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Sermons and Reviews: Darwin’s The Descent of Man in America. The extraordinary collection of works by animesh phd thesis and about Charles Darwin donated to my perfect essay, the American Philosophical Society by James Valentine contains no fewer than three hundred and twenty-eight copies on Charles Darwin’s The Descent of Man and datta Selection in Relation to Sex in various languages and editions, excluding duplicates. Counting duplicates there are four hundred and sixty-seven editions published in America alone. Me Write Essay. The Society already had twenty-one copies; coupled with the Society’s extensive collections of phd thesis printed works and manuscript archives, these together create a unique resource, unparalleled in the United States, for help my argumentative the study of Darwin’s work. As with Darwin’s other books, equally well represented in this amazing trove, the editions of The Descent of Man offer a unique opportunity to animesh, study the composition of the my argumentative essay, book, its arguments, and the way it was presented to non-English audiences.

The object of this essay, however, is to discuss the opportunity that the combined Valentine and APS collections offer for study of Darwin’s work in its rich societal context, and particularly with regard to religion. A great deal has been written about the reception of Darwinism in America, including a compilation of primary texts by George Daniels (1968) and a book by Ronald Numbers (1998) that share the same title: Darwinism Comes to America . Most of animesh phd thesis what has been written by scientists and non-scientists concerns the reception of Darwin’s On the introduction, Origin of Species, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in datta phd thesis the Struggle for essay photography politics Life (1859). [VAL 575.8 D25o] It was widely reviewed favorably in American journals like the American Journal of Science and animesh datta phd thesis Atlantic Monthly and even more prolifically commented on negatively from the plan, pulpit. Valentine Darwin Bookplate. In On the Origin of Species Darwin very carefully – strategically -- avoided addressing the subject of human origins and evolution, which made it easier for a range of scholars to phd thesis, accept, at least tentatively, his new theory. Darwin’s The Descent of Man (first published in 1871, [VAL 575 D25d 1871] second edition 1872) was no less important a book than On the Origin of Species , and contained much new science (including the theory of sexual selection) that amplified and extended his earlier work. It was also far more controversial, presenting an even more direct challenge to conventional religious thought by taking on the issue of human origins and giving a scientific explanation of the evolution of business plan for startup company humans that was totally at odds with the account in Genesis . It is perhaps not surprising, therefore, that many potential supporters in the United States shied away from animesh datta phd thesis public discussion of The Descent of topics Man ; it required one too obviously to make choices and its conclusions were not so easily diluted with religious overtones as was On the animesh datta phd thesis, Origin of Species . (And discussing sex openly was not easy in Victorian times, either.) The leading proponent of Darwinism in business plan company America in animesh phd thesis the 1860s was Asa Gray, professor of Botany at Harvard. He wrote many favorable reviews of On the Origin of Species , and collected them in the book Darwiniana (first published in 1876). [575 G79D] But he avoided reviewing The Descent of Man altogether.

He wrote to Darwin on April 14, 1871, first deflecting the difficult issues of the book with humour: “You have such a way of putting things, and photography you write in animesh phd thesis such a captivating way. One can only help me write essay, say: Almost thou persuadest me to have been ‘a hairy quadruped, of arboreal habits, furnished with a tail and pointed ears’ etc….” Gray then made an excuse: “I have been besought to write notices of the book. But I decline. You don’t know how distracted I am these days…” 1. “Almost” -- in animesh datta other words, he was not fully persuaded. Like many reviewers in Britain, scientists or not, he evidently found Darwin’s arguments too much to take.

Darwin had both strayed too close to home and ventured too far away. On the one hand, a human origin from apes, long implicit, was now brought uncomfortably close to an unavoidable reality. At the same time, he lost many readers by beginning his argument by tracing human humans continuously back almost to the beginning of time in the form of the newly discovered tadpole stage of ascidians (sea tunicates) development. 2 Humans were both apes and worms. As one reviewer put it, “The theory fully stated is no less than this: that ‘Man the plan for startup company, wonder and glory of the universe,’ has directly descended from a form of jellyfish … Thus, Mr. Darwin concludes, ‘we have given to man a pedigree of prodigious length but not, it may be said, of animesh phd thesis noble quality.’” 3. For a deeply religious man like Gray, Darwin’s presentation of natural selection in On the Origin of Species would have been anathema if it had not left room for compromise. The mechanism of natural selection had three components: the natural variation of animals and plants in nature, the company, heritability of at least some part of that variation, and the struggle for existence driven by the capacity of all organisms for over-production of phd thesis offspring; the result was selection.

And Darwin used as a telling analogy the changes wrought by plant and recycle research animal breeders with their highly effective “artificial selection.” Responding enthusiastically to On the Origin of animesh phd thesis Species , Asa Gray, among many others, found a convenient compromise between his scientific and religious selves by arguing that variation was not randomly generated as Darwin stated but divinely directed. The mechanism of natural selection was then simply a part of God’s law-driven universe (Gray: Natural Selection not Inconsistent with Natural Theology , 1861). [575 Pam. no. 150] That way, one could have one’s cake and still honestly take also the communion wafer. Society. It was not until the discovery of modern genetics that Darwinian evolution became truly grounded in phd thesis science alone. Lacking such information, in On the Origin of Species , Darwin had (naturally enough) been unsure about the my perfect society essay, causes of the animesh datta phd thesis, all-important variation in animals and plants and hinted at a range of non-genetic causes. In the preface to the second edition (1874) of help my argumentative essay On the Descent of Man Darwin yielded to animesh datta phd thesis, contemporary opinion and opened the door wide for the possibility that variation was caused in part by use-and-misuse, otherwise a Lamarckian concept (first promoted by Darwin’s grandfather Erasmus Darwin). Recycle Essay. He did the same in later editions of animesh datta On the Origin of Species . Herbert Spencer was the most prominent English scholar to layer a full neo-Lamarckianism onto Darwin’s ideas. In America, this possibility was taken up strongly by Edward Drinker Cope, the introduction of writing essay, influential Philadelphian paleontologist (while Darwinism was strongly supported by Cope’s rival, Othniel Charles Marsh, at Yale). In Cope’s view the exertion of the will was the major causal factor in evolution: “intelligent choice, taking advantage of the successive evolution of physical conditions, may be regarded as the animesh datta, originator of the research, fittest .” 4 This theory singularly failed to consider that plants evolved too. One of the strongest proponents of a religiously oriented view of Darwinism was James McCosh, president of Princeton University who, following in animesh phd thesis the path of the older writers on Natural Theology like William Paley, stressed the centrality of the equivalence of “progress” in the fossil record and evolution with “divine purpose.” Such re-interpretations of Darwinism and evolution to fit a religious approach both diluted the impact of On the Origin of Species among scientists and expanded the potential for plan its acceptance among the religious public.

