an reflective SAT Essay Score of 8 Means. If you’re already scoring a 5 or above in Un Chien, all three areas on practice (or real) SAT essays, you have a shot at completely nailing what the graders want, represented by a score of reflective teamwork 8/8/8, with a little practice. But there’s something important to remember in your question for perfection: on books, the SAT essay, an 8 in essay teamwork, all categories is not always achievable.
We’ve got good news and bad news for those of you who are determined to writing a good, score an 8/8/8 on essay teamwork, the SAT essay. Good News and Bad News by Mike Licht, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original. Because the whole essay task (reading, analyzing, planning, and writing) must be completed in 50 minutes, getting an 8 in Reading, Analysis, and Writing requires some luck. You have to read the article and analyze the way the author builds her/his argument, pick out the most important components to the argument, find evidence to support your interpretation, and plan out your essay before you can even start writing. Critical Essay? A lot depends on how quickly you can come up with a thesis and reflective teamwork relevant support for whatever the prompt happens to be – you might find some articles easier to read and analyze the argumentative structure of than others.
You'll need to use precise language to show mastery of English writing. And because essays with perfect scores are almost always at least two pages long, you don't have any time to spare . If you fumble on any one of these aspects, the grader might not give your SAT essay an books to learn writing 8/8/8. Because the essay is so formulaic, it's always possible to get a reliable 6 across the board . Sometimes you might find the author's argument to analyze harder than others, or sometimes you might find the article more difficult to reflective essay, get through, but you will always be able to impress them enough to get a 6/6/6. No college worth its salt is going to base your college admissions decision on getting those last two points on an essay you had 50 minutes to write (especially when the essay is optional). The goal, really, is to show that you can write a decent essay in that time, and a 6/6/6 shows that just as well as an 8/8/8 does. Best Books Essay Writing? But you should aim as high as you can, so keep reading to find out what it really takes to get a perfect score on the SAT essay. The Difference Between a 6 and an 8. If we asked the College Board what the difference is between a 6 and an 8 SAT essay, they would direct us to their scoring criteria below that describes the difference between the 3 and 4 essays scores in Reading, Analysis, and Writing (a total score of 8 comes from reflective, two readers separately giving your essay a 4 in each of those three areas). We’ve marked the differences between the 3 and 4 criteria in bold.
The response demonstrates effective comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the writing a good letter job, text’s central idea(s) and important details. The response is free of substantive errors of fact and interpretation with regard to the text. Reflective Essay? The response makes appropriate use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating an understanding of the source text. The response demonstrates thorough comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the writing, text’s central idea(s) and of most important details and how they interrelate, demonstrating a comprehensive understanding of the essay, text. The response is free of errors of fact or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes skillful use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating a complete understanding of the source text. A 3 essay demonstrates your understanding of the text’s central ideas, while a 4 essay also shows that you know what the review writing, details and examples in the text are and how they relate to the central idea . The response offers an effective analysis of the source text and demonstrates an understanding of the analytical task. The response competently evaluates the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the reflective essay, student’s own choosing.
The response contains relevant and sufficient support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses primarily on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task. Literature Writing? The response offers an insightful analysis of the source text and demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the analytical task. The response offers a thorough, well-considered evaluation of the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing. The response contains relevant, sufficient, and strategically chosen support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses consistently on those features of the reflective teamwork, text that are most relevant to addressing the task. The 4 essay delves into the structure of the author’s argument more deeply. The writer not only states the techniques used in the text, but also thoroughly explains their impact on regents, the reader.
These explanations are backed up with evidence from the text that enhances the writer’s discussion of the essay, structure of the text. The response is mostly cohesive and writing demonstrates effective use and teamwork control of a good cover letter for teaching language. The response includes a central claim or implicit controlling idea. Essay Teamwork? The response includes an effective introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a clear progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. The response has variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates some precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a good control of the conventions of standard written English and is free of significant errors that detract from the quality of writing. The response is cohesive and demonstrates a highly effective use and command of language. The response includes a precise central claim.
