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Leadership and Organization

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AP Biology: The Properties of Leadership and Organization Water Essay. Water has many unique properties that make life possible on Earth. One property is cohesion. Page Essay! The cohesion property is properly defined as the binding of water molecules by Leadership, hydrogen bonds. Essay Of Life Big City! Water has this property as a result of the chemical bonding between water. Cohesion of the strong hydrogen bonds allows the water molecules to stick together, almost as a unit of Leadership and Organization one. A force exerted on one of the molecules will be exerted on all of the adjacent molecules as a result of cohesion. Cohesion, often with the cooperation of adhesion, the clinging of one substance to another, adds to essay, the function and and Organization, ability of history thesis water to overcome strong natural forces, such as gravity.

When water is in its liquid state of matter, the hydrogen bonds are very frail and weak, about one-twentieth as strong as covalent bonds. Leadership! The bonds are made, broken, and remade very quickly. Each hydrogen bond lasts only a few trillionths of a second, but the constant synthesis of new bonds with a succession of partners acquires equilibrium. Therefore, a significant percentage of all the water molecules are bonded to their neighbors, making water a more orderly structured liquid than most other known liquids. A property related to cohesion is surface tension, a measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid.

Water is known to military history, have a greater surface tension than most other liquids. An ordered arrangement of hydrogen-bonded water molecules is present at the boundary between water and air. Leadership And Organization! As a result water behaves as though it is coated with an invisible film along the surface. An example how the cohesion of water affects the functioning of living organisms is present in plants. Evaporation from the leaves in plants pulls water up from the roots. Cohesion due to hydrogen bonding helps hold the column of water molecules together within the xylem vessels located in the stem or trunk of a plant. Adhesion helps the process by resisting the pull of gravity against the upward motion of the molecules. Another property of water is its solubility. Water is known as the essay universal solvent of life. Many substances can be combined with water to form a solution, a homogeneous mixture between two substances. Water, in solutions, is known as the solvent.

The substance or substances being dissolved is Leadership and Organization known as the solute. An aqueous solution is when a homogenous mixture where water is the solvent is present. As found by the medieval alchemists, water is the most soluble liquid. Although water is technically not universal, it is in film very versatile solvent. Water#8217;s solubility is a result of its polarity. Water is a polar molecule, meaning that the opposite ends of the molecule of opposite Leadership and Organization charges. In a water molecule, the polar covalent bonds allow the oxygen region of the molecule to have a partial negative charge and the hydrogen regions to occupational digitial, have a partial positive charge. When ionic crystals are placed in water, they are ionized.

The partially negative ion from the and Organization crystal bond to the hydrogen ions in water. The partially positive ion from the crystal bond to the oxygen ions in water. The sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion is called a hydration shell. Water eventually dissolves all the ions. As a result, there is a solution containing two solutes from the salt homogeneously mixed with water, the versatile solvent. Aside from ionic compounds, water can also be a solvent for many polar molecules. An effect of the versatile solubility can be demonstrated in the functioning of many liquid substances of living organisms, such as blood, the sap of plants, and the liquid contained in cells. Water#8217;s solubility allows for these liquids to have a universal concentration throughout the entire liquid, making the distribution of the ions or molecules in the solution equal. Another property of water is its high specific heat. The ability of water to stabilize temperatures in natural ecosystems is a result of its high specific heat.

Specific heat is defined as the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for history, one gram of a substance to change its temperature by one degree Celsius. Water#8217;s specific heat is defined as one calorie per gram per degree Celsius. This information comes from the definition of a calorie, the amount of heat that causes one gram of water to Leadership, change its temperature by history, one degree Celsius. Leadership And Organization! Because of water#8217;s high specific heat, water#8217;s temperature will change less when it absorbs or loses a certain amount of heat. Water resists changing its temperature, and when it happens to roe v wade case essay, change it, it absorbs or loses a large quantity of and Organization heat for each change in temperature. Water#8217;s specific heat is a direct result of hydrogen bonding. Large amounts of heat must be absorbed in order to break the hydrogen bonds, and large amounts of heat are released when hydrogen bonds form. One calorie doesn#8217;t cause a large change in the temperature primarily because most of the of college admission prompts heat energy is used to Leadership, disrupt the hydrogen bonds before the water molecules can start moving faster. When the temperature drops slightly, many hydrogen bonds form, releasing a large amount of heat energy. Essays Humanities! Water#8217;s high specific heat is directly related to life on Leadership, Earth through climate. Bodies of water in coastal areas can store large amounts of heat during the day and military thesis, release heat at night when cooling.

The specific heat also stabilizes ocean temperatures, creating a more favorable environment for marine life. Therefore, as a result of Leadership and Organization water#8217;s high specific heat, the water on roe v wade case essay, Earth keeps temperature changes on land and in water within life-permitting limits. Animals are also mostly made of water, allowing them to resist changes in their own temperatures. Water is so abundant and present in everyday life that it#8217;s easy to neglect the fact that it is an exceptional substance with many extraordinary qualities. Following the theme of and Organization emergent properties, water#8217;s unique behavior can be traced to the structure and thesis, interactions of its molecules. University/College: University of Leadership Chicago.

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How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. A summary is telling the main ideas of the article in your own words. These are the steps to writing a great summary: Read the Leadership, article, one paragraph at a time. Essays In Film And The Humanities? For each paragraph, underline the main idea sentence (topic sentence). Leadership And Organization? If you can't underline the book, write that sentence on your computer or a piece of paper. When you finish the article, read all the occupational therapy digitial, underlined sentences. Leadership? In your own words, write down one sentence that conveys the main idea.

Start the military, sentence using the name of the author and title of the article (see format below). Continue writing your summary by writing the other underlined sentences in your own words. Leadership? Remember that you need to change both the words of the sentence and the word order. Big City? For more information, see video below. Don't forget to Leadership and Organization, use transition words to link your sentences together.

See my list of transition words below to help you write your summary more effectively and make it more interesting to layout essay, read. Make sure you include the name of the author and article and Leadership use author tags (see list below) to digitial dissertations, let the reader know you are talking about Leadership what the author said and not your own ideas. Re-read your piece. Does it flow well? Are there too many details? Not enough?

Your summary should be as short and concise as possible. Author Tag : You need to start your summary by telling the name of the article and the author. Here are three examples of how to roe v wade essay, do that (pay close attention to Leadership, the punctuation): In “How the Civil War Began, historian John Jones explains. John Jones, in his article “How the Civil War Began, says that the real reason. How the Civil War Began, by historian John Jones, describes. First Sentence: Along with including the article's title and author's name, the first sentence should be the of college admission essay prompts, main point of the article. And Organization? It should answer the question: What is this essay about? (thesis).

Example: In How the Civil War Began by John Jones, the author argues that the list of college, real reason for the start of the Civil War was not slavery, as many believe, but was instead the clash of cultures and greed for Leadership cash. Rest of Summary: The rest of your essay is going to give the essay prompts, reasons and evidence for that main statement. In other words, what is the main point the writer is trying to make and what are the supporting ideas he or she uses to Leadership, prove it? Does the author bring up any opposing ideas, and if so, what does he or she do to refute them? Here is wade a sample sort of sentence: ___________ is the Leadership and Organization, issue addressed in “( article's title) ” by ( author's name) . The thesis of this essay is ___________ . The author’s main claim is ___________ and his/her sub claim is ___________ . The author argues ___________ . Other people argue ___________ . The author refutes these ideas by saying ___________ . His/her conclusion is ___________ . How Often Do You Mention the Author? While you don't have to use an digitial author tag in every sentence, you need to be clear when you are giving ideas that are taken from the article, and when you are saying your own ideas. In general, you want to and Organization, be sure that you always use the author's name and the article title when you start summarizing, and that you use the author's last name in of college essay prompts the last sentence as well to make it clear you are still talking about the author's ideas. In a research paper, you would then put a parenthetical citation or footnote, which tells the Leadership and Organization, reader you are finished using that source. Men and history thesis Women in Conversation: Example response essay to Leadership, Deborah Tannen's article about how divorce can be prevented if people learn the communication signals of the opposite occupational therapy digitial dissertations, gender.

Response Essay about Getting a Tattoo: Responds to a personal experience article from the Leadership, New York Times about a man who gets a dragon tattoo. Digitial? The Year that Changed Everything: Sample paper written by a college English class about an and Organization article by Lance Morrow suggesting that three lesser-known events of 1948 had a great impact on history. How is this written? Who is the audience? Is it effectively written for that audience? If you've done a literary analysis, you can apply what you know about analyzing literature to analyzing other texts.

You will want to consider what is of college admission effective and ineffective. You will analyze what the author does that works and what doesn't work to support the Leadership and Organization, author's point and persuade the audience to agree. Sometimes, especially when you're just getting started writing, the task of fitting a huge topic into an essay may feel daunting and you may not know where to start. It may help you to history, use a thing called TRACE when talking about the rhetorical situation. TRACE stands for Leadership and Organization Text, Reader, Author, Context, and Exigence: Text , Reader , and case essay Author are easy to understand. Leadership And Organization? When writing the essay, analysis, you need to think about Leadership and Organization what kind of text it is and what the author wanted to have the audience think, do, or believe.

The main question your analysis will answer is, How effective was the author at convincing that particular audience? Context means several things: how the article fits into the history of list of college discussion of that issue, the historical moment in time when the article is written, and the moment in time when a person reads the article. In this context, Exigence is synonymous with assumptions, bias, or worldview. Breaking the large idea down into Leadership and Organization, these five parts may help you get started and organize your ideas. In your paper, you'll probably want to address from three to roe v wade case essay, all five of these elements. Each of the following elements can be one paragraph of your analysis. You can answer the questions to help you generate ideas for each paragraph. To make it easier, I've included the Leadership and Organization, last two TRACE elements (Context and Exigence) as part of Author and Reader. How is the military thesis, essay organized? What is effective or ineffective about the Leadership and Organization, organization of the essay? How does the author try to military history, interest the reader?

How well does the author explain the main claims? Are these arguments logical? Do the support and Leadership and Organization evidence seem adequate? Is the support convincing to the reader? Does the evidence actually prove the point the author is trying to make? Who is the author? What does he or she know about this subject? What is the author's bias? Is the bias openly admitted? Does that make his or her argument more or less believable? Does the of college admission, author's knowledge and background make her or him reliable for this audience?

How does the author try to Leadership and Organization, relate to big city, the audience and establish common ground? Is it effective? How does the author interest the and Organization, audience? Does she or he make the reader want to know more? Does the author explain enough about the and the humanities, history of this argument? Is anything left out? Who is the reader? How would they react to Leadership and Organization, these arguments? How is this essay effective or ineffective for this audience?

What constraints (prejudices or perspectives) would make this reader able to hear or not hear certain arguments? What is the exigence (events in this moment in time which affect the need for this conversation) that makes the audience interested in this issue? Michael Critchton's Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves argues that we are overdoing caution and fear. See my Sample Reading Response to this essay and essay prompts also check out Lisa Rayner and Don Fraizier's response. Text : Analyzing the text is very much like doing literary analysis, which many students have done before. And Organization? Use all of your tools of literary analysis, including looking at the metaphors, rhythm of sentences, construction of arguments, tone, style, and use of language. Wade Case Essay? Example: The organization of Leadership and Organization essay title is effective/ineffective because ___________ . The essay's opening causes the reader to ___________ . The essay's style is ___________ and the tone is shown by ___________ . The language used is___________ . The essay's argument is constructed logically/illogically by military history, ___________. The essay is organized by ___________ ( give a very brief description of the structure of the essay, perhaps telling where the description of the Leadership and Organization, problem is, where claims are made, and where support is located—in which paragraphs—and why this is effective or ineffective in proving the military history, point ).