However, Darwin’s conclusion in The Descent of Man that humans had evolved from non-human, ape ancestors directly contradicted the Biblical story of the creation of Adam and the general religious view of human exceptionalism – an exceptionalism due entirely to the direct hand of God in human origins. He not only datta phd thesis, accounted for the uniqueness of my perfect essay human anatomy in his evolutionary scheme but also theorized on an evolutionary origin of morals and behaviour. Phd Thesis. He argued that the business plan, moral sense, and even a religious sense, were not a gift from God but had evolved with man from datta his simian ancestors. This left little or no room for a compromise like Gray’s. So, while people had already had their say over natural selection in the 1860s, after 1871 not so many, it seemed, were ready to take on human origins and God himself. While there was a reluctance on the part of public administration dissertation topics Gray and other American scientists fully to enlist on animesh phd thesis Darwin’s side in the matter of human evolution, no matter how much they thought natural selection might operate at lower scales of nature, there were few hesitations in the extensive body of between eyes negative commentary on The Descent of Man in the form of contemporary pamphlets, tracts and sermons. Some were American in origin; some were reprinted from English sources. Some, like James Bradbridge Hunter’s 1871 essay in the wonderfully named American Journal of Insanity (later American Journal of Psychiatry ) were simply polemical; some like William Penman Lyon’s mock trial of Darwin “Homo versus Darwin,” (1871) are both entertaining and insightful.

5. Despite its shocking aspects (to some), Darwinism did not suddenly appear without precedent; among the well-known contributors to earlier evolutionary idea whose writings were well-known in America were Erasmus Darwin and Jean Baptiste de Lamarck. Robert Chambers (then anonymous), whose quasi-Lamarckian Vestiges of the Natural History of datta Creation [575 C35v] had created a storm of interest in 1844 and continued to be very popular even after Darwin. And right from the beginning there was a strong religious context to the discussion. Ironically, theology helped open the door for evolution. Well before Darwin began thinking about evolutionary theory (around 1836), developments in eighteenth and nineteenth century research in philology and the continental (French and German) Biblical criticism had convincingly shown Genesis to be a composite of my argumentative essay sacred fables, by multiple authors, rather than the direct revelation of God to Moses. From this it followed that, as the Reverend Thomas Chalmers declared in animesh datta phd thesis Edinburgh in plan 1807, “The writings of Moses do not fix the antiquity of the globe.” (This catchy sentence was taken up to animesh datta, good effect fifty years later by Hugh Miller in his highly popular Testimony of the my perfect society essay, Rocks .) Without the constraints inherent in a literal interpretation of Genesis , geologists were freed to find scientific explanations of the origins and datta phd thesis age of the introduction essay, earth. An ancient earth was essential for animesh Darwin’s gradual processes of natural selection to have had enough time to have produced humans from “worms.” Among those working to find a new account of the origin and early history of the earth, Benjamin Silliman at Yale, in recycle 1833, published an interpretation of Genesis in which there was a vastly long period (the “gap”) of datta phd thesis earth history before “Creation” and in which the “days” of creation were each long periods of time.

Silliman’s views were first contained, as a summary of his lectures at Yale, in an appendix to a (British) geological text book by Robert Bakewell and then in revised form in 1839 as a small book, Suggestions relative to the philosophy of geology as deduced from the public administration, facts to the consistency of both the facts theory of animesh this science with sacred history . Recycle Research Essay. [550 L98A] Silliman was bitterly attacked by those who maintained the authenticity of a Mosaic account of creation. Among those was his fellow Yale graduate, the aptly named Moses Stuart (a Hebrew scholar). 6 At the same time, the same issue of translating the words “made” and “created” in Genesis Chapter One allowed the Rev. E. Animesh Datta. B. Pusey (Professor of Hebrew at Oxford) to endorse a similar view to Silliman’s in William Buckland’s Bridgewater Treatise volume of 1836. The broad-church-Anglican church manifesto Essays and topics Reviews (published in England in 1860) brought the continental view of animesh datta phd thesis Genesis to a very wide audience (the book sold far more copies than On the Origin of Species ). Between Photography Politics. There, Charles Wycliffe Goodwin captured the contradictions of the time when he wrote: “The school-books of the animesh datta phd thesis, present day, while they teach the child that the earth moves, yet assure him that it is my perfect essay a little less than six thousand years old, and that it was made in six days. Animesh Datta Phd Thesis. On the other hand, geologists of all creeds are agreed that the earth has existed for an immense series of years, -- to be counted by the millions rather than by the thousands.” And in the same volume, the Reverend Baden Powell (Savilian Professor of Geometry at Oxford) even endorsed Darwin’s theory of natural selection, just as he had earlier endorsed the evolutionary ideas of Robert Chambers’s Vestiges of a Natural History of Creation (1844). He termed On the Origin of business company Species “a work which must soon bring about an animesh datta entire revolution of opinion in favour of the grand principle of the self-evolving powers of nature.” In a famous 1878 sermon at Oxford University, the Reverend Pusey was willing to concede to business plan for startup company, science both an origin of the phd thesis, earth far distant in time and even some changes due to evolution. Essay Photography Politics. 8 “To Theology creation is equally magnificent, whether the earth started into existence at once at the command of God … or whether God created matter, in countless molecules, to be attracted together through a property which He imparted to them . Theology looks with equal impartiality on datta phd thesis all geological theories .. provided that it was created … and that it was at between essay photography politics His will, that it passed through whatever transformations it underwent . To Theology all explanations of the details of the six days of creation are indifferent.” But Pusey refused to concede any ground on two fundamental points: the animesh phd thesis, active hand of the Creator at the origin of life itself and the exceptional status of humans, who had been independently created by God “If it had pleased God in His omnipotence, that in those thousands of years ago, an intelligent being should be born of an unintelligent animal, it would have been a surpassing miracle, such as He had not proposed to our faith.” In the face of all the European wavering on Genesis , most American clerics stood firm with, for example, Rev.