The response includes a skillful introduction and writing letter for teaching job conclusion. The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. The response has a wide variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. Reflective Essay? The response shows a strong command of the conventions of standard written English and peak oil thesis is free or virtually free of errors . The 4 essay is written extremely well , whereas the 3 essay is written fairly well. In addition, the 4 essay is organized in a way that positively influences the impact of the writer’s argument, while the 3 is just organized clearly. Let’s condense the information above. A perfect 4 essay : is extremely clear is consistent, smooth, and reflective teamwork easy to read has few errors is not repetitive in Un Chien, content or language is sufficiently detailed (using evidence from the text) to fully support the writer’s thesis demonstrates that you understand the text and the author’s claim(s) In other words, you need to excel in every one of teamwork these aspects to english 2011, get a perfect score. Now we’ll look at a sample 8/8/8 SAT essay, and make note of how it fits the criteria above. The prompt (taken from The Official SAT Study Guide ) for the sample essay is as follows: Write an essay in which you explain how Peter S. Goodman builds an argument to persuade his audience that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States.
In your essay, analyze how Goodman uses one or more of the features listed in the box above (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the logic and reflective teamwork persuasiveness of his argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage. The passage to which this prompt refers appears on pp. 183-185 of The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , or on a good letter for teaching, slightly different pages in later editions. You'll need the passage to follow along with the sample essay below.
Here’s the essay. Teamwork? Read it first, and we’ll have annotations below. In the article “Foreign News at a Crisis Point,” Peter S. Goodman eloquently argues the ‘point’ that news organizations should increase the 2011, amount of reflective essay professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States. Goodman builds his argument by using facts and essay evidence, addressing the counterarguments, and couching it all in persuasive and compelling language. Goodman begins the article by bombarding the reader with facts and reflective teamwork statistics. He states that, according to a census conducted by the American Journalism Review, the Film: Un Chien Andalou, number of full-time foreign news correspondents in the United States dropped from reflective teamwork, 307 in 2003 to 234 in 2011. Un Chien Andalou? In addition, the AJR survey also discovered that “the space devoted to foreign news [in American papers] had shrunk by 53 percent” in the last 25 years. Beginning the article with all of these facts and figures has a couple of strengtheing effects on Goodman’s argument. First, by starting out essay teamwork, with hard evidence, Goodman lays the groundwork of his own credibility.
He’s not just writing an opinion piece – his opinion is regents 2011 essay backed by the truth. This will bring the readers onboard and make them more likely to trust everything else he says. Second, because Goodman presents these facts without much explaining/interpreting, the reader is forced to do the math herself. This engaging of the reader’s mind also ensures that Goodman has the reader’s attention. When the reader does the math to find a drop of 73 full-time foreign news correspondents employed by US papers in reflective essay, just 8 short years, she will find herself predisposed to agree with Goodman’s call for Film: Un Chien, more professional foreign news reporting. In addition to employing facts to essay teamwork, his argument’s advantage, Goodman also cunningly discusses the phd thesis literature, counterargument to his position. By writing about how social media and man-on-the-ground reporting has had some positive impact on the state of foreign news reporting, Goodman heads off naysayers at the pass. It would have been very easy for essay, Goodman to Film: Andalou, elide over the whole issue of citizen reporting, but the resultant one-sided argument would have been much less convincing. Instead, Goodman acknowledges things like “the force of social media during the Arab Spring, as activists convened and reacted to changing circumstances.” As a result, when he partially refutes this counterargument, stating the “unease” many longtime profession correspondents feel over reflective essay teamwork, the trend of ‘citizen journalism’ feel, the analysis essay, reader is reflective much more likely to believe him. After all, Goodman acknowledges that social media does have some power. Knowing that Goodman takes the writing a good for teaching job, power of social media seriously will make the reader more inclined, in turn, to take Goodman’s concern about the limits of social media seriously.
The final piece that helps bolster Goodman’s argument that US news organizations should have more professional foreign correspondents is Goodman’s linguistic + stylistic choices. Goodman uses contrasts to reflective, draw the reader deeper into literature writing, his mindset. By setting up the contrast between professional reporters as “informational filters” that discriminate good from teamwork, bad and amateur, man-on-the-spot reporters as undiscriminating “funnels,” Goodman forces the reader to view the two in opposition and admit that professional filters are to be preferred over funnels that add “speculatio, propaganda, and other white noise” to their reporting. In addition, Goodman drives the reader along toward agreeing with his conclusion in the penultimate paragraph of the review, article with the repetition of the phrase “We need.” With every repetition, Goodman hammers even further home the inescapable rightness of his argument. The use of “We” more generally through the essay teamwork, article serves to make the readers feel sympathetic towards Goodman and letter identify with him. By employing the rhetorical techniques of teamwork presenting facts, acknowledging the other side, and using persuasive language, Goodman convinces the reader of his claim. What Peak Oil Thesis? Here are our notes on reflective teamwork, what stands out in this essay (general comments are in is the oil thesis, purple, spelling/grammar errors are highlighted in yellow): Note that not every 8/8/8 essay needs to have exactly the same items in here, nor do you need to essay, argue in exactly the same way. Regents June 2011 Essay? But the elements in this essay make it a standout and demonstrate clear mastery.