Author: You’ve probably also analyzed how the author’s life affects his or her writing. You can do the same for this sort of analysis. Leadership And Organization? For example, in my sample reading the response about Michael Crichton's Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves article, students noted that the fact that Crichton is the author of roe v wade case essay doomsday thrillers like Andromeda Strain and and Organization Jurassic Park makes his argument that we shouldn't pay much attention to current doomsday scenarios like global warming rather ironic. If you don't know anything about the author, you can always do a quick Google Search to find out. Sample format: The author establishes his/her authority by ___________ . The author's bias is essays in film humanities shown in ___________ . The author assumes an Leadership and Organization audience who ___________ . Military Thesis? He/She establishes common ground with the audience by ___________ . Reader: You can write this section by inferring who the intended reader is, as well as looking at the text from the viewpoint of other sorts of readers. For example, Readers are interested in this issue because of the exigence of Leadership and Organization ___________.

Constraints on of college prompts, the reader's reaction are ___________. And Organization? I think the reader would react to list of college prompts, this argument by ___________. I think that the author's ___________ is effective. ___________ is less effective because ___________ includes ___________. The support is adequate/inadequate and is relevant/irrelevant to the author’s claim. What do you think?

Does this article persuade you? Generally, your response will be the end of your essay, but you may include your response throughout the paper as you select what to Leadership, summarize and analyze. Your response will also be evident to the reader by the tone that you use and the words you select to military thesis, talk about the article and writer. However, your response in the conclusion will be more direct and specific. It will use the information you have already provided in your summary and analysis to explain how you feel about this article.

Most of the time, your response will fall into one of the following categories: You will agree with the author and back your agreement up with logic or personal experience. You will disagree with the author because of your experience or knowledge (although you may have sympathy with the author's position). You will agree with part of the author's points and disagree with others. You will agree or disagree with the Leadership, author but feel that there is a more important or different point which needs to be discussed in addition to what is in the article. How will this article fit into your own paper? How will you be able to use it? Here are some questions you can answer to of life in a, help you think about your response: What is and Organization your personal reaction to essays and the humanities, the essay?

What common ground do you have with the Leadership, author? How are your experiences the list essay prompts, same or different from the author's and how has your experience influenced your view? What in and Organization the essay is new to you? Do you know of any information the article left out that is relevant to the topic? What in this essay made you re-think your own view?

What does this essay make you think about? What other writing, life experience, or information would help you think about this article? What do you like or dislike about the essay and/or the ideas in the essay? How much of your response is related to your personal experience? How much is related to your own worldview? How is this feeling related to essays and the humanities, the information you know? How will this information be useful for you in Leadership writing your own essay? What position does this essay support? Or where might you use this article in your essay? You can use your answers to essay, the questions above to help you formulate your response.

Here is a sample of how you can put this together into your own essay (for more sample essays, see the links above): Before reading this article, my understanding of this topic was ___________. In my own experience, I have found ___________ and because of and Organization this, my reaction to this essay is ___________. Interestingly, I have ___________ as common ground with the author/audience . Of Life In A Big City? What was new to me is ___________. This essay makes me think ___________. And Organization? I like/dislike ___________ in the essay. I will use this article in my research essay for ___________. Summary Analysis Response to Men and Women in Conversation.

by Virginia Kearney 7. Summary, Analysis, Response Essay Example. by Virginia Kearney 0. Reading Response Sample Paper on Why We Crave Horror Movies by Virginia Kearney 6. 100 Current Events Research Paper Topics with Research Links. by Virginia Kearney 16. 100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37.

Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States. Hi Cathy, I tell my students that you want to include the examples you need to make your point clear, but you don't want to summarize everything. Hello, Thank you so much for military your guide. Is it necessary to include the author's examples in and Organization an analytical argumentative essay? Virginia Kearney 6 weeks ago from United States.

Rodsy, I'm so glad that this has helped you. I hope you will continue to layout for scholarship, use my other guides and sample papers to Leadership and Organization, complete your other projects. Rodsy Karim Taseen 6 weeks ago. Thank you so much for making it easy. Now I along with my group members can complete our assignment on writing summary on different research papers, based on the filed of essays International Business. Thank you so much! I really appreciate the effort put into your work. :) this will really help me now and in future.

Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi, Chloe! It would depend in part what sort of assignment you've been given. Generally, in doing a summary, you do not need to put the Leadership and Organization, information exactly in the same order as the original paper. Page For Scholarship? The important thing in Leadership summarizing is that you actually understand the information clearly enough that you can put it into your own words. I'm guessing that with the title, the in film and the, article has a number of reasons why we should allow the drugs. If the reasons can be grouped, into 3-4 types of reasons, that would be your best organization technique.

For example, I can image that the reasons to allow performance enhancing drugs are probably: We can't prevent athletes from and Organization getting around the rules. We have better athletic contests if we allow drugs. We don't have the right to tell athletes what they are doing with their own bodies. I'm not sure what your article says, but I'm guessing that you could group the reasons around a few themes and organize your summary that way.

hi there, i am doing a science report on military history thesis, Why we should allow performance enhancing drugs in and Organization sport and the article has 12 subheadings and i am supposed to summarize all of them. Occupational Therapy Dissertations? What structure would i put the paragraphs in so it isn't just random information summarizing the subsections, and Leadership and Organization i have an page layout for scholarship essay actual format to follow? Thank you :) Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi, Brad! You are probably needing one of my other articles if you are doing an Leadership argumentative essay. When you do an argument, you actually need to case essay, have a main claim that you want to persuade your audience to Leadership and Organization, believe. The analysis part of that sort of essay means that you evaluate the pros and cons of other ideas about roe v case that claim. I don't use the term analytical argumentative essay in my class but I do teach this same idea. I call it persuasive essay, or argument essay and I have several articles that tell you how to write that sort of essay. Look at the links to Leadership, the side or search for essay of life them on Letterpile using my name.

Would this be considered an Leadership and Organization outline for an analytical Argumentative essay? Virginia Kearney 5 months ago from United States. Hi--If you are doing a summary, analysis, and response, then you do it the same as we've described here except that you would summarize the story and then analyze whether it was told effectively and finally give a response. If you are actually talking about writing a narrative paper about wade something that happened to you, you need to Leadership, see my article on How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. Search for it on Letterpile or on my profile page. cletusoe12 @gmail.com 5 months ago. How can I write a story of a personal encounter in an accident. In narrative essay. Please can you give me example? Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States.

Hi Mimi--In the response section, you can explain how you are going to use that article in your research paper. Roe V Wade Essay? You might want to see my article on How to do an Annotated Bibliography, which also includes a sample. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from Leadership and Organization United States. Glad this is helpful to you Flor. I am not currently doing online tutoring but it is interesting for you to ask this because I've been considering setting up a website with videos and some live instruction help. what a great way to explain you have used here. Are you interested in doing tutoring online? I would love to have the opportunity to be tutor by page for scholarship, you. Hello, I am actually working on three articles and my supervisor asked to and Organization, make a summary including analysis.But what I would like to know how can I show that these three articles are related to my future research paper?how can I analyze them?can you please help me? I love the digitial, way this website gives steps and examples. I love how you can distinguish all of this into your on understanding.

All of this explaining is a great source for anything. You have to love everything about Leadership and Organization this site. This is the best. Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Hi Brianna--If you are doing a summary of an article, then I would do that first. If you are not responding to a particular article, then you should give a summary of the situation around this law and the different sides of the argument. Military Thesis? Then pose a question which is interesting to you. Your response will be more interesting if you go beyond just the idea of whether this is good or bad. Here are some ideas: Is this an effective strategy for pro-life groups to use?

Does just raising the Leadership and Organization, issue of burial change the conversation about abortion? Should women considering abortion have to think about burying their baby? How can I come up with a theme for history thesis my response paper. I am responding to the Texas new law that requires burial for Leadership and Organization aborted fetuses. Any ideas? Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Thanks for letting me know Seza! This type of essay is essays and the humanities not very well explained in Leadership and Organization many textbooks and list that is what led me to write these instructions and ask my students to post examples. And Organization? Since I've been using these instructions, I've found my students do a much better job at list of college admission essay prompts, writing these kinds of essays, which is and Organization important because the thinking you do while writing these essays is what prepares you for doing good research.

This post has been of and the humanities great help for me and my friends. Thank you very much. Excellent lesson. It helped me with reviewing summarizing with some of Leadership my students who were still having difficulty. I especially liked the chart. However, please change adjective to adverbs. Thanks for digitial dissertations the information. Very good insight on analysis description. I want to thank you for your time and effort in helping people be all they can be. Keep up the Leadership, great work.

Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from United States. Thanks Singapore! I love the fact that what I write and layout for scholarship essay use to Leadership and Organization, teach has helped people all over the world. I'm approaching 8 million views now! Thanks from prompts Singapore! It's for literature :) Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from United States. Thanks Simon! I've done a lot of writing over the years and I enjoy experimenting with different styles. I like the style of your post writing.

It's very rare to find something like this. This my second semester in the university and I have to Leadership, write. Roe V Case? Analysis essay I find your site very helpful for me. Really thank you. Virginia Kearney 16 months ago from United States. Hi Ercan! Since I started writing online in 2008, I've been amazed to see people from all over the world reading my work and being helped by the information I've developed for my students at Leadership and Organization, college here in the United States. Having had students from many other countries in my own classroom, I know that sometimes they have not gotten much instruction from native English speakers. I am glad to be able to page layout for scholarship, provide help for free to improve student's written English.

Ercan Oztoktay 16 months ago. Thanks so much from turkey. My first time to write a summary of a 4-page research paper, this useful article really helped me, thanks :) I don't know why I should go to school. This is the Leadership, right place. It's helping me in of life in a big city my English composition 2 class.thank you. Virginia Kearney 22 months ago from Leadership and Organization United States. Hi Ed, I'm not sure what your instructor means by writing with authority.

They may mean they want you to quote reliable, authoritative sources. In speech, we show authority by using declarative sentences which tell people what to do, such as, Be sure you write clear sentences using concrete adjectives and vivid adverbs. I suggest you ask your instructor for some examples of what they want you to do. Hello Professor Lynne. I have to write an essay with authority, can you advise me why type of words I can use to show my point? By the way the topic is dealing Information Technology. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Thanks yakul for military thesis your comment. Leadership And Organization? As a writer, I know I am always learning and improving too! Matty Fernandez 2 years ago from case essay Passaic, NJ. I have to and Organization, turn in essay of life in a big city a summary page for Critical Thinking.

You've helped me lots! Please follow me. Christy Maria 2 years ago. I am a student in University right now and I have to write response papers so often. This article is extremely useful for me so im going to Leadership and Organization, make sure to save it and look back on it when I have my next paper due! Thankyou. Najat 2 years ago from Rottherdam - NL. i like your hub, great sharing, i love the instructions. greeting from Hijama. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Aesta--glad to know this helped you.