Samuel Harrison Thomson (no relation) who had said in my perfect society essay an address at Hanover College in 1857, “when you desire to phd thesis, know what God had revealed to us by his Spirit, to look to the oracles of God, Look not to business plan for startup company, nature or to science. They are, indeed, full of animesh datta phd thesis truth; and that, too, which is God’s truth with which you cannot too carefully store your minds. But they are not the truths of revelation, and can never infallibly direct you to them, nor take their place.” 9 And, of all American observers on my argumentative evolution, few can have been more intransigently opposed to datta, Darwinism than Charles Hodge (a Princeton colleague of administration McCosh) who took up this theme in works such as What is Darwinism ?(1874) that directly attacked The Descent of Man . Both of the books by Darwin considered here obviously had deep religious implications and cast a new light, a dangerously bright light, on a whole range of religious beliefs. Interestingly, in phd thesis notes to the published version of his 1878 sermon at Oxford, Pusey accused Darwin of having written On the Origin of Species as a quasi-theological work -- because it attempted to argue an alternative account of “Creation.” This charge stung Darwin, who protested that both The Origin and The Descent of Man were entirely scientific works. But, in fact, a constant theme and purpose throughout Darwin’s books had been refutation of the religious theory that explained the my argumentative essay, diversity of life on earth as the result of multiple, independent, episodes of datta creation. As Darwin said in Descent of Man ,” if I have erred in giving to natural selection great power, which I am very far from admitting, or in having exaggerated its power, which is in itself probable, I have at least, as I hope, done good service in aiding to overthrow the dogma of separate creations.” 10. The issue of special creation was centrally important to both sides of the debate. If animals and plants had evolved, that would explain the patterns of similarity and difference (the “relationships”) that had been revealed in classifications since at least the time of Aristotle. But this raised a simple scientific question: if they had not, then the dissertation topics, vast diversity of life on animesh earth, including humans, must have arisen through an equally vast number of special creations directed by plan company God and any patterns in the resulting diversity must represent the “mind” of God. Phd Thesis. And special creations were indistinguishable from “spontaneous generation” and miracles. As Darwin had pointed out in On the Origin of help me write my argumentative essay Species : ‘Several eminent naturalists … seem no more startled at a miraculous act of creation than at an ordinary birth.

But do they really believe that at innumerable periods in animesh datta the earth's history certain elemental atoms have been commanded suddenly to flash into my perfect society, living tissues?’ 11 By 1871, spontaneous generation was a dead issue in scientific terms. 12. These sketchy examples are meant to illustrate how, for datta phd thesis the historian of science, discussion of Darwin’s scientific writings and their reception by scientists and the public alike is inextricably linked with the subject of contemporary religion. Disentangling aspects of science from religion in the case of evolution, especially human origins, was not simple in 1871 nor is introduction of writing essay it today. The addition of the Valentine collection brings to the American Philosophical Society not only a magnificent collection of every edition of Darwin’s work, but also a number of the contemporary commentaries. As this essay attempts to animesh phd thesis, show, they are amply complemented by the Society’s own extensive collections of books in science and religion generally and Darwinism in particular. They create an essay unrivalled resource for the study of Darwin in his own time and ours. 1 Asa Gray to Charles Darwin, April 14, 1871, Darwin Correspondence Project, Letter 7683, Cambridge University Press. 2 The discovery of vertebrate affinities of the ascidian “tadpole” larva by the Russian zoologist Kovalevsky in 1866 was an event of major scientific importance as it linked the vertebrate animals to the invertebrates. The adult stage of tunicates (sea squirts) is a sessile, apparently formless, blob of tissue (of course it is really intricate to animesh datta, the close inspection).

The larvae is an actively swimming stage and possess what authorities agree is a rudiment of the me write my argumentative, notochord (the earliest kind of “backbone” and swimming muscles in pairs along the tail. It is indeed a kind of tadpole. 3 Anonymous. “Mr.Darwin On the animesh datta phd thesis, Descent of Man,” The Times (London), April 8, 1871 (issue 27032) 4 E.D. Society. Cope, Origin of the Fittest: Essays on datta Evolution, (New York, Appleton, 1887). 5 James Bradbridge Hunter, “A review of Darwin’s theory of the origin and development of introduction of writing essay man,” American Journal of datta Insanity, (reprinted Philadelphia, Appleton, 1871.) William Penman Lyon, Homo versus Darwin: a Judicial Examination of Statements Recently published. (Philadelphia, Claxton, Remsen and Haffelfinger, 1872). 6 Moses Stuart, “A Critical Examination of Some Passages in Gen.1; with Remarks on Difficulties that Attend some of the Present Modes of Geological Reasoning.” American Biblical Repository, volume 7, 46-106, 1836. See, John H. Giltner, Moses Stuart, the Father of Biblical Science in America, (Atlanta, Scholar Press, 1988). 7 C.W.

Goodwin, “On the Mosaic Cosmogony,” in Anon. Essays and Reviews, (London, John Parker, 1860), p. 210. 8 E.B. Pusey Un-science, not science, adverse to faith: a sermon preached before the University, (Oxford, James Parker, 1878). 9 Samuel Harrison Thomson, “Geology as an Interpreter of Scripture,”1857. APS pamphlet collections. 10 Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man, first edition, (London, John Murray, 1871), p. 153. 11 Charles Darwin, On the Origin of Species, first edition, (London, John Murray, 1859), pp. 483-484. 12 Louis Agassiz at public administration dissertation topics Harvard was the most ardent supporter of “special creation” in Darwin’s time. He believed that the human races were independently created separate species.

But most American scientists, including Asa Gray and the Philadelphian Joseph Leidy had already rejected spontaneous generation by animesh datta 1859. Both were well-prepared, therefore to public administration dissertation, accept Darwin’s theory. See Joseph Leidy, “A Flora and Fauna within Living Animals,” Smithsonian Contributions to animesh datta phd thesis, Knowledge, vo.l. 44, art.4 (1853) and Lecture Introductory to the Course of Anatomy, in the University of Pennsylvania (1859) (APS pamphlet collections). Library | 105 South Fifth Street | Philadelphia, PA 19106-3386 | 215-440-3400.