And now for the million-dollar question: What Makes This SAT Essay an 8 Rather Than a 6? Maybe you get the theory behind what makes an essay an 8/8/8, but what about in practice? Read on reflective essay, to find out what distinguishes this particular SAT essay as a perfect 8 in is the peak, Reading, Analysis, and essay Writing. SAT graders are big on clarity, and books clarity requires precise language and obvious, sound logic. In this essay, vivid language is used effectively and appropriately: Goodman is described as bombarding the reader with facts and figures The writer describes Goodman as arguing his point using not just language but persuasive and compelling language : The effect of Goodman’s argument is not just that it convinces the reader, but that the teamwork, reader…will find herself predisposed to agree with Goodman’s call for more professional foreign news reporting. All of this clear and precise language helps support and explain the author's point (just as Goodman’s language supports his point in the text!) Effective Analysis and Organization. The writer's clarity extends to her logic as well. Sufficient background is given to make it clear the what peak oil thesis, writer read and understood the text.
The examples used are clear and logically connected within paragraphs. The writer also makes sure to identify the what/why/what of the author's argumentative devices: What are the reflective, techniques the author used to Andalou, persuade the reflective essay, reader of his claim? Why did the author use them? What effect does their use have on the reader? The organization of the essay follows the organization set out in the introduction: the english june, writer first discusses facts and evidence, then the reflective, presentation and refutation of a counterargument, then compelling language. Organization in the essay is aided by transitions between all paragraphs, which create a smooth, consistent argument that is easy to follow. The clarity of the Film: Un Chien, argument and the lack of errors remain consistent from reflective, start to finish. Cover Letter Job? The highlighted errors are few and do not detract or distract from the meaning of the reflective teamwork, essay. The wording of the thesis statement in the introduction and the conclusion is similar but not identical, and the description of how Goodman builds his argument is the same. Regents June 2011 Essay? Dos piezas by Raul Hernandez Gonzalez, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from reflective teamwork, original. The author uses a variety of words (marked in blue) and sentence structures to convey similar ideas in different ways throughout the essay.
For instance, social media , man-on-the-ground (or man-on-the-spot ) reporting , citizen journalism , and amateur reporting are all different words and phrases used to describe the same phenomenon of non-professional foreign news correspondents. Another example of Andalou this can be found in Paragraph 4. “Knowing that Goodman takes the power of social media seriously will make the reader more inclined…” could easily be the simpler “Goodman takes the power of social media seriously, which makes the reader more likely to agree…” This kind of linguistic flourish can be found in most top-scoring SAT Essays. Note that this usage is effective, and SAT vocab words aren't thrown into reflective essay teamwork, the essay haphazardly - it's clear, effective writing like what you might read in the New York Times. The essay is long enough to detail 3 complex examples (discussing Goodman’s use of facts and evidence, a counterargument, and vivid language) and include introductory and concluding paragraphs. With the updates to the essay rubric, College Board made it explicit that your essay should have an introduction and conclusion. To Learn Essay Writing? In The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , they also make it clear that shorter essays will receive lower Writing scores (because if you don't write more than a couple of paragraphs, there's not enough writing by which essay graders can accurately judge your writing abilities). But length means nothing if there isn't valuable information filling the space, so long SAT essays also need to be detailed—this author uses the space to essay, give lots of context for her examples. Dos and Don’ts for writing, an 8/8/8 SAT Essay. The key for essay teamwork, a perfect score on Film: Andalou, the SAT essay is to use your time wisely and stay focused on the task. To help you do this, we've compiled tips for things to do (and things to avoid).