My class is structured so that my students have to plan before they write, and then get feedback from peers before re-writing. Many of them don't like that process because they want to get it all done in one sitting, but after they have gone through this process for a semester, they begin to of college admission, realize that stopping to and Organization, organize their thoughts first often means that the writing goes much more quickly. In the end, it takes less time! Mary Norton 2 years ago from Ontario, Canada. Enjoyed reading your hub as it is really well written and very substantial. I need to digest this information and start applying this in my work. I often just write spontaneously, no outline, and roe v case I organize this after. Armed with these questions to ask as I write, maybe I can really put substance into my random thoughts.

Lloyd Jenkins 3 years ago. This was great information, it will help me in my English class this semester. And Organization? Organization is key in writing a good summary and response. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Organised Kaos--do you really live in Tasmania? That seems like a fairy tale place to me. Of course, as I write that, I realize that the places I've lived, Southern California, Texas and in film and the Florida may seem like fairy tale places to people in other parts of the Leadership and Organization, world!

Good luck on your college career. I went back to graduate school after 10 years of working and found that I enjoyed going to school so very much more than I had when I was younger. I actually enjoyed the essay, chance to learn things. As a professor, I really enjoy having students like yourself because their life experiences make their writing much more interesting. Actually, that reminds me that last semester I had a student from Australia who was older because he had been a professional Rugby player for several years before coming to the U.S. to go to college and play American football. Leadership And Organization? The whole class enjoyed all of his experiences and I'm sure your classmates will enjoy yours too. Anne 3 years ago from Hobart, Tasmania. Australia.(The little bit broken off the bottom of AUS) Thanks for a great hub.

Just about to go back to college after 20 years and layout essay am a little nervous about having forgotten this kinda stuff. Will be following you too as I want to be able to Leadership and Organization, refer at a later date, back to your instruction. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. How interesting Maddie--thanks for letting me know. My husband is a scientist and I love doing technology and science papers with my class in the second semester. I will have to think about doing some more topic ideas for science classes. I'm doing this for military history science. Anarkali Suits 4 years ago. “Words can be like X-rays if you use them properly -- they’ll go through anything. You read and you’re pierced.”

This page is a great method to connect to others. Congratulations on a job well achieved. I am anticipating your next. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. B. Leekley--absolutely! I'm so glad that you recognized that responsive reading doesn't just have to Leadership, be to texts. Anything that provides us something to think about can be put into layout for scholarship essay, a responsive reading. You've reminded me that I need to add my own Hub which responded to a Harvard Study on the effect of going to Leadership, 4th of July celebrations to my links.

Brian Leekley 5 years ago from Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA. Thank you for occupational digitial this interesting and Leadership helpful hub. I have bookmarked it. I can foresee myself writing hubs that are responses to hubs that argue for a philosophical or political position. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. I'm glad! I'm just now grading my student's Summary, Analysis and Response essays and in film I'm so pleased that they have really understood how to do this paper. I'm hoping my directions this semester have been clearer. We did two days of peer editing, which I think helped.

This paper is Leadership similar to and the, the Reading Response paper, and both of these Hubs are are the very top in number of and Organization hits, so I think that many people have trouble on in a big city, these essays and the textbooks don't always describe them well. Many thanks Virginia..you made things a lot simpler for me! Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. johnsdfd--good question. Yes--I should add that to the hub. You do a bibliographic entry in either mla or apa style at and Organization, the top, then the summary/analysis/response is below. htodd 5 years ago from layout for scholarship essay United States. Great post virginialynne..Thanks.

Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Glad I helped you nico! My class is just starting on this essay now and so I was looking at my Hubviews and very surprised to find this one had over 3,000! I really published it for my own classes, but the class I'm teaching now is the first one that will use it. Guess there are a lot of other people out there needing help! Virginia Kearney 6 years ago from United States. Thanks! I think that a lot of the instructions given for essays really don't help you know how to organize them.

I've actually learned a lot about writing by trying to figure out how to Leadership and Organization, teach other people! Rose Clearfield 6 years ago from Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Well written. I like how you break everything down. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of of college admission prompts their respective owners. HubPages ® is Leadership a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.

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The Electoral College: Enlightened Democracy. Select a Section 1 /0. Toggle open close. The mode of appointment of the Chief Magistrate of the United States is almost the only part of the system . And Organization? . . which has escaped without severe censure. . . Essay? . And Organization? I venture somewhat further, and hesitate not to affirm that if the manner of it be not perfect, it is at least excellent. The United States is quickly approaching its first presidential election since the eventful election of military thesis 2000. The story of that election is still fresh in our memory. George W. Bush won the presidency, but only after weeks of controversy in Florida. And Organization? His win made him the first President in more than 100 years to attain the White House despite a popular vote loss,2 and it led to renewed calls for abolition of America's unique presidential election system, colloquially referred to as the Electoral College.3. Some academics have criticized the Electoral College for years. It has been called an roe v anachronism that thwarts democratic principles,4 constitutional stupidity,5or even a dangerous game with many built-in pitfalls that are bound to Leadership destroy us.6 In 1967, the American Bar Association blasted the occupational digitial, system, calling it archaic, undemocratic, complex, ambiguous, indirect, and dangerous.7.

The negative views of and Organization today's academics are starkly at odds with the page, universal admiration for the system at the time it was created. Alexander Hamilton, for Leadership and Organization instance, publicly deemed the Electoral College excellent.8 Other delegates at the Constitutional Convention agreed with him: They viewed the Electoral College as one of the new Constitution's great achievements. Occupational Dissertations? Today's unenthusiastic views would almost certainly surprise these early patriots. The Constitution's Election Process. Modern-day American presidential elections are governed by the 12th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution,9 which was adopted and ratified by the states in Leadership, 1804. The 12th Amendment modified the Constitution's original Article II election procedure to provide for the current system of one-ticket voting for the President and essay Vice President.10. It is perhaps easiest to think of the current election procedure in two phases: first, the Electoral College vote, and second, the contingent election procedure, which is used only if no candidate wins a majority of electoral votes. The Electoral College Vote. The Constitution provides for a presidential election among the states, rather than among individuals. In this election, each state is granted a certain number of representatives, called electors, to cast votes on its behalf.11 This national vote among the states is often referred to as the vote of the Electoral College.

States are allocated one elector for each of their representatives in Congress.12 Each state therefore automatically receives a minimum of three votes, as it is entitled to at least two Senators and one Congressman, regardless of population.13 Adoption of the and Organization, 23rd Amendment in 1961 provided the District of Columbia with at least three electoral votes, as if it were a state.14 There are currently 538 total electors. Following the 2000 census, California has the most electors (55), while seven states plus the District of Columbia have the minimum number of electors (3).15. State legislatures decide how to appoint electors for this national election,16 and it is generally agreed that the legislatures may appoint electors in any manner that they choose.17 Each state except Maine and Nebraska currently uses a winner-take-all system, whereby the presidential candidate winning the state's popular vote is awarded the state's entire slate of electors. Maine and for scholarship essay Nebraska each give two electoral votes to the winner of the state's popular vote and select the remaining electors by congressional district.18. The Electoral Count Act of 1887,19 as updated through the years, currently provides an and Organization election timeline: Election Day is the Tuesday following the first Monday in November in any given presidential election year.20 Each state certifies a slate of electors based upon layout for scholarship essay, the outcome of its popular vote. These electors assemble in their state on the first Monday after the second Wednesday in Leadership and Organization, December.21 On this day, the electors cast the votes that officially determine who will be the next President of the United States. Humanities? Congress meets in Leadership and Organization, joint session to of college admission prompts count these votes on the following January 6.22. To be elected President, a candidate needs a majority of these states' electoral votes, which are cast in December. He does not need a majority of the and Organization, direct popular vote cast on Election Day.23 At this time, 270 votes constitute a majority of the Electoral College and essay will win the and Organization, presidency for a candidate.24. The Contingent Election.

If no candidate wins a majority of the Electoral College vote, the Constitution provides a backup method for presidential selection. This procedure is occupational often referred to Leadership as the Constitution's contingent election procedure. In this secondary election, the House selects a President and the Senate selects a Vice President.25. In the House vote for President, each state delegation is granted one vote.26 If a state's delegation is evenly divided, that state cannot vote until and unless the tie is broken. A President is elected when one candidate wins a majority of the votes of state delegations (currently 26). State delegations may vote for any one of the list of college admission essay, top three presidential candidates in the electoral vote, and re-votes are taken until a majority is achieved.

A similar procedure is employed for election of the Vice President, except that each Senator is granted one vote and only the and Organization, top two vice presidential candidates from the electoral vote are candidates in case essay, the Senate vote. The Founders spent months of extensive deliberation on the topic of presidential election: They deemed it one of the most difficult issues facing the Convention. When the Electoral College proposal was completed, they viewed it as a unique and Leadership commendable solution that would satisfy the roe v wade essay, many -- apparently contradictory -- goals of the new republic. Origins of the Electoral College. Contrary to modern perceptions, the founding generation did not intend to create a direct democracy. And Organization? To the contrary, the Founders deliberately created a republic -- or, arguably, a republican democracy -- that would incorporate a spirit of compromise and deliberation into decision-making.

Such a form of government, the essay, Founders believed, would allow them to achieve two potentially conflicting objectives: avoiding the tyranny of the majority inherent in pure democratic systems, while allowing the sense of the people to be reflected in the new American government.27 Moreover, a republican government, organized on and Organization, federalist principles, would allow the therapy digitial, delegates to achieve the Leadership, most difficult of their tasks: enabling large and essay big city small sovereign states to live peacefully alongside each other. The authors of the Constitution had studied the history of many failed democratic systems, and they strove to create a different form of government. Indeed, James Madison, delegate from Leadership, Virginia, argued that unfettered majorities such as those found in pure democracies tend toward tyranny.Madison stated it this way: [In a pure democracy], [a] common passion or interest will, in almost every case, be felt by a majority of the whole; a communication and concert results from the form of government itself; and there is nothing to check the inducements to sacrifice the weaker party or an obnoxious individual. Hence it is that such democracies have ever been spectacles of turbulence and layout for scholarship essay contention; have ever been found incompatible with personal security or the rights of property; and Leadership have in general been as short in their lives as they have been violent in their deaths.28. Alexander Hamilton agreed that [t]he ancient democracies, in which the people themselves deliberated, never possessed one feature of good government. Their very character was tyranny; their figure, deformity.29 Other early Americans concurred. John Adams, who signed the Declaration of Independence and page layout essay later became President, declared, [D]emocracy never lasts long. It soon wastes, exhausts, and Leadership murders itself.

There never was a democracy yet that did not commit suicide.30 Another signatory to the Declaration of Independence, Benjamin Rush, stated, A simple democracy . . . is one of the greatest of evils.31. Despite these strong statements against military democracy, the Founders were also strong advocates for self-government, and they often spoke of the need to allow the will of the people to operate in the new government that they were crafting. Leadership And Organization? Notwithstanding the oppressions injustice experienced among us from democracy, Virginia delegate George Mason declared, the genius of the people must be consulted.32 James Madison agreed, speaking of the honorable determination which animates every votary of freedom to rest all our political experiments on the capacity of mankind for roe v case self-government.33. The delegates, then, faced a dilemma. Their fierce opposition to simple democracy ran headlong into their determination to allow the people to govern themselves -- and they knew that voters in small states would need to and Organization be free to govern themselves, just as would citizens in large states.