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An apologetic O.J. Simpson is granted parole after serving 9 years, to be released in October. The inside track on Washington politics. Datta? *Invalid email address. My Argumentative? After nearly nine years in datta prison, O.J. Recycle? Simpson was granted his freedom Thursday by datta phd thesis, four members of the essay photography, Nevada Board of Parole Commissioners and will leave prison on or after Oct. 1. The Hall of animesh phd thesis Famer reacted emotionally and with a smile as each of the between essay eyes photography, four delivered their votes on whether he should be freed after serving nearly nine years of animesh datta a nine-to-33-year sentence for 12 convictions, including kidnapping and armed robbery, stemming from a 2007 sting operation in which he tried to recover sports memorabilia from two collectors. Simpson mouthed the words “thank you” as he stood and returned to his cell, where he will remain until fall. An apologetic Simpson, who has not been publicly seen since being granted parole in a 2013 hearing on lesser charges, appeared far slimmer and more fit than he did then, wearing dark slacks and a blue button-up shirt over a white T-shirt. Simpson cracked up when he was initially told that his hearing is the same that all inmates receive, despite the media attention this hearing is attracting. Unexpected levity followed when a commissioner listed his age as 90, rather than 70. “You look great for between politics 90!” she said.

Simpson faced four members of the board — two women and two men, one of whom was rather curiously wearing a Kansas City Chiefs tie. Nevada parole board member at OJ Simpson parole hearing wearing KC Chiefs tie. Animesh Datta Phd Thesis? (via @MarlaTellez) Offered the chance to make a statement, Simpson apologized. “I’ve come here and spent nine years making no excuses about anything. I am sorry things turned out the way they did. Between Politics? … I tell inmates all the datta phd thesis, time ‘Don’t complain about your grind. Do your time.’ … I believe in the jury system. Of Writing? I will honor the decision. Animesh Datta Phd Thesis? … I have done my time and I’d like to get back to help my argumentative essay my friends. And believe it or not I do have some friends. Animesh Datta Phd Thesis? I don’t think anyone could have honored this institution better. … I’m sorry it happened.” The media scrutiny in the hearing is less intense than it was for the 1995 murder trial in essay politics which he was found not guilty of murdering his ex-wife, Nicole, and Ron Goldman, but the possibility that the Hall of animesh datta Fame running back and former actor soon will be free again has drawn massive attention, including live coverage on multiple networks and plan for startup platforms. Four members of the animesh datta, board in the Carson City, Nev., Probation and Parole Division office heard Simpson’s case with Simpson, inmate No.

1027820, remaining, as he has for introduction essay almost nine years, in the medium-security Lovelock Correctional Center about 100 miles away. In addition to phd thesis his lawyer, Malcolm LaVergne, his elder daughter, Arnelle, attended the research, hearing, along with his sister, Shirley Baker, and his friend Tom Scotto. Bruce Fromong, who described himself as a friend of animesh datta phd thesis 27 years, was one of the recycle research essay, victims of the crime and read a statement on animesh datta Simpson’s behalf, “time for research essay him to go home for animesh datta phd thesis his family and my perfect society friends.” “I’m at a point in my life where all I want to do is spend as much time as I can with my children and my friends,” Simpson said at one point. “I’ve done my time and I’ve done it was well and respectfully as I can. … I’ve honored their verdict and not complained for nine years.” Simpson added that he has been “under scrutiny since I was 19 years old.” Commissioners were largely deferential and there was more levity than might have been expected. Asked about going to Florida if he were released, Simpson responded to animesh phd thesis laughs, “I could stay in Nevada, but I don’t think you guys want me here.” The commissioner’s response? “No comment, sir.” Under questioning about the sting incident that resulted in his incarceration, Simpson stressed that the public administration, men he was with were armed and datta that he was not. Simpson also stated that he had taken a course during his time in prison on plan “alternatives to violence” and told one commissioner that he had been “asked many times to mediate” situations involving his fellow inmates. In the 2013 hearing, Simpson said he would attend Alcoholics Anonymous classes, but said that he did not because “I’ve never had an alcohol problem.” However, he admitted that he had had drinks the day of the sting because he had attended a wedding. Animesh Datta Phd Thesis? As for his life in prison, Simpson said he had been commissioner of the softball league, which required frequent resolution of anger issues among players, and administration dissertation that he had taken computer training “so that I can better communicate with my children.” Later, his lawyer read a letter saying that Simpson could have “a webcast or blog in animesh phd thesis my future,” a statement that drew titters. Stressing that he had missed 36 birthdays among his four children, Simpson added that he had been focused on raising his kids before he was arrested. My Perfect Society? “I had some problems with fidelity in my life but pretty much got along with everybody.” O.J. Simpson recounts Las Vegas robbery: I had no weapon… I didn't threaten them Simpson’s daughter, “the eldest of animesh four,” tearfully described the last nine years as an “ordeal.” “My experience is that he’s like my best friend and business company my rock.

As a family, we recognize that he is not a perfect man but has done his best to be true to his character. … The choices he made nine years ago were clearly wrong and … counterproductive. … My dad recognizes that he took the wrong approach and could have handled the animesh datta phd thesis, situation differently. … “We just want him to come home and I know in my heart that he is very humbled.” Arnelle Simpson calls father O.J. Simpson “my best friend and my rock” and says he’s “been a perfect inmate.” Simpson, who turned 70 earlier this month, last spoke publicly during a brief 2013 hearing in which he was paroled on several of the lesser charges against company him. At that time, he apologized and offered an explanation for datta his actions. Research Essay? “My crime was trying to retrieve for my family my own property,” he said. Animesh? “Make no mistake, I would give it all back to get these last five years back.” Testimony in these hearings is eyes photography limited to the inmate, a representative of his, victims of the crime (or their direct family members) and one family member or supporter. The board will consider a pre-sentence investigation, a parole hearing report, a risk assessment and letters of support or opposition. It is datta not expected that victims or prosecutors would protest his parole.

The board typically weighs a points system that considers, among other things, criminal history, age and gender, history of alcohol and/or drug abuse, and behavior as an inmate. Commissioners are not limited to just considering the points system, though. After the hearing, members of the board deliberate privately and vote. After that, according to the Nevada parole board website, the public hearing will resume and each member will vote on the record. Public Dissertation Topics? “A majority of animesh datta phd thesis four of the seven members of the Board is required to my perfect society reach a decision to grant or deny parole. Animesh Datta Phd Thesis? The panel for this hearing consists of four members which constitutes a majority of the Board,” the site says. Society Essay? That means that all four present must be in agreement. “If the panel is unanimous in its decision, it will become the datta phd thesis, decision of the administration dissertation topics, Board and no additional voting is necessary. If the panel is not unanimous, additional board members will be immediately contacted to review the case and vote until there are four votes to grant or deny parole.” (The seventh commissioner will not be seated until after the Simpson hearing, so it is conceivable that the board could end up deadlocked at 3-3.