Writing as much as you can without including repetitive or irrelevant information. Revising the first and last paragraphs (they stand out in readers’ minds). Making sure you have effective transitions for reflective teamwork, a seamless essay. Explaining the persuasive effect the author’s argumentative techniques have on the reader. Thinking of regents essay “smart-sounding evidence – analysis of reflective teamwork how the author used a personal anecdote is just as viable as a discussion of the author’s use of logos and other rhetorical strategies.
Trying to correct every single error – the grammar and the spelling do not have to be perfect to score an 8 in Writing. A Good Cover? This doesn't mean that you should just leave sentence fragments all over the place, but it does mean that accidentally leaving off the last letter of a word or making a small subject/verb agreement error won't be the end of the world (or of reflective teamwork your perfect SAT essay score). Spend the books essay, extra time trying to write more and develop your points. Reflective? Adding as many vocabulary words as you can – you do need some stylistic flourishes, as noted above, but you shouldn’t overdo it, or your writing will sound clunky. How to Train to Improve Your SAT Essay Score. As I mentioned above, most anyone can train to reliably get a 6 on all sections of the essay, and regents 2011 many can move beyond that to reflective teamwork, consistently get 8/6/6, 6/6/8, or 8/8/8. Here’s a framework for how to do this: Read through our complete list of critical crucible SAT essay prompts Memorize a list of persuasive techniques that you can find in most essay prompt articles Start by practicing with extended length time (80 minutes) so you can feel what it takes to get a top-scoring essay. Essay Teamwork? If you’re struggling, you can also split up the different parts of the essay task for practice. For instance, you can practice reading and analyzing articles separately from writing the essay. Find a way to grade your essay.
If you can be objective about your writing , you can notice weak spots, especially if you ran out of time but know what to literature review, do (and it'll be good practice for analyzing the passage on the essay!). Otherwise, try to get help from an English teacher or a friend who’s a better writer. Start narrowing the time down to 50 minutes to mirror the actual test. Looking for a great way to prep? Check out PrepScholar's online prep program. It customizes your prep program to your strengths and weaknesses so you get the most effective prep possible. Reflective Essay Teamwork? Even better, we give detailed essay feedback from a leading SAT instructor. You'll get point-by-point comments on where you're falling short, and critical analysis crucible how to improve your weak spots to jump up in SAT essay score. Click below to sign up for our 5-day free trial. Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article!
Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in teamwork, Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of is the Music of Bard College. Reflective Essay? She scored 99 percentile scores on crucible, the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and reflective essay we'll reply! Series: How to literature, Get 800 on reflective essay teamwork, Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Andalou, Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep?
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Case Study – Purchasing Management. As a Privileged Fly I have been allowed to be on reflective essay teamwork, the wall of a corporate boardroom to observe the proceedings during the high-powered discussions. The case study is about a manufacturing and engineering firm that has been doing very well in terms sales but has a serious challenge of escalating freight costs. The case study reveals that the root cause of the peak problem is insufficient inventories and lack of planning and fragmented purchasing process. The case study will provide a detailed analysis of the basic inventory problems confronting the firm.
The case study will also highlight management of forecasting, purchasing, inventories and Production with a view of indicating that the firm’s management in these areas is inefficient. Furthermore, the case study will look at essay teamwork inventory management, inventory control and whether the Purchasing Manager should build up her inventory. Need essay sample on Case Study – Purchasing Management ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. It will reflect the phd thesis literature review writing need to essay teamwork hold inventory as well as dangers and essay writing, consequences for poor inventory control. The case study will reflect on materials management as a concept that is applied nowadays in order to streamline process and reflective teamwork, ensure system efficiency, its advantages and whether the firm must adopted the materials management approach. Finally, the case study will provide other recommendations that can be used to resolve this problem. 1. WHAT ARE THE BASIC INVENTORY PROBLEMS CONFRONTING THIS FIRM? In every organization the purchasing department forms an integral part of the success of the english essay department in reflective essay teamwork, meeting the sales, production and distribution demand and has a critical role to play in order to ensure that the organization meets and possibly exceed the expectations of the customers. It is therefore imperative for books, communication to flow between the reflective Purchasing Manager and other Managers around the orders received and the status of the production department with regards to materials/parts required for a particular order. The basic inventory problems confronting this firm have been identified as ollows: – The lack of communication between the Production Manager and other Managers creates a problem in terms of establishing whether materials/parts are available as well as to analysis essay crucible enable the Purchasing Manager to plan properly and well in advance to meet the requirements of the Production Manager in terms of materials/parts or spares. The Purchasing Manager seems to be listening to the words of the Managing Director around cost-saving on limited inventory and unilaterally reduces stock on inventory without proper consultation with other Line Managers.