The Founders reconciled these seemingly conflicting needs by military thesis creating a republican government, organized on federalist principles, in Leadership, which minorities would be given many opportunities to make themselves heard. The Electoral College was considered to fit perfectly within this republican, federalist government that had been created. The system would allow majorities to essay rule, but only while they were reasonable, broad-based, and not tyrannical. The election process was seen as a clever solution to the seemingly unsolvable problem facing the Convention -- finding a fair method of selecting the Executive for a nation composed of both large and small states that have ceded some, but not all, of their sovereignty to a central government. Leadership And Organization? `[T]he genius of the present [Electoral College] system,' a 1970 Senate report concluded, `is the page, genius of a popular democracy organized on the federal principle.'34. 21st Century America. Much has changed since 1787. The Founders could not have foreseen the rapid technological advancements, massive federal bureaucracy, and increasingly populist attitudes that characterize American life today. Could it be that the Leadership and Organization, Electoral College, although once an ingenious solution to many 18th century problems, has today become merely an anachronism -- and a potentially dangerous one at that?

The Electoral College undoubtedly operates in a different society from the essay in a big city, one that existed in Leadership, 1787. Yet the history thesis, Electoral College has shown an and Organization amazing ability to adapt to modern-day America. It may sometimes operate differently than expected, but it still serves the political goals it was intended to serve. In truth, its operation in modern times may be even more valuable. The Benefits of Federalism. Critics of the Electoral College allege that the country's presidential election process does more to wade case trample the rights of individuals than to protect federalism. In this context, they often cite the winner-take-all method employed by most states, claiming that it causes the votes of some individuals to Leadership be wasted.35 As this argument goes, a Texan who voted for Al Gore in the 2000 election wasted his vote because George W. Essay In A Big City? Bush was awarded the state's entire slate of Leadership electors under the winner-take-all method.

Gore did not win so much as one electoral vote from Texas, despite winning nearly 2.5 million of in film that state's popular votes during the election. 36 In a direct popular election, critics note, these votes would not have been wasted -- they could have instead been included in and Organization, the final national tally for Gore. Such arguments, however, are a bit disingenuous. These votes were not wasted. Layout For Scholarship Essay? They were simply cast on the losing side of a popular vote within the state. If the 2000 election had been conducted based on nationwide popular vote totals only, would people claim that any vote for George W. Bush was wasted because Al Gore won the popular vote? Of course not.

The votes for Leadership Bush were cast in an effort to win. Essay In A? In the Leadership and Organization, event of a loss, they would simply have been votes for the losing candidate -- just as in any other election (such as an election for of college admission Governor or Senator). The primary effect of America's federalist presidential election process is to protect the freedom of Leadership individuals -- particularly those in small states and sparsely populated areas. Perhaps the best method of demonstrating the benefits of federalism is to expose the history, evils suffered without it. As the system stands today, presidential candidates have no incentive to poll large margins in any one state.

Winning 50.1 percent of the Leadership, votes in a state is as effective as winning 100 percent of the essay prompts, votes. Presidential candidates therefore tour the nation, campaigning in all states and seeking to build a national coalition that will enable them to Leadership win a majority of states' electoral votes.37 Direct popular elections, by contrast, would present different incentives. Suddenly, winning 100 percent of the thesis, votes is better than winning 50.1 percent of the votes. In fact, it may be easier to rack up votes in Leadership and Organization, a friendly state than to gain 50.1 percent of votes in each of two states of similar size, although the payoff would be essentially the same. The result? Democrats would almost certainly spend most of their time in wade case essay, the large population centers in and Organization, California and New York. Republicans would campaign in the South and Midwest. Large cities would be focused on almost exclusively as the candidates seek to turn out as many votes as possible in occupational therapy digitial dissertations, their region of the country. Small states, rural areas, and Leadership sparsely populated regions would find themselves with little to no voice in presidential selection. In this scenario, a handful of states (or heavily populated cities) win, while the remaining states and less-populated areas suffer significantly.38.

Many critics dispute this description of the list admission essay, two types of elections. They contend that the current system does not encourage presidential candidates to tour the nation, but instead encourages a focus on and Organization, mid-sized swing states. Therapy Dissertations? Safe states and and Organization small states, they allege, do not receive nearly as much attention on roe v wade case, this national tour. There is an element of truth in and Organization, this observation. Of Life Big City? Yet to the degree that safe states do not receive a proportionate amount of attention during campaigns, the and Organization, logical conclusion is that those states, by and large, must already feel that one of the two presidential candidates represents their interests fairly well. Layout For Scholarship? When a candidate ceases to adequately understand and represent one of his state's interests, the discontent in Leadership and Organization, that state is usually expressed pretty quickly. Consider the situation in West Virginia in occupational therapy, recent decades. Democrats considered West Virginia a safe state for years; thus, the state probably saw less post-nomination campaign activity from 1960-2000 than it might have otherwise. However, in 2000, the Leadership and Organization, Bush campaign recognized an opportunity to gain a foothold in the state due to concern about the impact of Gore's environmental policies on the coal-mining industry and occupational therapy digitial dissertations his support for gun control.39 Bush took advantage of this discontent, and he spent more than $2 million communicating his message to West Virginia's voters.40 When election results were tallied, Bush became the first Republican since 1928 to win an open race for the presidency in West Virginia.41 In 2004, West Virginia is no longer considered a safe state for Democrats.

A second argument made by Leadership critics is similarly flawed. Although the winner-take-all system causes large states (especially large swing states) to elicit more attention than small states, these critics erroneously compare the amount of campaigning in page essay, small versus large states under the current system. They should instead compare the treatment of small states under the and Organization, current system against the treatment they would receive under a new one. Today, small states undoubtedly receive less attention than large states (unless, of course, the occupational digitial dissertations, large state is considered a safe state). However, a direct vote system would magnify, not improve, this problem because it would encourage a focus on highly populated areas.

Small states would likely never receive as much attention as their larger neighbors. The goal is not to eliminate this disparity, but to minimize its severity. Leadership? Under the Electoral College system, the states are as evenly represented as possible, given that they are not all the same size. One interesting twist to the arguments raised by Electoral College critics focuses on the reality that even if small states benefit from the Electoral College, they do so at the expense of the individuals who reside in small states. This complaint can be confusing because it sounds like the opposite of another complaint -- that the two vote add-on for page layout for scholarship small states (giving all a guaranteed minimum of three electoral votes) creates a bias in their favor. The two extra electoral votes given to all states, regardless of population, do create an advantage for and Organization those states. As a statistical matter, however, the advantage plays in favor of the state as a whole, rather than the individual voter. By contrast, the mathematical advantage granted by essay the winner-take-all system plays in favor of and Organization individual voters in occupational, the larger states. These voters have a statistically higher probability of and Organization materially affecting the outcome of the page, election.42.

As a purely statistical matter, perhaps this assessment is accurate. However, the odds of any one voter providing the tipping point in an election are still exceedingly small. Further, any individual disadvantage for those who reside in small states is outweighed by the larger advantage given to and Organization the state as a whole. In sum, the nation conducts democratic, popular elections -- but they are conducted at the state level, rather than the national level. Of Life In A? Professor Charles R. Kesler of Claremont McKenna College explains: In truth, the issue is Leadership and Organization democracy with federalism (the Electoral College) versus democracy without federalism (a national popular vote). Either is democratic. Only the Electoral College preserves federalism, moderates ideological differences, and military history promotes national consensus in our choice of a chief executive.43. Moderation and Leadership Compromise . Presidential candidates must build a national base among the states before they can be elected. They cannot target any one interest group or regional minority. List Essay? Instead, they must achieve a consensus among enough groups, spread out over many states, to create a broad-based following among the voters. Any other course of action will prevent a candidate from gaining the strong base needed to win the election.

The necessity of building such a national base has led to Leadership and Organization moderation and a strong two-party system in American politics. Some see this trend toward moderation and a two-party system as a liability. They argue that certain points of view on the far left or far right do not have representation. Some voters do identify with a third party more than they identify with one of the two major parties. Democratic theories try to satisfy the choices of all voters, but not to the point of destabilizing democratic majorities and democratic government itself. A system that favors a stable two-party system, but allows minority parties to vie for page layout for scholarship control, has a definite benefit over a system that favors many minority parties: Hand in hand with the Electoral College, it tends to prevent the rise to power of extremist groups and radical minorities. Instead, American public policy tends to remain in and Organization, the middle -- not too far left, not too far right.

Some proponents of a direct election system dispute this analysis. Removing the Electoral College, they argue, would not undermine the two-party system.44 However, these proponents make the mistake of assuming that they can change one factor while leaving all other dynamics unchanged.45 Predictions of what would happen in a direct election system should assume that it is at least possible that changing the election procedure will cause more than one aspect of the political process to change. Indeed, one has only to look to history or comparative governments to see how easily such a system could disintegrate into multi-candidate races, which would, in big city, turn, devolve into a system of regular runoffs or fractious coalition governments. Consider the election of 1992. One of the primary factors that prevented some people from voting for Perot was that they felt their vote would be wasted. A vote for Ross Perot is a vote for Bill Clinton, voters were told. Now imagine the 1992 election without an Electoral College.

Suddenly, the incentives change. Clinton no longer has to be beaten; he just needs to be held under some pre-determined percentage (40% in most proposals for change). Leadership? To get in the runoff, Perot voters do not need to wade case win; they simply need to overtake George H.W. Bush. A vote for and Organization Perot is of college no longer wasted. The Reform Party has a specific, achievable goal with which to Leadership and Organization motivate its supporters. In the actual 1992 election -- even with all the disincentives inherent in the Electoral College system -- Perot received 18.9 percent of the popular vote. Bush received 37.4 percent of the vote, and Clinton received 43.0 percent.

Had this election been a direct popular election, it would have been only three percent away from triggering a runoff. With such incentives, would not Perot supporters have had a much easier time getting voters to switch their candidate? Once one runoff has been triggered, why would multiple third parties not jump into the race in future elections? As such a situation became the norm, more and more candidates would be motivated to enter presidential contests. Support from a smaller and smaller percentage of the population would be needed to qualify for wade essay the runoff. Over time, candidates would become more and Leadership and Organization more extreme and roe v wade case uncompromising. Professor Judith Best explains this dynamic:

[T]he splintering of the vote works against the moderate candidates and works to the advantage of the immoderate, extreme candidates. It does this because the Leadership, middle is where the therapy dissertations, inclusive coalitions can be built. By undermining coalition building prior to the general election, a runoff fragments the middle, not the Leadership, extremes; the extremes are rarely fragmented -- fanatics have solidarity.46. Direct popular election proponents sound plausible when they argue for election of the President by a majority of the roe v case essay, people. In reality, however, a President elected by the majority of Leadership citizens will rarely be achievable. A majority, after all, will never agree on an ideal candidate.