That would result in another hearing in six months.) In a 2013 hearing that lasted 15 minutes, Simpson was granted parole for some of the animesh datta phd thesis, lesser counts on which he was convicted. That time, the panel consisted of two board members who deliberated and gave their recommendation to the full seven-member board. My Perfect Society? After about two weeks, the decision was handed down. This time, because the board wants to minimize the media circus and return to its work as quickly as possible, four board members will be present. With parole granted, Simpson will be freed “on or after Oct. 1.”

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essay gcse examples How to write your best essay ever! English biz has separate guides for each of the types of writing you'll meet on your course but this particular guide is probably the most important of them all. It will show you how to construct an effective, well-structured argument-based essay. How do you feel when you're given an essay to write? Do you fill with f-f-fear? W-w-wobble with worry? P-p-pour with perspiration? Well, here's a way that make the whole process more satisfying and enjoyable! Okay, he's off his rocker (but we won't worry as he's not real!). He's yet to discover that writing an essay is never going to be an easy task, even for the best writers.

But you're about to find out how it can be made much more straightforward , interesting and effective . Oh, and animesh datta phd thesis, likely to gain you a significantly higher grade, too! So that's something to my perfect feel, well. Animesh Datta? just a little bit excited about! It's important to understand one thing before we start: unlike a maths or science question, an English essay question has no single 'correct' answer. You can breathe easy on that one. It's just not like that. In an English essay there is no one 'answer' and nothing to me write my argumentative 'prove'. That isn't to datta phd thesis say there aren't wrong answers - there are. These are those based on 'mis-readings' of administration dissertation topics, your texts. But what your teacher or examiner wants is a reasonable, informed, explained and well-supported view . In a nutshell, that's it. An essay requires this from you: a succinct opening in which you give an overview of your response to the essay question.

This is a kind of 'super-condensed' response that sums up your whole response in a line or two. you can add to animesh phd thesis the opening sentences, a very brief explanation of wh at aspects of the text brought you to this view . If you can give, say, four - six aspects, then you are setting out the coming structure of your essay . There is no better way to begin an essay than like this. From this point on you will never be left scratching your head wondering what to plan for startup write next. the remainder of the animesh phd thesis, essay is my perfect society merely a series of PEE paragraphs that, point by point, argue the case for animesh datta, what you have just stated. Business Plan Company? Each point (P) needs its own paragraph and to animesh datta have support (E) from the text (either a quotation, or an explanation of some aspect of between essay, form or structure ) along with with an animesh explanation (E) of my perfect society essay, how the text brought you to such a view, the effects it created, the methods the author used to create the effects and, finally, its relevance to the text, that is, the author's purposes . That's it. Done and datta phd thesis, dusted!

More detail below if needed. The secret of a good essay? Make it an argument ! An effective essay is a piece of writing that makes a strong and well-supported case for a stated viewpoint . The view it makes the case for is your response to the essay title or question . You'll have arrived at after a couple of essay, readings of the animesh, text, more if a poem, and one of which will be a so-called 'close-reading' when you annotate the text carefully in line with whatever the essay question asks, seeking out support as quotations or explanations of useful effects created by form and recycle research essay, structure . So your essay starts with a clear statement of your opinion . It could be something like, as an example: 'Shakespeare's theme of violence in datta Romeo and Juliet is shown especially effectively through the opening scene, as well as through the characters of Mercutio and Tybalt and an analysis of these three dramatic aspects will form the basis of help me write my argumentative essay, this essay.' The opening overview is animesh sometimes called a thesis statement . The 'thesis' is my perfect society your response, i.e. the heart of your 'argument'. Animesh Phd Thesis? It's what the essay goes on to explain and plan for startup, support to show that it is a view that is well - considered, based on the text and reasonable to hold . Essays are about opinions, not facts. This point is animesh phd thesis crucial to take on board.

There is never a straightforward right answer to an essay q uestion or title. There are wrong answers, of course - caused through, for example, misinterpreting the text; but the society, 'answer' to an essay question will always be a point of view . Datta? Essays deal in opinions, not facts . This is why your teacher is looking to read your views and help me write my argumentative, why you have come to think in this particular way. How do you arrive at a 'thesis' or overview? This is the animesh datta phd thesis, tough part - there's no getting away from that. Not least, this is because it puts to the test your knowledge of the text and your understanding of the essay title or question . Society Essay? The good news is that when it's done and animesh datta phd thesis, done well, the remainder of the essay becomes much more straightforward and far more interesting to write, perhaps even a little exciting!

The Outline Structure for an Effective Essay. As already stated above, this first paragraph needs to open with a clearly stated summary of your whole 'answer' along with an equally brief summary of the aspects of the research, text you'll be analysing to show your stated view is sound . It is these early sentences that provide the major 'signposts' that give your essay and animesh, its general direction. Importantly, you need to set a confident tone early on introduction of writing essay in the essay. This can be done by adding in a very few details to show you've grasped the text's big picture . This should be a brief comment (brevity is everything in the opening paragraph) on the major details of the story (poem or whatever) along with an equally brief statement of datta, any relevant context , (that is the situation you feel brought the writer to want to write their text, including key aspects of essay, their social , cultural and phd thesis, literary contexts ). This will, though, always need to be focused on the needs of the essay question . Notice how you are constantly seeking to avoid waffle and generalised 'bolted on' comments ; instead, you need to keep all you write tightly focused on recycle research the needs of the essay title or question. This is the bulk of the essay. It is a series of paragraphs each introduced with a new clear important and wholly relevant point . Sadly, it's all too easy to animesh datta phd thesis open a in a way that inspires little confidence and which drifts from the essay question or argument. Avoid this by help my argumentative, opening each and animesh datta phd thesis, every paragraph in a way that is clearly and directly developing the essay's 'answer' or argument . If you started by stating the four-six aspects you'll be covering in your essay, then you'll have no difficulty knowing what to plan company write in these body paragraphs. This is where you restate, in animesh datta phd thesis a different form, your opening argument and give a brief list of the major points you have made along with a comment about the business for startup, wider implications and relevance of what you have found. It will help to think back to the imaginary classroom situation. What would follow on animesh phd thesis from the highly condensed 'answer' you gave to your teacher? Your teacher might say, 'Good, that's a fair view to recycle hold - but why do you think that?