The Purchasing Manager does not seem to reflective teamwork understand the role/responsibility of the purchasing department within the firm. According to Hugo, Badenhorst-Weiss van Rooyen, (2002) purchasing and supply management is responsible for the continuous supply of all kinds of materials needed by production – in the right quantity, at phd thesis review writing the right time and at a competitive price. It is therefore clear that the purchasing department is the main player in ensuring customer satisfaction while enhancing the image and reputation of the reflective teamwork firm. It is clear that the Purchasing Manager is only focusing on cost-cutting measures by reducing inventory and at the same time ignoring the fact that such process must implemented with great care and consideration. As much as the firm wants to cut down on inventory it is important that the exercise is not implemented to the detriment of the firm.
In this regard the Distribution Manager has mentioned that the Purchasing Manager never has anything in stock and this is compounded by the small orders that she places. Obviously the Purchasing Manager should have taken note that the freight costs are going up and impact that her cutting down on inventory has had to the firm. Insufficient stock on what peak oil thesis, inventory reflects lack of proper inventory management and also taking into account the manner in which orders/parts/stock are ordered. There is no indication whether a policy exist where consultation will be entered into between the Purchasing Manager and other Line Managers in order to ensure that orders are consolidated which would result in a saving on freight costs. As the firm is essay teamwork, manufacturing company it is therefore necessary to reflect on reasons for holding inventory. Sufficient inventory ensures that production is continuous and at an economic level, contributing to a lower manufacturing cost per product through efficient use of critical analysis equipment and labour (Hugo, et al. ; 2002). It therefore means that sufficient inventory and production of essay orders timeously will result in the organization getting more orders/customers because the reputation of the firm will grow. The firm runs a risk of losing a lot of money if inventory management is not exercised and applied properly. This can result in large inventories being carried and kept in stock thus increasing inventory costs which cause the Managing Director to raise a concern regarding the need to carry inventory, considering the costs. However, with proper consultation and communication between the Purchasing Manager and critical analysis crucible, other Line Managers a decision can be taken with regards to materials that must be carried on inventory as well as the acceptable quantities to be carried on inventory.
The aim of inventory is to hold inventories at the lowest possible cost, given the objective to ensure uninterrupted supplies for ongoing operations (Hugo, et al. ; 2002). It is reflective essay, clear that consideration must be taken into account when a decision is taken on inventory, i. e. the materials that must be kept on inventory as well as drawing a comparison between the english 2011 costs involved to hold inventory and the loss resulting from non-availability of materials. For inventory management to be efficient and effective it is important and necessary for the Purchasing Manager to have an reflective essay understanding of all elements and costs that are involved in inventory-holding. According to writing a good for teaching Hugo, et al. (2002) the reflective essay teamwork elements of inventory-holding are inventory-holding costs, ordering costs, costs of shortages and review, set-up costs. From this statement it is clear that the Purchasing Manager is not familiar with these elements as there is nowhere during the meeting that she displayed her understanding of inventory management and control. It appears that the Purchasing Manager has never conducted an analysis and/or compared the savings of operating on low inventories against the freight costs as there is teamwork, no argument during the meeting justifying that. It is also clear that the Purchasing Manager has never bothered to reflect on Film: Un Chien Andalou, the cause of high freight costs and reflective teamwork, maybe consider that the following might be the cause of the escalating costs: low/insufficient inventories, split orders in review, small quantities and essay, short lead times. The good example is reflected by the argument of the literature review Managing Director to the effect that the freight bill is R955 whereas the cost of the essay teamwork part itself is less than R955. It therefore goes without saying that the firm could have saved more money in freight costs has extra care been taken when orders were placed in that consolidated orders result in saving in freight costs.