Given an open choice, individuals would fracture their votes across many candidates. Runoffs would proliferate, and Presidents would essentially be elected by essay in a the initial 20 or 25 percent of voters who got them into the runoff. Presidents would always know that at least 75 to 80 percent of the people originally voted for someone else. Given the general inability to obtain majority consensus, the Electoral College provides the country with the and Organization, next best alternative. Electing Presidents by states' votes, rather than individuals' votes, creates a method of electing a President who is a good compromise candidate for the majority of roe v essay Americans.47 The Electoral College requires moderation, compromise, and Leadership coalition building from any candidate before he can be successful. Direct elections and a system of runoffs discourage such behavior. Stability and Certainty in Elections. Historically, most elections have not been close in the Electoral College, even when the popular vote is close. The Electoral College system, when combined with the winner-take-all rule, tends to magnify the roe v wade case, margin of victory, giving the victor a certain and demonstrable election outcome.48 The magnification of the electoral vote can work to solidify the country behind the new President by bestowing an aura of legitimacy. The election of 1960 was one such close election. John Kennedy won only Leadership, 49.7 percent of the popular vote, compared to Nixon's 49.5 percent.

However, Kennedy won 56.4 percent of the electoral vote, compared to admission Nixon's 40.8 percent. Eight years later, this magnification effect worked in favor of Leadership Nixon. Although he won the popular vote by less than one percent, he won 55.9 percent of the page, electoral vote to Hubert Humphrey's 35.5 percent. This magnification effect increases dramatically as popular vote totals spread apart. For instance, in 1952, the winning candidate won 55.1 percent of the popular vote, but a much larger 83.2 percent of the Leadership and Organization, Electoral College vote. In 1956, the difference was 57.4 percent (popular vote) to 86.1 percent (electoral vote). In 1964, it was 61.1 percent (popular vote) to in film 90.3 percent (electoral vote). Presidential elections since 1804 have generally seen wide margins of Leadership victory in the Electoral College. These margins have gotten wider, on occupational digitial dissertations, average, through the years as the Leadership and Organization, winner-take-all rule has been adopted by more states and the two-party system has solidified. Since 1804, only two elections -- those in occupational therapy digitial dissertations, 1876 and 2000 -- were won by fewer than 20 electoral votes. Six elections were won by fewer than 50 electoral votes: Four of these were held in the 1800s.

Of the and Organization, 26 elections held between 1900 and and the humanities 2000, 17 Presidents have been elected after winning the Leadership and Organization, electoral vote by a margin of 200 votes or more. These consistently wide margins of victory in the Electoral College have come about despite the fact that the margin between the top two candidates in page for scholarship, the popular vote was less than 10 percent in Leadership and Organization, 14 of the 26 elections held since 1900. This margin exceeded 20 percent only history thesis, five times since 1900. A direct popular election, by contrast, would not grant certainty nearly as often. Close popular votes, such as those discussed above, could easily result in demands for recounts on a national scale. America rarely has close electoral votes. And Organization? It does, however, have close popular votes fairly consistently. Do Americans really want a presidential election system that could result in hotly contested recounts nearly every election? The Electoral College provides yet another benefit: It reduces the incidence of fraud and error. Obviously, no system can completely eliminate the element of human error. Neither can any system eradicate the tendency of therapy digitial dissertations some dishonest individuals to cheat.

An election system can, however, minimize the extent to which these factors affect elections.49 The Electoral College defends against fraudulent behavior and human error in two ways: First, the Leadership and Organization, system makes it difficult to predict where stolen votes will make a difference. Second, to the degree that fraud and errors do occur, the Electoral College makes it possible to isolate the problem to one state or a handful of states. The country is roe v wade case given a clear set of problems to resolve one way or another before moving on to a definitive election outcome -- much as it knew in 2000 that the Leadership and Organization, election would be certain once Florida's disputes were resolved.50. Today, both the big city, electoral and the popular votes must be extremely close before voting disputes and recounts are threatened. And Organization? By contrast, a direct popular election would require only a close popular vote before these scenarios became possible. Wade Case? National recounts and legal challenges would be a constant possibility, particularly because of the increasing likelihood of multiple candidacies, lower individual vote totals, and smaller margins among candidates. Moreover, a direct popular vote system would increase, rather than decrease, the incentive for fraud.

Any stolen vote would have at least some effect, regardless of its location. Party officials and Leadership and Organization supporters in states in which that party clearly dominates have the essay, greatest ability to rig election rules and get away with cheating on behalf of their party's candidate. Under the Electoral College system, however, they have the least incentive or need to cheat for their presidential candidate. Using a direct election system, dishonest officials in Leadership, one-party states have both the ability and incentive to cheat, creating potential resentment, suspicion, and page essay hatred from other states and from the and Organization, citizens of admission essay their own state. The Electoral College minimizes the Leadership and Organization, impact of fraud, isolating it to the one or two states where the vote was close, disputed, and relevant to the Electoral College balance. Direct popular election is of life big city not the Leadership, only alternative to the Electoral College that has been proposed. Two other proposals are also worthy of discussion: (1) The District Plan would award electoral votes by congressional district, rather than by state; and (2) The Proportional Plan would divide states' electoral votes proportionally, according to list of college essay the popular vote outcome within the Leadership, state.

Individual legislatures are free to adopt most such plans now. Military Thesis? It is Leadership and Organization telling that so few have done so. District Plan. The District Plan would award electoral votes based upon essay in a, congressional district. The candidate with the most votes in any congressional district would win that district's one electoral vote. The two Senate add-on votes in each state would then be treated as at-large votes and awarded to the state's popular vote winner. Maine and Nebraska already operate under this system. Leadership? The proposal would require other states to join them. Essay Of Life In A Big City? Neither Maine nor Nebraska has divided its electoral votes since their systems were first implemented, but with close presidential elections the odds increase that one or both states will do so. 51. Proponents of the District Plan argue that the system preserves the small-state advantage, while allowing diversity within the states to be reflected in the national election totals.52 Moreover, they add, candidates would be encouraged to campaign in states previously considered safe.

Greater voter participation would result, they argue, because every voter would feel that his vote counts. Other Electoral College critics dismiss the District Plan, arguing that the plan fails to address the problem of a popular vote winner failing to win the Leadership, presidency.53 Indeed, Bush's margin of victory in the Electoral College would have been greater under the District Plan, despite his popular vote loss.54. The District Plan retains some of the advantages of the current Electoral College arrangement. America's presidential election system should encourage national coalition building, and wade case essay campaigning by districts would certainly work toward this goal.55 However, many of the other benefits envisioned by District Plan proponents are unlikely to come to pass. Greater voter participation is improbable, particularly in lopsided or safe congressional districts -- and most congressional districts are safe. This so-called reform may actually have the opposite effect from what was intended in Leadership and Organization, states that are close overall but have congressional districts that are not. Even worse, the primary incentive created by the District Plan is an increased motivation for gerrymandering.

State boundaries have one significant advantage over congressional district boundaries: They are reasonably permanent and cannot be changed by an incumbent class of officials.56. Another problem created by the District Plan is that it diverts attention from statewide and military history national issues. It discourages candidates from addressing issues that appeal to the state as a whole and might encourage candidates to visit district rich, high-population centers to the exclusion of rural districts. Moreover, if a state votes in pieces, consequential issues would fall out of the larger debate in favor of and Organization local grievances. Focusing on a few swing districts would repeat on of life in a, a fragmented scale the swing state problem. Candidates might visit only a few close districts and ignore areas considered safe.

Despite these arguments against the District Plan, the current system allows a state to switch to the District Plan if it decides that doing so would be beneficial within its borders -- and Leadership it may do so without the necessity of passing a constitutional amendment. Moreover, the state can switch back to a winner-take-all system if implementing the list, District Plan causes more problems than it solved (as it is likely to do). Constitutional amendments are not completed -- or undone -- nearly as easily. Proportional Plan. Under the Proportional Plan, the Electoral College would be retained, but the electoral votes in each state would be allocated based upon the percentage of the popular vote won. Some versions of this plan call for whole electoral votes to be divided in the interest of accuracy.57 Others also propose that the total number of electoral votes needed to win should be lowered to a 40 percent threshold.58. Proponents argue that the plan would preserve the states' Electoral College strength, but that the results would be closer to the national popular vote outcome.59 They further argue that the Leadership, voices of essays in film and the minority voting groups would be reflected in the final election tally because even ballots cast for Leadership third-party candidates could be reflected in list admission essay prompts, the national results.

Presidents could be elected without winning the popular vote, but such an outcome would be less likely than under the current system. Other Electoral College opponents deem even the small remaining possibility of a popular vote loser President to be unacceptable.60. The Proportional Plan is yet another option that sounds good on the surface, but that creates problems in practice. First, constant fighting would erupt over election tallies. After all, a swing of Leadership and Organization one-tenth of roe v wade case a percent in one or several states could change the outcome of the election. Potentially, at least one electoral vote in each of the 50 states would be open to dispute every presidential election year.61 Worse, because this type of and Organization election is so similar to a direct popular election system, it contains many of the same downfalls: multiple candidacies, close elections, runoffs, greater potential for fraud, and greater incentives for extremist candidates to join the fray.

Definitive election outcomes are discouraged. Close vote totals and challenges to election outcomes would become the norm. Colorado, however, is currently considering adoption of history this plan. A Colorado citizens' organization -- financed by Leadership and Organization a group from San Francisco and funded by a Brazilian millionaire who resides part-time in California62 -- recently collected enough signatures to place a referendum on its November 2004 ballot.If passed, this referendum would supposedly replace Colorado's winner-take-all system of casting electoral votes with a system of proportional allocation, making Colorado the only state to enact such a method in presidential elections.63. The referendum, however, has a glaring flaw.

It purports to let Colorado voters decide the essays and the humanities, method of allocating the state's electoral votes, despite the fact that the Constitution gives this power to Leadership state legislatures, not state citizens.64 For constitutional purposes, the difference is very real. If the referendum passes, the most likely result is essay of life in a a series of court challenges in Colorado. Proponents of the and Organization, referendum argue that state statutory and constitutional provisions make the people equivalent to the legislature when they act through referendum or initiative. Therefore, they conclude, passage of a referendum or other citizen initiative is a perfectly legal and valid manner of changing electoral vote allocations in the state. These proponents, however, have forgotten the Supremacy Clause of the U. S. Constitution: State laws and constitutions may not trump the U.S. Constitution. The U.S. List Of College Admission Prompts? Constitution is the supreme law of the land and preempts all other laws. That same Constitution explicitly designates each state's legislature as the entity with authority to decide the manner of appointing electors.

States (whether by referenda or other means) may certainly delegate legislative power to citizens for state purposes, but they may not delegate the state legislature's constitutionally mandated duties in the national presidential election process. This principle has been upheld by the Supreme Court in and Organization, venerable old cases and some very recent decisions after the occupational, last presidential election. Speaking about an Ohio plan that would allow the people to act in place of the legislature for certain purposes related to ratifying constitutional amendments, the Court observed in 1920 that the Founders wrote the constitutional language based upon and Organization, their wish to secur[e] deliberation and military thesis consideration before any change [to the Constitution] can be proposed.65 In short, the Court held, when the Leadership, Constitution says the Legislature, it means the Legislature. The Court explained that: The framers of the Constitution might have adopted a different method.

Ratification might have been left to a vote of the layout, people, or to some authority of government other than that selected. And Organization? The language of the article is plain, and admits of essays and the no doubt in Leadership, its interpretation. It is not the military history, function of courts or legislative bodies, national or state, to alter the method which the Constitution has fixed.66. In even simpler terms, however, the Court also pointed out what almost any middle-school child should know: A Legislature is a representative body, not the people themselves. What did the framers of the Constitution mean in Leadership and Organization, requiring [action] by `Legislatures'? That was not a term of uncertain meaning when incorporated into the Constitution. List Admission? What it meant when adopted it still means for the purpose of Leadership interpretation. Admission Prompts? A Legislature was then the representative body which made the laws of the people.67. This principle applies to the constitutional process for electing a President, just as it applies to the constitutional amendment process.68. State legislatures certainly may choose a proportional method of electoral vote allocation if they deem such a method to be in the best interest of their state.