Show me from the text itself what made you think that way.' In the animesh datta phd thesis, written essay, you'll need to be providing a whole lot more 'evidence' mainly in the form of quotations each one itself supported by a commentary derived from an analysis of the quotation's literary and linguistic content . However, with a central and guiding argument starting off and flowing through the entire essay, it now becomes much easier to search the recycle research, text for aspects and quotations that will provide good quality evidence to support the essay's points. Each point and supporting quotation needs to be followed by animesh datta phd thesis, an analysis and comment . Of Writing? Some teachers call this the animesh datta phd thesis, P.E.E. ( point example explanation ) or P.Q.C. ( point quotation comment ) system. This is needed to explain how and why the aspect of the text or the quotation 'works' within the context of the essay question and the originally stated argument. Certain key questions need to be answered concerning each quotation used: What techniques have been used to make the language of the quotation effective? This means discussing the writer's methods , e.g. through the creation of realistic dialogue; the use of an effective metaphor; through vivid description; onomatopoeia; alliteration; effective stage directions, etc. How does the method used affect the research, reader's understanding of the text and its themes (e.g. 'the effect of this passage is to create a sense of really being there for the reader. ')? Why was this method used (i.e. what was the writer's purpose )? E.g. 'At this point on the story the author wants to gain the reader's attention in order to begin exploring the overall theme of injustice. ' MARK GRABBING TIP No. 1!

Begin all of your paragraphs in such a way that it is absolutely clear you are focused on phd thesis the essay question and its requirements, thus building up your overall argument. This will keep the essay on track and avoid the plague of poor essays: wandering, digression and waffle! What if your essay title isn't in the form of a question? When considered as a question, you will often find it is for startup easier to generate that all-important single main point of view to animesh it - the main idea upon which you will then base the remainder of your essay . Here is an example of a main idea succinctly stated (i.e. thesis statement ) that could be used to create an argument essay from the above question: The remainder of my perfect, this - or any other - essay must then be no more than a linked series of points with each point explained , developed and supported in a paragraph of its own . Animesh Datta Phd Thesis? These points must all be directly related to the main idea you have already explained in recycle essay the opening paragraph, which itself is animesh datta phd thesis your response to introduction of writing essay the essay title or question. Remember that each point - each paragraph - must set out to phd thesis explain , develop and support some aspect of your over-riding main idea and nothing more . In this example, the paragraph that follows the opening paragraph - the first of what is called the body paragraphs of your essay - could be based on the point that the theme of ambition is shown through what Macbeth and eyes, Lady Macbeth are given by Shakespeare to say and do in Act One of the play. The third paragraph of your essay - its second body paragraph - might then explore, develop and animesh, support how the introduction, theme of datta, ambition is shown through these two characters in some part of essay, Act 2, and so on.

Below you'll find lots more detail and ideas for writing an datta effective essay but with luck, the above will have given you the basic idea. Aim to 'integrate' words or phrases from the text you are studying directly into your own sentences (still using quotation marks, of course). Don't overdo this effective technique, but used sparingly, this use of 'embedded' quotations can help create a very impressive style, one that suggests you have a good grasp of the text and me write my argumentative essay, the essay question. Here are some examples of how to use embedded quotations. The first is animesh phd thesis from the opening of business plan for startup, John Steinbeck's novel, 'Of Mice and animesh phd thesis, Men': 'Small and my argumentative, quick' George is presented by phd thesis, Steinbeck as a character in complete contrast to me write his friend, the lumbering and 'shapeless' Lennie. Here is a similarly embedded quotation from J B Priestley's 'An Inspector Calls': As the Inspector says, 'We don't live alone' and this is an phd thesis important message Priestley gives his audience. Finally, see how this can be done using John Agard's poem, 'Half-Caste':

Perhaps Agard also wants his reader to 'come back tomorrow' with a different attitude towards those they might feel are in any way different from themselves. MORE TIPS AND MORE DETAIL! Essays take a great deal of effort and time and of writing, so deserve careful preparation. T he most common failing examiners find is a lack of understanding of the text on which the essay is based. This is to take the road signpos ted 'Failure'. But you're heading elsewhere. So. get to know your text well.

You won't succeed if you don't! I f you struggle with the text, read it through again with a study guide to hand. Phd Thesis? Also, talk the text over with friends or your teacher. There is more help with specific texts here . Many essay writers fail to recycle create an phd thesis initial main viewpoint or drift from society this single focus. This loses marks as it leads to waffle , vagueness and generalisation . As you've read above, another common pitfall is to focus too much on the surface features of the text you are writing about. This happens when you write at animesh phd thesis length about the meaning of the text, i.e. by telling what happens in research it. In effect, all you are doing when you do this is to retell the story of the text. You need to be discussing how and why the author has created an effective text through careful, interesting and effective choices of style and language as well as structure . M ore marks are lost if you forget the need to support the points you make in each paragraph. A good idea is to animesh datta phd thesis try to use at least one quotation - or reference to the text - per paragraph. Remember, too, that this is an English essay and this means you need to reflect how authors use language and literary techniques in effective ways in their writing . Aim only to choose quotations that contain important elements in them that will allow you to discuss in business plan for startup depth aspects of, for datta phd thesis, example, their literary style , language or structure.

Consider discussing, for example, how the quotation acts to build tension , mood , character , a sense of place or how it helps explore one of the text's themes . Discuss, too, how the quotation works both at between photography the point it occurs and as a contribution to the whole , i.e. the animesh datta, way it helps the writer achieve his or her purpose . This means you need to discuss aspects of the quotation such as its effectiveness - which means discussing aspects of language , structure and style . 1. Business Plan Company? DEVELOP A STRONG INITIAL FOCUS FOR YOUR ESSAY. The word 'essay' comes from a French word meaning 'attempt': your essay is animesh datta your attempt to argue for your point of view , a view that when succinctly expressed is called a thesis statement . This 'thesis statement' needs to be an idea you developed based on recycle an interpretation of animesh datta phd thesis, whatever aspect of the text is essay asked in the essay question. Interpretation means considering how a text operates at different levels ; it is your interpretation of the text that will be at the heart of the datta phd thesis, essay: an interpretation that must supports the overall thesis statement. 2. FIND SOLID SUPPORT FOR YOUR VIEWPOINT. You will need to search through the text and my perfect, note down a series of aspects and quotations that can be used to datta phd thesis support the overall view you have developed. Use 'post-it notes' to help with this or write the aspects/quotations down separately. Choose aspects or quotations that you can analyse successfully for the methods used , effects created and purpose intended . 3. WRITE AN EFFECTIVE OPENING PARAGRAPH. Use your introductory paragraph to state your point of view , i.e. Essay Photography? your thesis statement. The purpose of your opening paragraph is to make clear your thesis statement - response to datta the essay question: that is, to explain the focus of my perfect society, your argument - your main idea or point of view. Stated clearly at the opening to your essay, this shows how you intend to phd thesis answer the essay question and what general direction your essay will take. Following your thesis statement, it's a good idea to add a little more detail that acts to 'preview' each of the major points that you will cover in dissertation the body of the essay.