It is also clear that there is lack of communication between the Purchasing Manager and other Managers with regards to forecasting. Forecasting of the expected inventory consumption is an important aid for effectively anticipating the writing letter for teaching job influences of uncertainties about the future inventory requirements (Hugo, et al. ; 2002). Forecasting of inventory consumption should begin from the time the order has been concluded by the Marketing Manager, with the latter providing relevant information regarding lead times for the order, to the Production Manager giving an indication materials and turn around time required for production, to the Purchasing and Distribution Managers. In this regard this does not seem to happen as the Purchasing Manager is pointing a finger at reflective the Production Manager, and the lack of communication might be a deliberate act by the Production Manager who wants to capitalize on the situation and seize control of both Purchasing and Distribution in the process. It is therefore clear that the power games that are being played by the Production Manager are affecting the firm as some of the shipment deadlines are not met and to learn, customers have began to essay teamwork complain which also poses a serious reputational risk. . WHAT ARE THE FACTORS THAT HAVE CONTRIBUTED TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THIS SITUATION? DOES THIS COMPANY REFLECT EFFICIENT OR INEFFICIENT ON MANAGEMENT OF FORECASTING, PURCHASING, INVENTORIES, AND PRODUCTION? There are various factors that have contributed to the growing of freight firms both in numbers and rand value of freight transported.
INBOUND FREIGHT The increase in inbound freights is caused by insufficient materials on critical essay, inventories which have forced the Purchasing Manager to place orders whenever materials are required by production component. The other contributing factor is the essay teamwork lack of planning and proper buying approach in that the Purchasing Manager has no ordering process in place as orders are placed in smaller quantities which is compounded by lack of early communication between the Purchasing Manager and the Production Manager regarding required production materials. This failure to writing for teaching job communicate creates a problem for the entire Management team as shipment deadlines are not met if materials are not in received in time, a situation that forces the use of freight firms frequently thus resulting in the increase in inbound freights. In short the more the reflective essay use of Un Chien Andalou freight the increase in reflective, freight costs. Books To Learn Writing. OUTBOUND FREIGHT In this regard the increase in essay, outbound costs can be attributed to an effort by the distribution component to meet shipment deadlines.
The shortage of materials in inventory and Film: Andalou, late deliveries of materials due to late ordering result to the production component having to essay teamwork work long hours in order to complete orders as well as having to use the fastest possible freight available in order to critical essay crucible meet deliveries or to make up for the already passed deadlines. It also means that the firm is faced with a situation where there is no systematic approach to reflective the handling of orders which can result in orders being delivered within the regents june 2011 stipulated deadlines. The more the late deliveries/shipment that need to be made as and when they are ready, the more the use of freight and the increase in reflective teamwork, freight costs. Phd Thesis. The efficient or inefficient management of Forecasting, Purchasing, Inventories and Production can be described as follows: – FORECASTING The firm does not reflect effective and essay, efficient management when it comes to forecasting. Sound and efficient forecasting involves sharing of information between Managers in order meet the customer demand, which does not seem to be happening in this regard. The firm is faced with a situation where there is massive communication breakdown between Line Managers which has resulted by in costs escalating, customers complaining and a possibility of losing orders. An effective communication structure enables the books to learn writing firm to operate in an organized manner as communication flow from end to end and the shortcomings and/problems are detected and resolved at any early stage with minimum disruptions to production. Participative meetings of the management team assist the firm in ensuring that all activities are discussed properly where each Manager provides an indication of their requirements in order to enable the Purchasing Manager to have sufficient time to identify all required materials/parts that need to be ordered and to agree with the Production Manager on teamwork, production materials that must be kept on inventory before orders are placed. PURCHASING. From my analysis I have concluded that the Purchasing Manager is not in total control of the purchasing process as there is no indication that any interaction exist with regards to the requirements of the marketing/production teams. It is what peak oil thesis, also clear that there are no policies/procedure manuals clearly defining the teamwork purchasing process that must be followed.
According to van Weele (2005) a lack of a well defined purchasing policy and a lack of structure in the purchasing (decision-making) process and the resulting lack of control on purchasing costs may lead to an unforeseen financial loss. Purchasing policies are fundamental and what is the peak oil thesis, they contribute to business in various ways in that they can significantly improve sales margins through realizing substantial cost savings. It therefore clear that the reflective essay purchasing department plays a vital role in the success of the organization provided there are clear and phd thesis literature review writing, well purchasing policies/manuals in place. Reflective Essay Teamwork. In this particular case there has to be an improvement in the manner in which the english regents june 2011 essay management team communicate and purchasing policy must be developed in reflective essay, order to assist the Film: Purchasing Manager to maintain and manage a buying process that is both efficient and ffective. INVENTORIES The management of inventories in essay teamwork, this firm is very poor and very much inefficient. The shortage of materials is caused by the fact that the firm has cut down on inventory which has resulted in materials/parts not available when required thus leading to downtime which is costing the writing a good letter for teaching job firm dearly as production department must work overtime and fastest modes of freight (which are mostly expensive) must be utilized in order to meet production and shipment deadlines. The Purchasing Manager does not understand and is not worried by the cost implication the reduced inventories and small orders has on reflective, the freight budget.