However, if one state acting on its own (particularly a small state) were to enact a proportional method of allocating electoral votes, the primary effect of its action would be to significantly dilute its voting strength as compared to and Organization the other states because no presidential candidate will spend much time in a state in which he is likely to influence only one swing electoral vote. No wonder so few states have enacted anything like this before. State legislatures will better serve their citizens if they leave the prompts, winner-take-all system in place. America's election systems have operated smoothly for more than 200 years because the and Organization, Electoral College accomplishes its intended purposes. America's presidential election process preserves federalism, prevents chaos, grants definitive electoral outcomes, and occupational therapy dissertations prevents tyrannical or unreasonable rule. Leadership? The Founding Fathers created a stable, well-planned and carefully designed system -- and it works. Past elections, even the elections of essay Presidents who lost the Leadership, popular vote, are testaments to the ingenuity of the Founding Fathers. In each case, the of college admission, victor was able to succeed only because his opponent did not build the Leadership and Organization, national coalition that is required by the Electoral College.

In each case, smaller states were protected from their larger neighbors. In each case, the presidential election system functioned effectively to give the country a President with broad-based support. Alexander Hamilton was right when he described the Electoral College in The Federalist No. 68. Perhaps the Electoral College is essay big city imperfect -- but a perfect solution is doubtless unachievable. Nevertheless, the and Organization, presidential election process devised by the Framers is certainly excellent. Tara Ross is a lawyer in list essay, Texas and the author of Enlightened Democracy: The Case for the Electoral College (World Ahead Publishing, November 2004). 1. The Federalist No.

68, at 410 (Alexander Hamilton) (Clinton Rossiter ed., Signet Classic 2003) (1961). 2. Prior to George W. Bush's win, the last President to win the electoral vote but lose the popular vote was Benjamin Harrison in 1888. 3. See, e.g. , Susan Milligan, The Electoral College: Move Is Afoot for Direct Vote , B. Globe, Nov. 12, 2000, at A21. 4. And Organization? Ben Wildavsky, School of Hard Knocks , U.S. Page Layout? News World Rep., Nov.

20, 2000, at 52, 52. 5. J. M. Balkin, The Constitution as a Box of Leadership Chocolates , 12 Const. Comment. 147, 148 (1995). 6. James A. Michener, Presidential Lottery: The Reckless Gamble in Our Electoral System 3 (1969). 7. Commission on Electoral College Reform, American Bar Association, Electing the President 3-4 (1967). 8. The Federalist No. 68, at military thesis, 410 (Alexander Hamilton) (Clinton Rossiter ed., Signet Classic 2003) (1961). 9. U.S.

Const. amend. XII. 11. See id . art. II, § 1, cl. 2-4. 15. See Federal Register, 2004 List of Leadership States and Votes: Allocation of layout essay Electoral Votes Based on the 2000 Census , U.S. Nat'l Archives Records Admin., at http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/electoral_college/2004/ allocation.html (last visited Oct. 2, 2004).

16. U.S. Const. art. II, § 1, cl. 2. 17. Although some early legislatures did select the presidential electors themselves, all states and the District of and Organization Columbia now hold popular elections for President. See, e.g. , Bush v. Gore, 531 U.S. 98, 104 (2000) (per curiam) (The individual citizen has no federal constitutional right to vote for of life big city electors for the President of the United States unless and until the state legislature chooses a statewide election as the means to implement its power to and Organization appoint members of the Electoral College. Case Essay? . . . [The state legislature] may, if it so chooses, select the electors itself.); see also McPherson v. Blacker, 146 U.S. Leadership? 1, 34-35 (1892).

18. Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 21-A, § 802 (West 1992); Neb. Rev. Stat. § 32-1038 (1998). 19. Act of of life in a big city Feb. 3, 1887, ch. 90, 24 Stat. 373 (current version at 3 U.S.C. §§ 1-21 (2000)). 20.

3 U.S.C. Leadership And Organization? § 1 (2000). 23. See U.S. List Of College Admission Prompts? Const. amend XII. 24. See Federal Register, supra note 15, at Leadership, http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/electoral_college/2004/allocation.html. 25. Military? U.S. Const. amend XII. 27.

The Federalist No. 68, at Leadership, 410 (Alexander Hamilton) (Clinton Rossiter ed., Signet Classic 2003) (1961). 28. The Federalist No. 10, at digitial dissertations, 76 (James Madison) (Clinton Rossiter ed., Signet Classic 2003) (1961). 29. 2 The Debates in the Several State Conventions, on the Adoption of the Leadership and Organization, Federal Constitution, as Recommended by the General Convention at Philadelphia, in 1787, at 253 (Jonathan Elliot ed., 2d ed.

1836). 30. Letter from John Adams to John Taylor (Apr. 15, 1814), in 6 The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United States 447, 484 (Charles Francis Adams ed., 2d prtg. 1969). 31.

Letter from Benjamin Rush to occupational therapy John Adams (July 21, 1789), in 1 Letters of Benjamin Rush 522, 523 (L. H. Leadership? Butterfield ed., 1951). 32. James Madison, Notes of essay big city Debates in the Federal Convention of Leadership 1787, at 64 (Adrienne Koch ed., bicentennial ed., W.W. Of Life In A Big City? Norton Co.

1987) (1966). 33. The Federalist No. 39, at 236 (James Madison) (Clinton Rossiter ed., Signet Classic 2003) (1961). 34. And Organization? Senate Comm. on the Judiciary, 91st Cong., Direct Popular Election of the President (Comm. History? Print 1970) (Minority Views of Messrs. Eastland, McClellan, Ervin, Hruska, Fong, and Thurmond), available at http://www.claremont.org/writings/700814_minority.html (citation omitted).

35. See, e.g., Rethinking the Electoral College Debate: The Framers, Federalism, and One Person, One Vote, 114 Harv. L. Rev. 2526, 2532 n.31 (2001); see also Lawrence D. Longley Neal R. Leadership? Peirce, The Electoral College Primer 2000, at 136 (1999). 36. All election results cited in this article were obtained from Congressional Quarterly's Presidential Elections or the page essay, U.S.

National Archives and Records Administration's Web site. See Congressional Quarterly Inc., Presidential Elections: 1789-1996 (1997); Federal Register, U.S. Electoral College, U.S. Nat'l Archives Records Admin., at Leadership, http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/electoral_college (last visited Oct. 2, 2004). 37. Roe V? See, e.g., James MacGregor Burns, The Deadlock of Democracy: Four-Party Politics in America 251 (1963), quoted in Judith Best, The Case Against Direct Election of the Leadership, President: A Defense of the list of college essay, Electoral College 66 (1975). 38. See Ronald Reagan, Reagan, In His Own Hand 243 (Kiron K. Skinner et al. Leadership And Organization? eds., 2001) (making a similar argument). 39.

E.g., Patrice Hill, W.Va. Miners Favor Bush Over Gore on Fossil Fuels, Wash. Times, Oct. Roe V Essay? 11, 2000, at A12; Chris Mondics, Gun Issue a Difficult One for Gore, Balt. Sun, Nov. 5, 2000, at 5C. 40. Electing the President, 2000: The Insiders' View 170 (Kathleen Hall Jamieson Paul Waldman eds., 2001) (quoting Bill Knapp, senior advisor to and Organization the Gore/Lieberman campaign). 41.

Id. at 204(quoting Karl Rove). 42. Longley Peirce, supra note 35, at page layout essay, 153-54. 43. Kathryn Jean Lopez, Hillary Is Wrong: An Interview with Charles R. Kesler, Nat'l Rev. Online (Nov. Leadership? 13, 2000), at http://www.nationalreview.com/interrogatory/interrogatory111300.shtml. 44. See, e.g., Neal R. Peirce Lawrence D. Longley, The People's President: The Electoral College in American History and the Direct Vote Alternative 211-12 (rev. ed., Yale Univ. Press 1981) (1968).

Longley and Peirce contend instead that the two national parties are in decline due to the advances made in mass communication in recent years. Id. 45. See, e.g., Judith A. Best, The Choice of the People? Debating the Electoral College 55 (1996); see also Robert M. Hardaway, The Electoral College and the Constitution: The Case for Preserving Federalism 21 (1994) (What the advocates of essay prompts direct election fail to take into account, however, is Leadership and Organization that these consistently large pluralities and majorities are the list admission essay prompts, result of the very Electoral College system they are seeking to destroy.). 46. Best, supra note 45, at 57. 48. For a discussion of the discrepancy that typically exists between popular vote totals and Electoral College vote totals, see id. at and Organization, 9-15; Hardaway, supra note 45, at of college admission essay prompts, 125-28.

49. See, e.g., Best, supra note 37, at 191-204 (noting the ability of the Electoral College to isolate incidents of fraud); see also Hardaway, supra note 45, at 25-28 (discussing the 1960 election and the uncertainty that could have resulted from the close count and Leadership and Organization the alleged fraud). 50. Recounts in New Mexico were briefly discussed, but were not pursued. A changed outcome in New Mexico would not have changed the outcome of the national election. 51.

Maine adopted its District Plan in 1969, putting it into effect for the first time during the 1972 presidential election. Nebraska adopted its plan in layout essay, time for the 1992 presidential election. Leadership? See Longley Peirce, supra note 35, at 106-07 (discussing the circumstances under which Maine and of college admission essay Nebraska adopted procedures for awarding electoral votes by district). 52. Leadership And Organization? See L. Paige Whitaker Thomas H. Neale, Congressional Research Serv., The Electoral College: An Overview and Analysis of Reform Proposals 17-18 (2001) (reporting the arguments of District Plan proponents). 53. See, e.g., id.; see also David W. Abbott James P. Levine, Wrong Winner: The Coming Debacle in the Electoral College 126 (1991) (discussing the wade, crucial shortcoming of the District Plan: It does nothing to Leadership correct the wrong-winner perversion); Peirce Longley,supra note 44, at 142 (discussing the essay prompts, disparities that would still exist between the and Organization, popular and essays in film and the humanities electoral vote totals under a District Plan). 54. See, e.g., Ky Fullerton, Bush, Gore, and the 2000 Presidential Election: Time for the Electoral College to Go?, 80 Or.

L. Rev. 717, 734 (2001) (citing Rhodes Cook, This Just In: Nixon Beats Kennedy, Wash. Leadership And Organization? Post, Mar. 25, 2001, at B2). Bush would have won 288 to 250 in the electoral vote. Cook, supra, at B2. 55. Proponents sometimes argue that the District Plan would prevent campaigning from focusing on swing states.

True enough, but candidates would likely focus on swing districts instead. See Peirce Longley,supra note 44, at 142. 56. See Best, supra note 45, at 61-62 (discussing the increased incentives for gerrymandering). 57. Colorado is currently considering a plan to allocate its electoral votes proportionately, according to popular vote outcomes in the state. See discussion infra notes 62-68 and accompanying text. 58.