This opening paragraph will then act to animesh datta show - succinctly - where you stand regarding the questions and how you intend to answer it. Importantly, in the opening paragraph of your essay you will also need to write an my perfect essay overview of the text, one that gives a succinct summary of the ' big picture ' of the animesh phd thesis, text; importantly, too, of course, this must be focused on the requirements of the essay question. Giving a succinct account of the big picture of the text in the opening paragraph will show that you have engaged with and digested the detail of me write my argumentative, three key aspects of the essay: the essay question, the text and its author - perhaps also, a brief account of the author's context . Giving an overview suggests a confident approach and is a hallmark of the animesh phd thesis, best essays. TIP: It is always impressive to incorporate into your own sentences, using quotation marks of course, a short suitable quotation taken from the text. Some teachers call this using embedded quotations. Keep all references to the biographical background of the author and any aspects of his or her context entirely relevant to the essay question and my perfect, - brief! Remember that this is not a history or a sociology essay so very few marks are awarded for this kind of background information (although that does not mean it might not be useful). The majority of marks in an English essay are awarded for the quality of analysis and interpretation you show - that is, an awareness of the animesh datta, author's uses of the English language and literary uses of introduction essay, this. If your essay title does concern aspects of context try hard to discuss context by animesh phd thesis, deriving your comments from quotations rather than by merely discussing aspects of context; in other words allow the dissertation topics, text to introduce the datta phd thesis, context. TIP: avoid making simplistic and irrelevant value judgments of the text or its author. Saying that Shakespeare is 'a wonderful author' or that you think 'Of Mice and Men' is 'really good' will gain no marks whatsoever - this is no more than a kind of waffle that fills space with empty words that add nothing useful to your essay.

4. USE THE REMAINING PARAGRAPHS EFFECTIVELY. Follow the opening paragraph with a number of paragraphs that form the 'body' of the essay. Each of these paragraphs are there purely to expand on and support your originally stated overall viewpoint. Having stated your main idea in your opening paragraph, now you need explore this, develop it and provide support from the administration, text for this. In the animesh datta, essay's body paragraphs your aim is to: follow the analysis system called P.E.E. or P.Q.C. For more on this see here ; work through the text's structure logically and, highlighting via the use of quotations, explain how these led you to develop your point of view; comment on how the language of each of business for startup, these parts led you to form your interpretation: why did the author choose this particular type of language to make this point in this way? How does it help a) the audience and datta phd thesis, b) the writer's purpose or theme ? discuss how this individual part of the text forms a useful structural part of the text by leading the reader towards an overall understanding of the themes, messages or purposes of the text;

CRUCIALLY. each paragraph needs to develop a separate and individual point - one that will help to show how different parts and aspects of the text helped you develop your interpretation and viewpoint (this is the POINT part of P.E.E.); A useful tip is to open each paragraph with a topic sentence . This is a sentence that clearly makes a point that is public administration developing your argument - your answer to datta phd thesis the essay question - and, because it is, therefore, clearly focused on the essay question, it will keep your writing on track; Always aim to provide support for each of the points you make by referring directly to the text (this is the EXAMPLE part of P.E.E.). You normally do this by quoting briefly from a relevant part of the text but you might choose to describe an topics event. It's very important NOT to write a long description of WHAT happens. If you do you are merely 'retelling the story' - this loses many marks. In a play you also lose marks if you do not discuss aspects of the staging and stage action. You will need to follow each quotation with an explanation of and a discussion on aspects of the language the author used in the quotation; this means discussing, for example, how aspects of the quotations literary, poetic or dramatic language works, including mentioning the method the phd thesis, writer used, the effect the recycle research, language creates and the reasons this might have been done (this is the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). You should also aim to show how the quotation helped you develop your overall interpretation of the text (this is also the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). 5. CREATE A LOGICAL STRUCTURE.

Always work in animesh phd thesis a clear way through the text, from beginning to end. Avoid starting your essay by discussing a point that occurs half way through your text: ALWAYS begin at the beginning! Many students begin discussing a text half way through or even near the end then go back to an earlier point. Business Plan? This ignores the work the writer puts in to develop an effective structure to their text - and loses marks! 6. CONCLUDE EFFECTIVELY. The conclusion to an essay is important but causes problems for many students. It should leave your reader with a pleasant and logical sense of 'closure' - a 'wrapping up' of the main ideas behind the essay . 1. Re-state in a different form (using rather different words) your opening argument. 2. Now bring together your main points (again, avoiding simple repetition of the animesh phd thesis, same words): list or summarise the main points from the essay politics, preceding paragraphs (use the topic sentences from phd thesis each paragraph to give you an idea). 3. Plan For Startup Company? End by animesh datta, identifying some of the wider implications and relevance that arise from what you have found and explored. The conclusion should consist of just a few sentences but these will need to be made to sound convincing and authoritative . It's crucial to keep the between eyes photography, conclusion brief and to the point and, above all else, to datta introduce no new material at all.

ALWAYS WRITE ANALYTICALLY , NEVER DESCRIPTIVELY. Here is an example of how many students go wrong; don't worry, you won't - but this is a very common mistake: In William Shakespeare's play, 'Romeo and Juliet', these are the first two lines of the 'Prologue' as spoken by help me write essay, 'The Chorus': 'Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene. ' What follows is a typical 'retelling': an 'overview' or 'translation' that gains no marks : 'Here, Shakespeare is saying that the play is set in Verona where there are two dignified families.' Compare the above 'description' with this analytical and insightful interpretation : 'The opening lines of the Prologue are important because they paint a picture for the audience of what could and should be - fairness and dignity. These words set up a powerful contrast to what is: the violence, hatred and bloodshed shown in the coming scene. It will be against phd thesis, this violent backdrop that the business plan for startup, pure love of Romeo and Juliet will have to struggle.' Which approach and datta phd thesis, style would gain the higher mark?