It appears that the instructions of the Managing Director regarding operating on low or no-inventory are implemented without careful consideration of the implications and/consequences. The Purchasing Manager must develop an Inventory Management policy that will reflect sound control measures with regards to acceptable quantities that must be carried on stock as well as the turn around times required for the supply of requested materials. PRODUCTION Production management within the analysis firm seems to reflective essay teamwork be inefficient. However, failure to communicate production materials requirement reflects a lack of effective communication between the Production Manager, Marketing Manager and regents june 2011, Purchasing Manager which is also compounded by the Production Manager’s personal view to having purchasing and distribution components, a view which seems to have contributed to problem the firm is faced with. For effective management of reflective production there is best essay, a need to hold inventory of critical materials at minimal level in order to ensure uninterrupted supply of production, and production forecasting must be communicated to the Purchasing Manager in order to ensure that sufficient materials are on hand for the duration of the reflective essay operation. The Production Manager must establish a working relationship with other Managers and communicate in good faith with the critical interests of the firm at heart. . WHAT SHOULD JOAN GLASS DO? The important aspect is for Joan Glass to acknowledge the importance of inventory management and inventory control. In order for inventory management to be a success it is important to conduct and analysis in order to determine materials that must be classified as inventory items.
This process involves planning and there are planning aids available to assist the Purchasing Manager during this process. According to Hugo et al. Essay. (2002) the aims and uses of the Film: Un Chien planning aids may be expressed as follows: – • To arrange, classify and interrelate the full range of stock items (the inventory) • To carry out an estimate of the teamwork real demand for different stock items • To obtain an estimate of the expected inventory requirements of the enterprise • To make an objective calculation of the quantities required, while considering inventory costs and inventory consumption. From the above it is clear that the required information for estimates must be obtained from other Managers and it is therefore necessary to develop a policy that is going to specifically address the issue of providing information to the Joan Glass. The policy must also address the issue of production forecasting by the Production Manager based on the orders issued in order to writing letter for teaching ensure the uninterrupted supply of materials. The re has to essay teamwork be an improvement in interaction between Managers and what peak oil thesis, the policy must define the roles and responsibilities of each component and encourage co-operation. . SHOULD JOAN GLASS SUGGEST A MATERIALS MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION? Materials management can be defined as a concept that is aimed at reflective essay teamwork ensuring that systems are efficient. It acknowledges the fact that supply activities are dependant on each other and that the problem with one activity has an influence on other activities linked to it. Materials management consolidates all activities under the control of a single Manager and aligns the processes (purchasing, inventory management, distribution and transport). An organization, which has adopted materials management organizational concept, will have a single Manager responsible for planning, organizing, motivating and controlling of all activities principally concerned with the flow of materials into an organization (Leenders Fearon, 1997). From the above it is clear that the firm in this case will have one Manager, as opposed to four Managers the firm currently has, responsible for all activities with the exception of production if the a good letter for teaching concept is adopted. It is also clear that the adoption of materials management approach will require the firm to undergo a restructuring process and organizational review, a process that will include review of business/supply processes.
As much as materials management has its advantages it is important for the firm to conduct an analysis and essay, research in order to determine whether such approach will reduce costs and increase profit margins as opposed to phd thesis writing the total costs for organizational restructuring. I do not think that Joan Glass should suggest a materials management organization. The firm has a challenge to ensure that there is flow of communication and teamwork, information sharing between Managers in essay crucible, order to cut down on freight costs. The approach in handling production and materials supply needs to be re-aligned and improved. 5. SHOULD GLASS BUILD UP HER INVENTORY? The decision to hold inventory should not be taken lightly as that might have a huge financial implication if the approach is fragmented. Inventory management cannot succeed if necessary controls are not in place as the costs for holding inventory might rise, shortage of space for inventory, obsolete inventory due to bulk buying. Essay. In this case there is a need to hold inventory considering the letter for teaching fact that the company is faced with a challenge in terms of reflective essay ensuring uninterrupted supply of material to production and also meet shipment deadlines; which is contrary to the current situation. Joan Glass should not just build up her inventory without any basis, such decision must be supported by the result of an a good cover analysis conducted as well as the forecast of the Production Manager. The ABC analysis, also known as the Pareto analysis, will assist Joan Glass to determine the items that must be kept on stock.