Whitaker Neale, supra note 52, at 19-20 (relating the essay of life, logistics proposed for a proportional division of electoral votes).

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create writing paper Making and Recycling Paper at Home. G. Carboni, January 2005. Translated by Leadership and Organization Jennifer Spears. Paper is a fantastic material suitable for numerous uses, including manufacturing notebooks, books, calendars, and magazines, wrapping gifts, and wrapping items in stores. Paper is widely used in offices for writing, printing documents, and photocopying. At home, paper is used to wade case clean, to dry things, and for many other purposes. In short, paper is one of the most versatile and common products of modern societies.

In this article, I will describe how to make samples of paper and I will outline the theme of recycling raw materials. Paper is so essential to writing that we couldn't do without it, and yet it was not invented until several millennia after the invention of writing. So, what did people write on before the invention of paper? Some dozens of thousands of years ago, primitive humans started to draw graffiti and paint hunting scenes on rocks and cave walls. They also carved notches on sticks, shells, bones, and stones. It seems they used these signs to count things like days, lunar months, and Leadership, the animals they bred.

From these first paintings and carvings begins the path that will lead to writing, but also the history of the materials used for writing begins here. It is of these items that I will speak in this section. Writing was invented about 5500 years ago by Sumerians, a people devoted to agriculture who lived in occupational, ancient Mesopotamia. As a medium for their texts, Sumerians used clay tablets. Clay is basically mud and in their alluvial plains they had plenty of Leadership and Organization it. With clay, they prepared tablets in which they etched pictures or symbols as long as the layout essay tablets were still damp and soft enough. These tablets were then left to dry so that the signs engraved could be kept for a long time. First Sumerians, then Babylonians and Assyrians used these tablets primarily for Leadership, administrative purposes and notating agricultural products delivered to warehouses near temples. Tablets were often stored on wooden shelves.

The only wade essay possible danger would have been water which could ruin the tablets. Leadership And Organization. Conversely, if a fire were to for scholarship essay break out, the clay tablets would undergo a cooking that would transform them into terracotta, a material impervious to water and Leadership and Organization, able to last thousands of occupational digitial years. Fires which because of accidents or war sometimes struck the archives of these ancient people allowed thousands of cuneiform tablets to be preserved till modern times. Their deciphering by archaeologists is giving us important information on the ancient civilizations which produced them. Shortly after the Leadership Sumerians, ancient Egyptians developed their own writing. They took some of their symbols from the Sumerians, but also invented many other symbols, comprising an original script of their own. Egyptian writing was prevalently used for sacred and celebratory purposes; for this it came to be called hieroglyphic (‘sacred writing’). Occupational Therapy. Egyptians sculpted or painted their writings on stony temple walls and wooden sarcophagi.

One of the and Organization most important inventions of the Egyptians was the papyrus, a medium which begins to have some likeness to paper. Papyrus takes its name from the in film and the humanities plant from which it was obtained. This plant has its roots in water and develops a long cylindrical stem which ends with a tuft of narrow and and Organization, long leaves. From the spongy stem of this plant, Egyptians extracted thin strips that they placed side by side, partly overlapping them. Subsequently, over essays humanities the first layer of strips, they superimposed a second layer, placing the and Organization strips transverse to those below. The natural glues present in this plant’s tissue insured the adhesion of the strips.

Other sheets were often adjoined to the first sheet, rendering strips that could even be several meters long and military history thesis, that came to be rolled up in volumes . To improve the possibility of using this surface for writing, Egyptians beat, scraped, and smoothed papyri during their production. Egyptian scribes wrote on papyrus using brushes and Leadership, ink. Ancient Egyptians produced a lot of papyrus, part of which was retained for their own use and of life in a, the rest to be sold in all of the Mediterranean. Leadership And Organization. Among their best customers were the ancient Greeks and Romans. Essays In Film And The Humanities. Unfortunately, because of political and economic crises which struck Egyptian society in the last centuries before Christ, the production of papyrus diminished. Leadership And Organization. The price of the product increased and it became necessary to find a substitute. In the city of occupational therapy Pergamus, people started using sheepskin as a medium for writing. From just one skin, one could get several sheets as it was possible to separate more layers from the skin. To make them suitable for writing, the skin had to be adequately prepared.

Towards that goal, sheets were scraped to remove fat and flesh, then put out to dry on and Organization, frames which kept them tight. The final product was parchment, a material highly suitable for writing which came to be used in Europe throughout the Middle Ages, up until the introduction of paper. An old parchment could be scraped of the previous writing and could therefore be reused. In this manner, however, many works by Greek and Roman authors have been lost. According to the Chinese, paper was invented in 105 A.D. by an official of the Emperor, but recent archaeological findings have shown that paper was already being used in China at least 200 years before this. The Chinese used large quantities of paper made from rags and vegetable fibers extracted from hemp, bamboo, mulberry, willow, etc. They also used paper to make fans, hats, clothes, and of life in a big city, other everyday objects.

Paper was brought and spread to many Eastern countries by Buddhist monks. In 751 A.D., after a thirty-one-year war, Arabs defeated the Leadership Chinese in battle. Among the prisoners taken were paper factory workers who taught the military history technique of papermaking to the Arabs. Soon thereafter, Samarkand became an Leadership, important center of paper production. As raw materials, the page layout essay Arabs used linen and hemp rags. A few centuries later, the art of papermaking came to Egypt, then Morocco, and from there Spain. And Organization. The first Spanish paper factory was opened in 1009. In 1250, Italy became the biggest producer of paper, which came to military thesis be exported to many European countries. To make paper less absorbent, Arabs used glues derived from vegetables, but this type of paper was susceptible to mold and quickly deteriorated. By using glues derived from animals, Italians greatly improved the quality of paper and its duration could reach many centuries. In fact, today we know of paper documents which are still in and Organization, very good condition after more than 700 years from their production.

An important Italian papermaking center was Fabriano, where the watermark was invented. Within about three centuries, the technique of papermaking spread from Italy to page essay all of and Organization Europe and then to the Americas. In the thesis beginning, Arabs and Europeans made paper out of rags. Leadership And Organization. As time passed, the demand for of college essay, paper quickly increased, so much so that after a while, rags were no longer sufficient. In search of a substitute to rags, in 1719 a Frenchman, who had observed wasps while building their nests, suggested. trying wood to make paper.

The trials that were carried out were a success and Leadership and Organization, since then wood has become the main raw material for producing paper. To separate individual fibers of cellulose from each other, rags and wood were placed in mortars and beaten by heavy pestles operated by hydraulic wheels. When the mixture of fibers was ready, workers poured it into vats full of water. And The. They then immersed special sieves into the vats and extracted them collecting a part of the suspension of Leadership and Organization fibers. During the military extraction, workers moved the sieve in order to make the layer of Leadership fibers uniform. Then they let the water drain out, and case essay, they placed the layer of fibers on a piece of felt which was placed on a pile of other sheets and bits of felt. This pile was pressed to squeeze away the water. Finally, the sheet of paper was hung to and Organization dry. In the beginning of 1800, the French and the English began to occupational digitial build machines for the perpetual production of paper. Paper machines were equipped with a long sieve in the form of a moving belt which collected a continuous layer of fibers from the suspension. During its run, the ribbon of paper under formation has glue, mineral additives, and other substances added to it; then it is squeezed of excess water, dried, and rolled.

Finally, it is gathered in large rolls and sent to Leadership factories which turn it into newspapers, notebooks, and many other products. The fabrication of paper by hand is still practiced to produce precious sheets or for layout essay, artistic purposes, but this represents a very small quantity of the paper produced in the world. Modern paper is therefore produced primarily from wood and it is made up of numerous cellulose fibers that are held together by glue. Paper can undergo special treatment in order to make it suitable for whatever intended use. And Organization. Take for example the paper used for drawing and watercolors, which must have a specific thickness, a certain roughness and a certain absorbency, etc. It is also possible to make paper without adding glue, but the result is a very absorbent paper. To render it suitable for writing or printing, it is necessary to lower the absorption of in a big city ink which otherwise would spread. For this purpose, paper is glued, that is, animal or synthetic glues are added to it. To make paper less porous, more compact and even brighter, it is coated . Coating consists of adding very fine mineral powders such as kaolin, calcium carbonate, talc, fossil flour, and an appropriate adhesive such as casein or other types of glue. The sheet passes through rollers which press it with force (calandering) and comes out bright.

Often people use tissues or paper napkins to clean the lenses of glasses or cameras, but the presence of mineral powders make ordinary paper products unfit for this purpose. In fact, when rubbing on delicate optical surfaces, these mineral particles cause microscopic streaks which ruin the quality of the lens. To clean lenses, you can use special paper products specifically produced for that function, composed solely of pure cellulose. Unfortunately, certain modern papermaking processes greatly reduce the life of paper, which within a few years tends to yellow and weaken. Processes exist which instead produce paper capable of lasting centuries, keeping itself in very good condition. The importance of the invention of paper can be better understood if people think that before its arrival, to make a book in and Organization, parchment, dozens or hundreds of skins were needed. Because of its uniformity in thickness, paper made possible the invention of the list printing press. Leadership And Organization. Before the invention of the printing press, books had to essays humanities be written by hand.

Together, these two innovations greatly lowered the cost of Leadership and Organization books and largely contributed to roe v the spread of culture throughout the world. Let’s pass to the experiment part of this article. By now, you understand that to make a sheet of paper, you must first get a suspension of cellulose fibers in water. Getting these fibers from a trunk is possible, but it would take too much time and effort. Therefore, we will use newspapers, from and Organization, which it is easier to extract fibers. In this manner, we will also experiment with the possibility of page for scholarship essay recycling paper. MATERIALS (figure 2): - sieve with holes of about 1 mm (available in a hardware store) - rectangular bowl/container large enough to fit the Leadership frame. - mortar with pestle. - green and dried grass (optional) Figure 2 - Tools to make paper at home.

With wooden boards, make a frame like that of figure 3. Mount the occupational digitial dissertations sieve underneath, with strips of wood and nails enclosing it (figure 4). Figure 3 - Frame seen from above. Figure 4 - Frame seen from below. - squeeze out the Leadership excess water; - with the mortar and pestle, crush a little bit of paper at a time until you get a homogeneous paste, consisting of fibers isolated from each other (figure 5); - repeat this until you have enough paste; - fill the bowl halfway with water; - put the paper paste in the bowl and list of college admission prompts, stir it to Leadership and Organization separate the fibers; - remove any resulting clumps (a dense suspension of in film and the fibers must remain in the water); - immerse the frame in the watery suspension in the bowl (the sieve should be facing the bottom of the bowl); - slowly remove the frame from the suspension keeping it steadily horizontal; eventually move the frame to even out the layer of fibers (figure 6); - wait for the water to drain; Figure 5 - With mortar and pestle, crush some of the newspaper. until you get a homogeneous paste in which the fibers are isolated. from each other. Put this paste in a water-filled bowl and and Organization, stir by. hand to help the page fibers separate from one another. Figure 6 - Immerse the frame in the bowl, collect part. of the fiber suspension, and slowly remove the frame.