STUCK FOR WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT? THERE ARE FOUR KEY ASPECTS THAT APPLY TO ALL TEXTS AND WHICH SHOULD FORM THE BASIS OF ANY LITERATURE ESSAY. FORM, CONTENT, STRUCTURE AND STYLE. This is so very often ignored despite the administration dissertation, fact that it provides the basis for the very best essays because it provides a subtle response. And subtlety always receives the highest marks ! When you write about a text at the level of its form , you analyse how aspects of datta, it other than the meaning of its language have been used by the writer in important and effective ways. To give you an introduction of writing essay idea of the importance of form to a text, you yourself make use of the form of language when you speak loudly or softly , or when you chat or text a friend and use CAPS LOCK. Also, when you create short or long sentences or paragraphs you are affecting the look - the form - of your writing. This, albeit subtly, affects the way the writing is received and interpreted. A novelist makes use of form by writing in animesh phd thesis sentences and paragraphs of varying lengths (you can imagine the effect a very short sentence, or a one-line paragraph, for example). The use of dialogue (spoken words shown inside speech marks) is also an effective use of form, as is the use of underlining , bold or italics - or, in non-fiction texts, the eyes photography politics, inclusion of bullet points or sections. Poets are acutely aware of and very creative with the use of form.

A poet makes use of animesh datta phd thesis, form, for example, by consciously splitting up sentences into the lines of poetry . This allows the poet to exaggerate a particular word by my perfect society, placing it at the end of a line, or by rhyming it with a similar sounding word. A non-fiction writer makes use of form by using layout and phd thesis, appearance and by adding illustrations and photographs , and so on. All writers use form by using patterns of sound , such as by using alliteration , rhyme , rhythm , onomatopoeia , assonance and so on. A playwright, of course, uses form very differently. When your essay concerns a play, therefore, you'll definitely be losing marks if you ignore aspects of form. In a play, much of the my perfect society essay, 'meaning' is created not from language but from what you see happening on the stage - the staging and stage action. This includes not just what the actors do but what they wear , where they stand and so on - all potentially important formal aspects of the play that should find their way onto your essay. Form is always worthy of phd thesis, comment when (but only when ) if it adds usefully to the meaning, i.e. the content of my perfect essay, a text. Every word and animesh, phrase has a literal meaning . Research? This is its basic dictionary meaning.

It's sometimes called a word's denotation . E.g. 'In this story, the animesh phd thesis, author's detailed description of darkness denotes the essay eyes politics, coming on animesh of a storm'. This is politics a way of 'playing' around with a word's meaning that makes writing more vivid , emotional and interesting . Words and phrases can be used differently from their literal context and given what is called a connotation . Using connotation or figurative language , a writer can introduce layers of meaning - especially emotional meaning (don't forget that many words can create both meaning and feeling ). The most common way this is done is to use a word not for its literal meaning but for its metaphorical or figurative meaning. Another way is to use a word that acts as symbolically and represents something very different from animesh datta its literal meaning. E.g. 'As well as suggesting the coming of a storm, the darkness also acts to my perfect society suggest a metaphorical darkness is taking over the character's mind. In this way the darkness seems to datta be symbolising a kind of evil'. Using a pun - a witty play on my argumentative essay words - is another way that meaning can be played with in an interesting way. Punning works because some words, in a certain context, can have an ambiguous meaning - two possible meanings - one of animesh datta, which might be humorous. Irony is a key way that writers use to create layers of of writing, meaning.

Sarcasm is irony, but this is datta a spoken form of irony that is intended to hurt someone's feelings by ridiculing some aspect of them. It's a crude, easy kind of public administration dissertation, irony not really subtle enough for animesh datta, writing. Irony is usually subtle , sophisticated , edgy and between eyes politics, witty ; an altogether more intelligent use of animesh datta, language. But irony can also be difficult to recognise - yet it is probably true to say that irony is company one of the most common means by datta phd thesis, which a sophisticated writer creates layers of of writing, meaning in phd thesis a text . Irony works because when it is recognised, it engages the reader very much more closely with the text. This is because, rather like solving a puzzle, there is administration a real enjoyment and satisfaction in datta phd thesis unpicking the various levels of society, meaning created by the irony. Creating an animesh 'ironic tone of voice' in writing is much harder than in speech because the original sound of business plan company, voice and facial expression or body language of the speaker are absent.

To create an ironic tone (or any tone, for that matter), words have to be chosen with great care. Phd Thesis? It is a key reading skill to be able to detect this as it tells you what attitude the essay, writer is animesh phd thesis taking towards their subject matter. An example of irony occurs in an old story by O. Introduction Essay? Henry called 'The Gift of the Magi'. This story of poor young lovers ends with the boyfriend selling the one thing he owns of value, his pocket watch, in order to buy his girlfriend an expensive hair comb; equally secretly, she has all of her long hair cut off to sell to a wig maker so she can afford to buy him. a chain for his watch. Structure is the way a writer consciously 'shapes' a piece of writing in an attempt to make it as effective as possible for their audience and their purpose. It is important to comment on the structure of a text, e.g. 'The way the author slowly builds up the tension throughout this chapter helps create a feeling of real excitement and mystery'.

Style is the way a writer or speaker consciously chooses language and language features to suit a particular audience to achieve a specific purpose . When you aim to convince your mum that Friday's party cannot be missed, you will consciously adapt your style to one that is more emotional and persuasive! Some famous writers have a particular style of their own that is datta quickly recognisable. John Steinbeck, Charles Dickens and William Wordsworth are three such writers - here, a writer's individual style is sometimes referred to as the my perfect, writer's 'voice'. Your primary job when analysing and discussing a text is to comment on its style - on what are called the stylistic or language choices its writer has made, especially those that seem to you to have been chosen to create a particular effect to achieve a certain purpose. So. if you are commenting on the form and animesh phd thesis, content of a writer's language, you are commenting on plan for startup company the writer's style . COMPARING TWO OR MORE TEXTS. Even though it's a central part of the datta phd thesis, mark scheme, and always made clear in recycle the essay question or title, each year many students still manage to write their comparison exam answer or coursework essay and forget to compare and contrast the texts . Aside from not knowing the texts sufficiently well, failing to datta phd thesis compare and contrast is the number one reason marks are lost in this kind of essay. When writing about more than one text, your opening paragraph should be used to give the briefest details of each text (i.e. your writing needs to essay politics be succinct !). This will mean being even more careful and sparing when you write an overview of each text, in which you give the big picture . There are two methods you can consider using when comparing texts: 1) Write about the first text fully before moving on to the second - still using the techniques outlined above; but when you go on to write about the second text, you must compare and contrast it with the first. 2) Alternatively, and this makes the most sense when thinking about the phd thesis, argument essay, you write about both texts as you proceed . This allows you still, as shown above, to eyes photography politics create a central argument , one in which examples to support the points are taken from one or both texts as relevant to animesh the point.

This second method is the society essay, more complex and sophisticated of the two.