According to Hugo et al. (2002) the ABC analysis is primarily aimed at providing management with information on reflective, the importance of the Film: Un Chien different inventory items in terms of money value. The ABC analysis can only be attempted after a thorough investigation has been carried out on reflective, aspects such as price, demand for different inventory items, delivery times and what, the particular problems related to the purchasing of reflective different inventory items (Burt and Dobler, 1996). The carrying of inventory at a minimal level coupled with sound forecasting will reduce freight costs and also keep inventory costs as low as possible, which means that there has to be a balance between inventory carrying costs and english june 2011, ordering costs. Essay. 6. WHAT OTHER RECOMMENDATIONS COULD YOU MAKE TO RESOLVE THIS ISSUE? The case study shows that there is a communication breakdown between the management team and communication forms an integral part of the success of the organization. The communication model stipulates that communication goes both ways and there has to be feed back. There has to be frequent communication between marketing, purchasing and what, distribution departments in order to ensure that the required materials for orders do not fall short before the final production of an order. This will also assist the Purchasing Manager to plan properly and place consolidated orders which will minimize the freight costs.
There is also no indication that there is a purchasing/distribution policy in place in order to ensure that relevant processes are clearly spelt out. There is a need to be up to date with what is happening in the industry in order to ensure that the organization keeps up with the changes that takes place all the time and to make a meaningful contribution of the company. In this regard Joan Glass has to be aware of what is going on reflective teamwork, within the books essay firm, there has to essay be structured communication between Managers in order to critical analysis ensure that production and reflective essay teamwork, supply is not hindered because of materials shortage. Implementing decisions or suggestions made by management without consideration can have reaching consequences as it is the case here with the cutting down on inventory because of the suggestion by the Managing Director. Whenever changes have to be implemented an analysis and research needs to be conducted and justified by statistics/facts including costs that the is the peak organization will save. However, in this case no analysis was made except that Joan Glass decided to teamwork cut down on inventory without considering the best books to learn essay writing impact the non-availability of inventory will have to reflective essay teamwork production, distribution and marketing. Inventory management goes hand in hand with sound inventory control. The organization can also look at having contracts for certain materials in Un Chien, order to ensure that materials are delivered timeously. The organization must also look at formulating the teamwork purchasing policy in order to eliminate the fragment ordering approach that result in small orders being placed thus building up freight costs. The entire management team has to acknowledge the fact that planning is crucial in every successful organization and phd thesis literature writing, that organizational interest is more than individual interest as that can impact negatively on the success and growth of the organization. The case study has also highlighted the need to explore other options aimed at addressing the problem the organization is faced in order to provide the management team with valuable information coupled with well researched facts so that an informed decision can be taken.
CONCLUSION The case study has reflected on the problems and the importance of reflective essay teamwork inventory management and sound inventory control. It also highlights the importance of good and phd thesis literature writing, efficient management of Forecasting, Purchasing, Inventories and Production. The case study has highlighted the importance of planning and reflective teamwork, communication between the best books to learn essay writing management team and the consequences of reflective teamwork poor planning. REFERENCES Van Weele, A. J. 2005. Phd Thesis Review. Purchasing Supply Chain Management: Analysis, Strategy, Planning and Practice. 4th Ed. London: Thomson Learning. Hugo W. Essay Teamwork. M. J. , Badenhorst-Weiss J. A. van Rooyen D. C. 2002. Purchasing and Supply Management.
4th Ed. Pretoria, South Africa: Van Schaik Publishers. English June 2011 Essay. Burt D. N. , Dobler D. W. Starling S. L. 2003. Essay Teamwork. World Class Supply Management: The Key to Supply Chain Management. 7th Ed.
New York: McGraw-Hill.