- place the Leadership and Organization smooth side of occupational dissertations a sheet of Formica on top of the and Organization sheet of in a big city paper still soaked with water; - press on the Formica a little to Leadership drain the water, taking care not to occupational deform the Leadership sieve (figure 7); - with a sponge, collect water from underneath and squeeze it away every so often; - carefully remove the sheet of Formica so that the sheet of paper remains attached to it (figure 8); - let the sheet of paper dry. To do this more quickly, you can dry it with a hairdryer (figure 9). Figure 7 – Place a sheet of Formica on top of the layer. of fiber extracted and squeeze out the excess water, without putting too much force on of college, the sieve. Figure 8 - Gently, remove the sheet of Formica and with it. the sheet of paper, which will again be soaked with water. - make other sheets of paper, introducing to the suspension some grass crushed in the mortar; - (optionally) later introduce some flower petals (without crushing them). Figure 9 - Drying of the sheet with a hairdryer.

Figure 10 - The sheet of paper produced. The presence of green and brown vegetable fibers from the and Organization grass will give your sheets a special charm. Also, the addition of petals will contribute to history thesis make the Leadership sheets more beautiful. You can even use the paper you will have made to write a letter. The paper you make using this procedure (figure 10) will be bright on one side and opaque on the other.

The bright side is more suitable for writing. This paper is highly permeable by ink, but it is military history, possible to write on it using a ballpoint pen. If you want to reduce the absorbency of the paper you’ve made, soak it in a solution of water and gelatin and then let it dry again. As you have seen, paper is Leadership, made up of cellulose fibers held together by glue. By hand or even by means of case special machines, it is possible to separate the fibers of paper from Leadership and Organization, each other and reuse them to make new paper. In the industrial processes of recycling printed paper, a deinking treatment is essays and the humanities, often performed in order to brighten it. What does recycling paper mean? As you know, to produce paper it is necessary to cut down trees. Considering the large quantity of Leadership and Organization paper used in the world (about 300 million tons), every year entire forests are cut down. This constitutes disruption to nature.

Moreover, when paper is no longer needed, it is often dumped in landfills, but part of it also ends up in the environment, contributing to in film and the humanities pollution. Recycling paper means reducing both the number of trees cut down and pollution to the environment (figure 11). Why do we use the Leadership and Organization term recycling? Usually, to make paper we cut down trees and after having used it, we throw it away. Occupational. As figure 11 shows, this corresponds to Leadership a linear movement from forest to landfill.

If instead we also use already used paper to make new paper, rather than going to landfills, paper returns to the market. Again with reference to figure 11, this corresponds to a circular movement, in which part of the used paper returns to paper factories and again to the market. This circular movement can be repeated several times and can be applied to other materials, garnering the important advantage of notably reducing the of life damage to nature caused by our activities. Other than paper, is it possible to recycle other materials? Absolutely! You can recycle glass, metal, plastic, fabric, clothing, packing material, car batteries, motor oil, tires, organic waste, water, and other materials.

Though not intended for recycling but for controlled disposal, pharmaceuticals, batteries, paint, plaster and other waste which, if left in the environment, would cause pollution are also collected. Glass is produced by melting sand at high temperatures. In turn, glass items can be melted again and transformed into new products. Bottles and jars brought to temperatures between 800 and 1500°C soften and then melt. At this point, the material is homogenized by stirring, is refined, and is often bleached. It can then be used to and Organization make new glass items. The recycling of page for scholarship glass is very beneficial in and Organization, terms of energy conservation. In addition to recycling, we also need to roe v wade essay consider reusing products. Some types of bottles and other glass containers can be washed and reused dozens of Leadership times. The system of depositing bottles is highly respectful to the environment. In A Big City. In fact, reusing items is more efficient energy-wise than recycling them.

Knowing how to use products without ruining them means prolonging their life and reducing the need to buy new ones. Metal is produced by bringing certain minerals to high temperatures and adding melting materials, deoxidizing materials, etc. To be recycled, metal must be collected and separated by type: steel, cast iron, copper alloys, aluminum alloys. Aluminum alloys melt around 550-650°C according to Leadership the alloy. Since the normal production of aluminum from bauxite requires large quantities of electrical energy, the recovery of this metal is particularly important. Copper is widely used in wade case essay, making electrical wires. Copper alloys are widely used in factories. The main copper alloys are bronze (copper + tin) and brass (copper + zinc). Copper melts at 1083°C, bronze between 900 e 1000 °C, and brass at about 900°C. The world reserves of copper are becoming exhausted, making the recycling of this material important.

In metallurgy, one distinguishes iron (chemical element) from steel, which is an alloy derived from Leadership, iron and other elements. Cast iron has a higher carbon content than steel. When burnt in furnaces for the production of steel, carbon frees large quantities of wade case carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and Leadership, pollutes the big city atmosphere. Steel melts at about 1500°C, is inexpensive, and and Organization, is not particularly rare, but the therapy collection and reuse of scrap iron is nonetheless useful because it reduces the need for extracting iron ore and the amount of carbon necessary to produce new steel. Because of the presence of and Organization nickel in their alloy, austenitic stainless steel is essays, expensive and recycling it is and Organization, important. Plastic is derived from oil and is rather costly as well as its producing processes often being polluting.

Many plastics break down very slowly and when they end up in the environment, they pollute it for a long time. Many dolphins and military, whales die because of plastic bags carried to sea by the wind that they end up swallowing. Leadership And Organization. Recycling plastic is therefore important for economical reasons, energy conservation, and for reducing pollution to the environment. On the market, there are many different kinds of plastic such as polyethylene, PVC, polystyrene, polypropylene, etc. In order to recycle them efficiently, they could be separated by prompts polymer type. Unfortunately, this is difficult to do, and for the time being we are limited to a unsorted collection of only a few types of plastic. All plastics can be recycled by the process of pyrolysis. Pyrolysis consists of bringing plastic to a temperature of 500°C in the absence of oxygen.

At this temperature, plastic decomposes producing gases which can be used to make new plastic or can be burned for the purpose of creating electrical energy. RECYCLING ORGANIC MATERIAL. Food scraps, cut grass, small pruned branches, fallen leaves, etc. are easily decomposed by bacteria, earthworms, and other little organisms. At the end of Leadership this process, we are left with a very fertile soil, called compost , for use in agriculture. To facilitate their transformation into compost, organic waste is gathered in the appropriate containers (composters) where they undergo the biological transformation described above. The recovery of organic waste is important because it is rather voluminous and becomes rather costly for normal disposal. Moreover, if thrown into dumpsters, the food scraps would dirty any other recyclable items in the garbage making those items less easily separable and collectible. Returning organic substances to occupational digitial dissertations farmlands or even your own backyard through composting renders the Leadership soil more fertile and reduces the need for chemical fertilizers.

Water from the sewage system and from agricultural drains can be purified and reused. One of the processes of purification consists of making water flow into essays humanities, lakes or special purifying plants, where the organic substances present in it are used as food by bacteria and Leadership, other microorganisms. At the end of the process, these substances are transformed into mud which sediments at the bottom. Passes across sand and other procedures complete the purification of water, which can again be made drinkable. Often, the resulting mud can be used in farming as fertilizer. Also most of the runoff water from industrial processes can be purified.

Recycling raw materials is important for reducing the damaging alterations to the environment produced by human activities. By recycling raw materials, we collect a smaller amount of occupational therapy dissertations raw material from and Organization, nature and also reduce the amount of waste. Important steps in recycling raw materials include sorting them at home and in the office and a sorted garbage collection. Through sorted garbage collection, those materials which before were just throwaways that went towards polluting the essays in film environment have become more and more of an economic resource. Nowadays, an industry for the recycling of Leadership and Organization raw materials is on the rise. Companies which specialize in the online advertisement and case, sale of industrial waste which can be useful to Leadership and Organization other companies have also been born.

The analysis of the life cycle of products, or Life Cycle Assessment or Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), is an evaluation of the influence of products on the environment (environmental impact), calculated from their creation to essays in film and the their disposal. Studying the life cycle of a product means analyzing the materials used to produce it, the method of extracting the raw materials, the production process employed, how it is marketed, how and for how long it is used, and how it is disposed of. Life cycle analysis is calculated with reference to Leadership and Organization the environment, considering how the admission prompts environment is altered at each stage of the product’s life. From this analysis, we can arrive at valuable directions on reducing the collection of raw materials from the environment and subsequently better recycling them. This analysis can also suggest which materials to Leadership and Organization use and which processes of in film extraction, manufacture, use, and disposal are most sustainable with respect to the environment (eco design). The object of LCA can also be activities and services, for example sanitation services, postal services, and obviously many other activities which do not yield tangible products but offer equally important social benefits. In the course of this article, you have seen how paper is made and how it is Leadership, possible to page essay produce beautiful sheets of Leadership paper at home with little expense and limited equipment. Making paper with your own hands is layout for scholarship essay, without a doubt an interesting activity.

It is also fascinating to Leadership and Organization know that the roe v essay paper we use so nonchalantly is the Leadership and Organization fruit of a long journey, begun thousands of years ago when our ancestors took to occupational dissertations drawing graffiti and paintings on rocks. From rocks, we passed to clay tablets, then papyrus, parchment, and only at Leadership and Organization, the end, to paper. As has been said, paper is a fantastic material, very useful and present everywhere in our societies. Digitial. The recent arrival of computers seems to put into question the existence of Leadership paper, which, according to some, is destined to disappear. By now, several years have passed since we entered the computer age. More and essays in film humanities, more we read documents on monitors rather than paper. We record documents on media such as disks, but the use of paper has not abandoned and perhaps it hasn’t even diminished. Leadership. Paper continues to be a part of our lives and many of us still prefer to read books on paper instead of on a screen.

We can turn the pages of a book with a simple gesture; we can carry a book with us. Reading a book on a monitor is not as comfortable and our eyes tire quickly. Moreover, reading a book on a screen forces our bodies into an unnatural stationary position which after a while tires us. Electronic devices dedicated to the reading of books, newspapers, and other documents on a flat screen are appearing. These devices allow you to essay read a page at the time and to and Organization move to the next page by pressing a key. These electronic books aim to imitate regular books, but it is not yet known if they will enjoy the same success. On the horizon, we foresee books, magazines, and newspapers made of case essay electroluminescent plastic sheets which will receive the news from the Internet. The computer medium on which people write or draw is intangible, or rather, it is made up of different kinds of disks; but on Leadership and Organization, these disks we cannot see anything, and to read them, it is necessary to insert them into a suitable reader. The material on which are documents are saved is perishable. According to experts, within a few dozen years our magnetic or optical media will be unreadable. It’s a real shame for page layout essay, a technology as complex as ours to not even withstand comparison in terms of durability to cuneiform tablets which have retained their information for over 5000 years!

In this article, you have seen how recycling paper is possible and useful, and Leadership and Organization, from there we moved on to discussing the recycling of other materials. You may have also realized how useful and important recycling is in reducing the collection of raw materials from nature and in minimizing environmental pollution. While scientists study new methods of of college admission essay prompts recycling and Leadership, many companies analyze the life of products in order to reduce their environmental impact, companies which turn waste into resource are booming. The world is constantly changing and I am convinced that paper will survive the computer era wonderfully, and most likely, paper will stay with us for a long time to come. http://artgraph.clisson.free.fr/html/papier.htm La Fabrication du Papier (d'aprs les illustrations de l'Encyclopdie de Diderot et D'Alembert) http://www.museolibroantico.com/museo.html Museo didattico del libro antico, tecniche di arte libraria antica.

papermaking, history paper, recycling paper, stock exchange waste recovery.

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